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Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
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Foodborne illness

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  • 1. Foodborne Illness during Pregnancy By: Brooke Thomas
  • 2. objectives • Explain the health effects of the foodborne illnesses – Toxoplasmosis – Listeriosis – Mercury exposure during pregnancy • Discuss how to reduce risk of foodborne illness
  • 3. Health effects of foodborne illnesses (Rolfes, Pinna, Whitney 2009) • Arise when people eat foods that contain: – Infectious microbes – Microbes that produce toxins • Health effects: – – – – Vomiting Diarrhea Exhaustion Dehydration • Can lead to: – Meningitis – Pneumonia – Possible fetal death
  • 4. Foodborne Illnesses • Toxoplasmosis – An infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy, 2010) • Listeriosis – An infection caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Rolfes, Pinna, Whitney, 2009) (Listeriosis and pregnancy, 2011) • Mercury Exposure (U.S. Environment Protection Agency, 2013) – Mercury is a naturally occurring element that is found in air, water and soil. – It exists in several forms: • elemental or metallic mercury • inorganic mercury compounds • organic mercury compounds
  • 5. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy, 2010) • Can be spread in several ways: – Cats become infected by eating infected rodents, birds, or other small animals. The parasite is then passed in the cat’s feces – Eating fruits and vegetables if they are not washed or peeled – Eating under-cooked meat – Handling raw meat and not washing your hands afterwards – Contaminating food with knives, utensils, cutting boards and other foods that have had contact with raw meat – Drinking water that is contaminated – Receiving an infected organ transplant or blood transfusions
  • 6. Health Effects of Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy, 2010) • Most people who become infected have no symptoms • Some people who have toxoplasmosis may experience "flu" like symptoms with swollen lymph glands or muscle aches and pains that last for a month or more • Severe toxoplasmosis causes damage to: – The brain – Eyes – other organs systems • Most infants who are infected while still in the womb have no symptoms at birth, but they may develop symptoms later in life such as – – – – blindness intellectual disabilities serious eye damage at birth(rare) brain damage at birth (rare)
  • 7. How to Prevent Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy, 2010) • The best way to protect an unborn child is by protecting the mother against toxoplasmosis • Have someone who is healthy and not pregnant change the cat's litter box daily – – If this is not possible, wear gloves and clean the litter box every day Wash hands well with soap and water afterwards • Wash hands with soap and water after any exposure to soil, sand, raw meat, or unwashed vegetables • Cook all meat thoroughly • Freeze meat for several days before cooking to greatly reduce the chance of infection • Wash all cutting boards and knives thoroughly with hot soapy water after each use • Wash and/or peel all fruits and vegetables before eating them • Wear gloves when gardening or handling sand from a sandbox – • Wash hands afterwards Avoid drinking untreated water, particularly when traveling in less developed countries
  • 8. Listeriosis (Listeriosis and pregnancy, 2011) • Pregnant women are 20 times more likely than other healthy adults to get listeriosis (Rolfes, Pinna, Whitney, 2009). • Most Listeria infections in people are from eating contaminated foods – Can be found in: • Soil • Water • plants • Listeriosis can be passed to an unborn baby through the placenta even if the mother is not showing signs of illness – This can lead to: • • • • Premature delivery Miscarriage Stillbirth Serious health problems for the newborn
  • 9. Health Effects of Listeriosis • (Listeriosis and pregnancy, 2011) Symptoms of listeriosis can take a few days or even weeks to appear and can be mild, or not appear at all • In pregnant women, listeriosis may cause flu-like symptoms: – – – – – • If the infection spreads to the nervous system, the symptoms may include: – – – – – • Fever Chills Muscle aches Diarrhea Upset stomach Headache Stiff neck Confusion Loss of balance Convulsions Consult a doctor or health care provider if you have these symptoms. A blood test can be performed to find out if your symptoms are caused by listeriosis.
  • 10. How to Prevent/Lower Risk of Listeriosis (Rolfes, Pinna, Whitney, 2009) (Listeriosis and pregnancy, 2011) • Do not eat: – hot dogs – luncheon meats/ deli meats unless they are reheated until steaming hot • Do not eat refrigerated pâté or meat spreads – It is safe to eat canned or shelf-stable pâté and meat spreads • Do not eat refrigerated smoked seafood unless it is an ingredient in a cooked dish – It is safe to eat canned fish or shelf-stable smoked seafood • Do not drink unpasteurized milk or eat foods that contain unpasteurized milk • Use all refrigerated perishable items that are precooked or ready-to-eat as soon as possible • Clean your refrigerator regularly • Use a refrigerator thermometer to make sure that the refrigerator always stays at 40 °F or below.
  • 11. Mercury Exposure (U.S. Environment Protection Agency, 2013) • Elemental Mercury – Exposure occurs due to contact with mercury or breathing vapors released by mercury contained in: • • • • • Organic Mercury – – Methyl mercury is formed in water and soil by bacteria Exposure occurs through: • – Eating contaminated fish or shellfish Exposure occurs through vapors in the air released by these products: • • • Thermometers Batteries Fluorescent lights Electrical switches etc. Exterior and oil based paints Cosmetics and toiletries Inorganic Mercury – Mercury is combined with other elements like: • • • – – Chlorine Sulfur Oxygen Forms salts Exposure occurs through: • • • Old alkaline batteries Some over-the-counter drugs, ointments, nasal sprays, and herbal medicines Contaminated water or soil
  • 12. Mercury Exposure (U.S. Environment Protection Agency, 2013) • Elemental mercury - Elemental mercury can enter a pregnant woman’s body from breathing contaminated air, which passes into the developing fetus – Long-term exposure affects the central nervous system – Early signs include: • • • • Insomnia Forgetfulness loss of appetite mild tremors • Organic Mercury - Methyl mercury that can be eaten or swallowed – – – – Methyl mercury is a form of mercury that is associated with a risk in developmental effects. Methyl mercury can pass from a mother’s body into breast milk and into the nursing infant. Effects of methyl mercury may not be apparent if the exposure was small during pregnancy. In greater instances, the effects could be more serious if the exposure is high during pregnancy. • Exposure to a developing fetus may show effects when they are beginning to walk or talk. • More severe effects include brain damage with mental retardation, lack of coordination, and inability to move. • Eventual blindness, involuntary muscle contractions, seizures, muscle weakness, and inability to speak can occur if there were very toxic levels of mercury during pregnancy. • Inorganic mercury - The absorption of ingested mercury salts – Inorganic mercury can pass from a mother’s body into breast milk and into the nursing infant
  • 13. Specific Effects of Mercury Exposure (Effects of mercury on your unborn child, 2009) ) (Effects of lead and mercury on pregnancy, 2013) • Neurological effects: – Toxic to the nervous system • Brain • Spinal cord – Methyl mercury targets and kills neurons in specific areas of the nervous system including the: • Visual Cortex • Cerebellum • Dorsal Root Ganglia – Adults exposed to too much methyl mercury may begin to experience: • • • • • trembling hands numbness or tingling in their lips, tongues, fingers, or toes effect on walking Effect on vision, speech and hearing In particular quantities of exposure, mercury can be fatal
  • 14. Special Effects of Mercury Exposure (Effects of mercury on your unborn child, 2009) ) (Effects of lead and mercury on pregnancy, 2013) • Neurological effects in the fetus: – Greatest risk is in the developing fetus is due to the reason that their nervous systems are developing • This makes them four to five times more sensitive to mercury than adults – Methyl mercury can cross the placenta and the blood-brain barrier • Mercury is then concentrated in the brain of the fetus because the metal is absorbed quickly and is not excreted efficiently – Fetus that has been exposed may be born with symptoms resembling: • • • • • • cerebral palsy Spasticity Other movement abnormalities Convulsions visual problems abnormal reflexes – If there is mercury damage before birth, infants can be delayed in beginning to walk, talk, and may cause lifelong learning difficulties – Developing fetuses can be seriously affected even though the mother shows no symptoms of mercury exposure
  • 15. How to Prevent Mercury Exposure (Effects of mercury on your unborn child, 2009) (Effects of lead and mercury on pregnancy, 2013) • Do not to eat certain types of fish that have higher levels of mercury – – – – Shark Swordfish King mackerel Tilefish • In addition, women should continue to avoid eating these types of fish while they breast-feed and avoid feeding them to children ages six and younger. • Pregnant women should know the types of fish that are considered safe to consume and follow the recommended fish intake and monitor the amount of fish they eat
  • 16. Reference Page CDC. (2011). Listeriosis and pregnancy. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/infections-listeria.html CDC. (2010). Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/infections-toxo.html Parenting Australia. (2009). Effects of mercury on your unborn child. Retrieved from http://parentingaustralia.com.au/pregnancy-and-birth/health/24-mercury-effects Pregnant.sg. (2013). Effects of lead and mercury on pregnancy. Retrieved from http://pregnant.sg/articles/effects-of-lead-and-mercury-on-pregnancy/ Rolfes, Pinna, Whitney. (2009). (Eight edition) Understanding normal and clinical nutrition. (pp. 499) Wadsworth, CA: Belmont. U.S. Environment Protection Agency. (2013). Mercury. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/hg/about.htm

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