The Jesuit Relations <ul><li>Brooke Soto </li></ul><ul><li>History 140 </li></ul>
Native North America & the French Jesuits <ul><li>Jesuits were members of a religious order, the Society of Jesus, & took ...
The Canadian Missions <ul><li>There were two abortive beginnings to the Jesuit enterprise in New France - the Acadian expe...
Montagnais Hunters of the Northern Woodlands <ul><li>The itinerant life of the Montagnais & Algonquins required not only a...
Montagnais Hunters of the Northern Woodlands <ul><li>The Indians believe that a certain being named Atahocam created the w...
Jean de Brebeuf on the Hurons <ul><li>The Hurons are one of the only groups of native North Americans where their culture ...
Jean de Brebeuf on the Hurons <ul><li>In the Huron language, training in Latin & Greek was part of the education of every ...
Disease & Medicine  <ul><li>The Jesuits of New France knew nothing of germs, viruses, and immunity </li></ul><ul><li>They ...
Disease & Medicine  <ul><li>Lacrosse was seen as a game of healing for the sick </li></ul><ul><li>The Hurons were struck b...
Missions to the Iroquois <ul><li>Converting the Iroquois was of great importance to the Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>Abortive...
Missions to the Iroquois <ul><li>The non-catholics of the original Iroquois nations went to pursue their historical destin...
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  1. 1. The Jesuit Relations <ul><li>Brooke Soto </li></ul><ul><li>History 140 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Native North America & the French Jesuits <ul><li>Jesuits were members of a religious order, the Society of Jesus, & took special vows of poverty and obedience that distinguished them from regular parish priests </li></ul><ul><li>The Society of Jesus was founded by the Spanish ex-soldier Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant Christianity & “paganism (non-Christian religion) were external threats </li></ul><ul><li>The suppression of sexuality, the exaltation of celibacy, the use of fasting, self-flagellation, & other ascetic practices were favored means of doing penance for sins while gaining mystery over carnal temptation </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits had less need to adapt to foreign cultures </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Canadian Missions <ul><li>There were two abortive beginnings to the Jesuit enterprise in New France - the Acadian expedition & a 2nd, short-lived establishment at Quebec--both of them wrecked by English raiders </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1st few decades, missionary efforts had a dual focus: while some Jesuits tried to convert the Montagnais & Algonquins, others traveled far to proselytize the Hurons </li></ul><ul><li>The missions began to show success in the 1640s, when substantial numbers of adult natives accepted Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent war with the Iroquois was crucial to the fate of the Jesuits & their missions </li></ul><ul><li>The Jesuits were able to persuade many Mohawks to adopt Christianity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Montagnais Hunters of the Northern Woodlands <ul><li>The itinerant life of the Montagnais & Algonquins required not only an intimate knowledge of the landscape & its season resources, but also amazing technical sophistication </li></ul><ul><li>The Montagnais are not only a subdivision of the Innu tribe, but also known as some of the earliest native people from Canada </li></ul><ul><li>They settled along the shore of Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>Their tribe name means “mountaineers” because that’s where they settled </li></ul><ul><li>The Montagnais would never kill for power, wealth, or status </li></ul>
  5. 5. Montagnais Hunters of the Northern Woodlands <ul><li>The Indians believe that a certain being named Atahocam created the world and that one named Messou restored it </li></ul><ul><li>Spritual beliefs & practices were important to them in nature </li></ul><ul><li>The Jesuits referred to “animism” or certain animals, thunder, & waterfalls as possessing their own spirit & personality </li></ul><ul><li>Spirits & rituals were used to direct evil into good </li></ul><ul><li>Their belief told them that there were different spirits for different seasons; spring, winter, light, & air </li></ul>
  6. 6. Jean de Brebeuf on the Hurons <ul><li>The Hurons are one of the only groups of native North Americans where their culture & history of contact with Europeans can be documented with detail </li></ul><ul><li>Their large population & stable village habitat made them a more promising target for evangelization than the dispersed, nomadic Montagnais </li></ul><ul><li>Brebeuf achieved the status of a canonized saint of the Catholic church, & spent most of his life with the Hurons </li></ul>
  7. 7. Jean de Brebeuf on the Hurons <ul><li>In the Huron language, training in Latin & Greek was part of the education of every Jesuit </li></ul><ul><li>Their words are completely different than what we understand, & they are universally conjugated </li></ul><ul><li>It would be hard for us to share important matters to them, for they don’t have hardly any virtue or religion, or any learning or government, so they have no words to signify these things </li></ul><ul><li>The Huron’s would have feasts all day & no one could leave until it was all gone </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t have any powerful leaders, but they show self-control & mutual benevolence </li></ul>
  8. 8. Disease & Medicine <ul><li>The Jesuits of New France knew nothing of germs, viruses, and immunity </li></ul><ul><li>They lived centuries before modern science systematically classified diseases, discovered how they spread, & developed preventive & curative drugs </li></ul><ul><li>They brought to New France various medicines & sugar, the cure-all for everything in the 17th century </li></ul><ul><li>The Hurons attributed illness to natural & supernatural causes </li></ul><ul><li>The Shamans (spiritual & medical specialists) helped the sick to recover using medicines from roots, barks, plants, & trees </li></ul>
  9. 9. Disease & Medicine <ul><li>Lacrosse was seen as a game of healing for the sick </li></ul><ul><li>The Hurons were struck by the influenza epidemic in 1637 & then smallpox in 1939, characterized by oozing red sores, lassitude, & fever </li></ul><ul><li>The epidemics originated in New England & were brought to the St. lawrence Valley by the Indians </li></ul>
  10. 10. Missions to the Iroquois <ul><li>Converting the Iroquois was of great importance to the Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>Abortive attempts were made in the 1650s, but success came after 1667, when peace was finally established </li></ul><ul><li>The Jesuits worked among the five nation of the Iroquois League until 1684 </li></ul><ul><li>The Mohawks were the substantial amount of converts, and were known as the “mission indians” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Missions to the Iroquois <ul><li>The non-catholics of the original Iroquois nations went to pursue their historical destinies beyond the influence of Society of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>The Iroquois converts of Canada developed their own distinct way of life as allies of the king of France & autonomous residents of the St. Lawrence Valley </li></ul>

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