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Ch. 8 Africa

Ch. 8 Africa

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  • 1.
  • 2. How does climate and geography affect African society?
  • 3. Geography
    2nd largest continent in the world
    1/5th of the Earth surface
    Shortest coastline in the world
    plateau on coastline
  • 4. Environmental Challenges
    Deserts cover most of the continent
    Sahara Desert
    Big as United States
    Larger each year
    Edge of desert called the Sahel
    Kalahari Desert
    arid plateau region
    Receives rainfall
    Grazing and a little agriculture are possible in certain areas.
  • 5. Effects of Geography
    Long-term climate change will influence the social and agriculture throughout the region- 5,000 BC
    Through desertification the rich grassland turned into an barren desert
    Drove humans and animals to more arid areas
    Some go towards lake Chad and other towards the Nile
  • 6. Namib Desert
  • 7. Africa’s Savanna
    Most live in the savanna
    Cover 40% of the continent
    Alternate hot with rainy
    Topsoil very thin as a result
    Support agriculture
  • 8. Great Rift Valley
    3,000 miles long
    Elevation ranges from 1,300 to 1,830
    Surrounded by lakes
    Lake Victoria largest lake in Africa
    Suitable to sustain human life
    Farming water
    First humans came from this area of the world
  • 9. Humans Adopt to Environment
    Earliest Africans were nomadic hunters and gathers
    Followed a food supply
    Travel in a small band of relatives
    Learned to domestic and raise animals for food
    Growing own food allowed a group of people settle in one location
    Leads to healthier life style
    Increase birth rate
    Increase art
    Governing bodies will develop
  • 10. Bantu Migration
    Group of people located in the savanna of Africa
    Shared a common language cultural characteristics
    Were farmers and herders
    Slash and burn farming technique caused them to move
    Push-pull factors will cause Bantu to migrate
    Forced to migrate south
    Why: population increased no more land therefore migrated south to more land
    Culture diffusion will take place
    Iron smelting
    Effects of migration
    Drove other groups off land
    New culture created
  • 11. Migration Patterns
  • 12. Scramble for Africa
  • 13. England’s Colonization
  • 14. Why Africa???
    Industrial Revolution will cause the need for colonies
    raw materials
    New markets
    Control a piece of land that has raw material the colonial power gets it for free
    Imperialism will start for the scramble of raw materials
  • 15. List the motives behind European domination of Africa.
  • 16. Rationalization
    Europeans felts they were better than the Africans
    Will apply social Darwinism
    Those who were the fittest enjoyed wealth and power
    • Their right to bring progress to non-Europeans
  • Berlin Conference
  • 17. Independence
    Nationalism and Pan-Africanism will plant the seeds for liberation of Africa
    Unifying Africans will end the colonial rule in Africa
    Some colonies will gain independence easily while others will fight a long war for independence
  • 18. South Africa and Apartheid
    Blacks made up 75% of total population
    No political, economic or social equality
    Could not vote
    Gov’t set aside 13 % of the land for 75% population
    Whites controlled the best lands
    Segregated school, public facilities and neighborhoods
  • 19. South Africa
    Colonial of Great Britain
    Non-whites had few educational and economic opportunities
    1948 apartheid was passed by the minority white
    African National Congress (ANC) will fight against apartheid
    Illegal political organization
    1931 Great Britain will give South Africa its independence and the ANC is outlawed
  • 20. Nelson Mandela
    Born 1918
    Joined ANC 1960
    Wanted to set up military wing of the ANC
    Arrested in 1962- 5 years jail with hard labor
    1963 put on trial for plotting to overthrow the government
    Sentenced to life imprisonment
  • 21. F.W. de Klerk
    Goal was to transform South Africa and end isolationism
    How: end apartheid
    Legalize ANC
    Let Mandela out of jail
    Revise apartheid laws
    Wrote new constitution
    Held free elections April 1994
  • 22. End of Apartheid
    Nelson Mandela first black president of South Africa
    ANC won 63% of the vote in the national assembly
    252 out of 400 seats
  • 23. Rwanda
    Two ethnic groups
    Majority Hutu
    Minority Tutsis
    Land owners/aristocrats
    Two groups follow the same traditions and language
    Belgians were the colonial ruler of Rwanda
    Belgians considered the Tutsis to be superior
    Why: were rich and educated
    Belgians left and Hutu took power
    Tutsi refugees were forming the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)
    Aim was to overthrow Habyarimana and return to their homeland
  • 24. Problem
    April – June 2006 80,000 Tutsis and Hutu were killed
    Mostly Tutsis
    Why: President Juvenal Habyarimana’splane, a Hutu, was shot down
    Shot down by an Tutsis rebel group
  • 25. Mass Murder
    Opposition was murdered by the Hutu
    Tutsi and moderate Hutu
    Hutu civilians were involved
    Hutu military officials promised land, money and food
    UN did nothing
    France, Belgium and US were criticized for doing nothing to the Hutu regime
    Worst genocide of the 1990s
  • 26. After Math
    A multi-ethnic government was set up, with a Hutu, Pasteur Bizimungu as president and Mr Kagame as his deputy
    Bizimungu was charged with inciting ethnic violence
    Kagame became president
    Invaded the Republic og Congo
    Why: to get rid of the Tutsis who fled to the Congo
  • 27. Somalia
    Independence from Great Britain 1960
    2009 Population 9.8 million
    Official religion- Islam
    37.8% literate
    Presently: NO working government 1991
    Safe haven for Islamic militants
    Regions controlled by warlords
    Economy OK
    Why: export livestock
    Accounts from 50% of exports
  • 28. 1992
    Worst drought in their history
    Killed 300,000 people
    US troops went in to protect the delivery of food in December
    US will pull put when a warlord drag US soldiers bodies through the street
    UN troops will take over relief efforts
  • 29. 2006
    Worst outbreak of violence in 10 years
    Islamist militias, Somali Islamic Courts Council (SICC), seized control of the capital, Mogadishu
    Ethiopia felt threatened by the group so ground troops were sent in
    A week later most of the Islamists forced to flee the country
    Ethiopia announced that its troops would remain in the
  • 30. Somalia Pirates
    Threat to international shipping since 1990s
    2008, received $150 million in ransom
    2008 UN Security Council told nations to apply force when necessary
    Take ship get back to Somalia strong hold and ransom the ship cargo to owner
    Young men are drawn to piracy in order to provide for their families
  • 31. Darfur, Sudan
  • 32. Conflict
    access to water
    raiding of cattle
    Increased need for water and grazing
    Sahara getting bigger
    modern weapons
  • 33. Sudan
    North is Arab
    South is animism and Christian
    Black Africans
    Comprised of 80 tribes
    Fighting over grazing/ land
    2003 Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) began attacking government targets
    • Factious group formed from the two to form the Janjaweed
  • Rebel Groups
    Sudanese Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) started the rebellion to get Khartoum to spend money on the development of the area
    Janjaweed are backed by the government to suppress to two rebel groups
    Government does not have control of the rebel group Janjaweed
    Cannot get all three groups to the table to make pace
    Attack villages, slaughtering men, raping women and stealing
    Genocide is taking place along with crimes against humanity
    arrest warrant for President Bashi
  • 34. The People
    2.7 million have fled their homes
    200,000 have fled to Chad
    300,000 people have died
    African Union has 7,000 peace keepers
    UN Security Council has passed resolutions
    Have not worked
  • 35. Problems of Africa
    Problem 1: Political
    New African leaders were inexperienced
    Government can’t fix problems so the military comes in
    Military dictatorships will rule the countries
    Problem 2: Ethnic Violence
    National boundaries were redrawn after colonial powers left
    The boundaries drawn by the colonial ruler took into no consideration different ethnic backgrounds
  • 36. Problems of Africa
    Problem 3: Economic
    Depend on a signal cash crop or mineral to export
    Ghana- cocoa
    Nigeria- oil
    When the world market price for a signal cash crop falls the whole economy of the country suffers
    Nigeria and Oil
    Oil in 1975 accounted for 75% of Nigeria’s export
    1980s oil prices dropped effecting Nigeria economy
    Faltering economy the military takes over
  • 37. Problems of Africa
    Problem 4: Environment
    Had to over plant to grow food for population
    Over planting an area caused that area’s topsoil to be blown away by winds
    This resulted in desertification
    Problem 5: Disease
    1995 deadly Ebola virus spread in Zaire
    Government had to close boarders to halt the spread of the disease
    1970 and 1980s the spread of aids spread quickly through regions of Africa