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  • 1. American Colonies: Prelude to Revolutions
    • Brooke Soto
    • History 140
  • 2. Revolutions Dominion Dominion
    • James II consolidated the eight Northern colonies - all five in New England plus New York, & East & West Jersey, into a super-colony known as the Dominion of New England
    • It extended from the Delaware River to Canada
    • The Dominion demanded unprecedented levels of taxation
    • It enforced the Navigation Act by establishing in Boston, a new vice-admiralty court
    • During the summer of 1686, the new court condemned at least 6 merchants ships, which depressed the port’s business
    • New English pressed to pay the increased taxes & fees demanded, but everyone was discontented
  • 3. Revolutions Compromise Compromise
    • The compromise between Imperial power & colonial autonomy is the compromise that held until the imperial crisis in the 1760s
    • As a result of the compromise, the colonies & the mother country became more closely intertwined in a shared empire
    • Instead of force, governors had to rely on persuasion & patronage to build an interest among the leading colonists in the assembly on the council
  • 4. The Atlantic Trade Trade
    • During 18th century, trade within empire became complex
    • Empire developed a multilateral trading system that used bills of exchange drawn on London merchant firms to balance regional debits & credits
    • The Navigation Acts locked the Chesapeake & West Indies into shipping their tobacco & sugar directly to England
    • Northern colonists traded fish, provisions, & lumber to the West Indies
    • The New English began to import & export wheat, which encouraged Chesapeake planters to produce less tobacco
    • The large farms & fertile soil enabled colonists to raise & purchase cheaply: grains, milk, vegetables, & meat for a plentiful diet
  • 5. Awakenings Revivals Revivals
    • Revivals emphasized the emotional process of conversion that transformed sinners into saints who warranted eternal salvation
    • To stimulate revivals, energetic ministers preached “soul-searching” sermons meant to shock their listeners into recognizing their impending & eternal sentence in hell
    • Evangelical preaching provoked conversion experiences that pulled a seeker through despair to an ecstatic experience of divine grace
    • In mid-1735, revivals ground to a halt after the suicide of North Hampton’s richest merchant, Joseph Hawley
    • He was longing for, but despairing of, salvation, & cut his throat
  • 6. Awakenings Race Race
    • Revivalists longed to convert everyone regardless of his/her race or lowly status in the world
    • Evangelicals rendered Christianity more accessible & resonant to the illiterate & exploited by emphasizing feeling rather than learning
    • The Great Awakening also revived the long dormant efforts by colonial protestants to convert the Indians
    • The energy of evangelical reform spread far and wide, often beyond the expectations & against the wishes of the original revivalists
  • 7. The Great Plains Villagers & Nomads Villagers & Nomads
    • The Great Plains is an immense, windy, & arid grassland in the heart of the continent
    • Until about A.D. 800, the Great Plains belonged to many small & dispersed bands of hunters-gatherers, who traveled on foot
    • Horticultural people from the Mississippi Valley shifted up the Red, Arkansas, Republican, Platte, & Missouri rivers to build villages, plant crops, & hunt buffalo
    • The villagers were ethnically & linguistically diverse
    • Life in permanent, substantial, & prosperous villages, encouraged the development of an elaborate annual cycle of religious ceremonies meant to ensure the continued success of crops & hunting
    • The nomadic buffalo hunters came onto the Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains
    • Hunting on foot, the Apache used magic, stealth, cooperation, & skilled archery to find, approach, surround & attack the bison
    • Unlike the villagers, the nomads lived year-round in many small & mobile camps with little possessions, little time for ceremonies, & scant surplus food
  • 8. The Great Plains Texas Texas
    • French traders ascended the Great Plains rivers to trade with the village people, offering guns & ammunition, for buffalo hides & slaves
    • In 1716, the Spanish built new missions on the hill country of east Texas
    • Hispanic Texas consisted of the town of San Antonio, 10 nearby missions, & 250 soldiers in four scattered presidios
    • When the nomadic hunters & the Apache were coming into Texas, the Coahuiltecans sought food & safety by learning agriculture at the missions
    • The Coahuiltecans were vulnerable to disease which decreased their numbers
  • 9. Imperial Wars & Crisis Empire of Liberty Empire of Liberty
    • Until the American Revolutionary War began in 1775, few colonists aspired to national independence
    • The British had a dangerous certitude that their forces could easily suppress any colonial rebellion
    • Triumphant in the War of the American Revolution, the United States embraced the continental expansion that the British had unleashed only to regret
    • American leaders dedicated their nation to creating new farms by the thousands to accommodate a proliferating population
    • The vision of white liberty depended on the systematic dispossession of native people & the perpetuation of black slavery
    • Thomas Jefferson aptly described the United States as an “empire of liberty” by and for the white citizenry
    • This provided military assistance to subdue Indians & Hispanics across the continent to the Pacific

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