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  • 1. The English in North America
    • Brooke Soto
    • History 140
  • 2. American Colonies - Chapter 7 Chesapeake Colonies Chesapeake Colonies
    • Commonwealths
    • In both Chesapeake colonies, Virginia & Maryland, had to share power with the wealthiest & most ambitious colonists
    • They refused to pay taxes unless authorized by their own elected representatives
    • The wealthiest planters dominated the local government
    • Since the Chesapeake had only two towns, Jamestown and St. Mary’s city, the colonists relied on the counties for their local governments
    • Political Hierarchy: distant king, governor council, county court, parish vestry, family household “little commonwealth”
    • Sex ratio was 74% male, 10% female, so men never found wives
  • 3. American Colonies - Chapter 7 Chesapeake Colonies Chesapeake Colonies
    • Labor & Prosperity
    • Chesapeake demanded too much labor from too few colonists
    • English servants composted at least 3/4 if the emigrants to the Chesapeake, about 90,000 of the 120,000
    • The servants were transported as unwanted orphans or criminals punished for vagrancy or theft
    • 1648 Chesapeake became healthier & many servants lived longer due to new plantations expanding upstream with fresh water
    • Frontier conditions enabled labor to create new income & assets, & the farms & farmers were prospering at a faster rate
    • Instead of establishing a great land of opportunity, the Chesapeake’s age of social mobility led to a plantation society of wealth & poverty
  • 4. American Colonies - Chapter 7 Chesapeake Colonies Chesapeake Colonies
    • In Virginia, 1676, the rebellion erupted with angry freedman wanting landowning independence
    • The rebellion founded Nathaniel Bacon as the leader
    • Attacks & violence on the Indians was is defiance against the governor
    • Bacon promised common planters and servants freedom if they joined the rebellion to defeat Berkeley
    • When the rebellion ended, the monarch agreed that the elite was unworthy of its power and was determined to create an alliance with common & great planters
  • 5. American Colonies - Chapter 8 New England New England
    • English Puritans
    • Law demanded that everyone support the official Church of England with taxes & attendance
    • English monarch appointed & commanded a hierarchy of two archbishops, twenty-six bishops, & 8,600 parish clergy in England & Wales
    • Puritans tried to convert & urge people to seek God & practice his values by reading the bible
    • With the king Charles I growing power, many Puritans migrated to New England across the Atlantic
  • 6. American Colonies - Chapter 8 New England New England
    • The Great Migration
    • Puritan emigrants followed French & English mariners, fisherman, & fur traders
    • The first Puritan emigration consisted of 102 Separatists known as the Pilgrims
    • The great migration began under the leadership of John Winthrop
    • In Boston, Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony
    • With 20,000 of the region’s 33,000 inhabitants in 1660, Massachusetts remained the most populous, influential, and powerful of New England Colonies
    • In 1691, four colonies remained: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, & New Hampshire
  • 7. American Colonies - Chapter 8 New England New England
    • Religion & Profit
    • Many Puritans sought a distant refuge, where they could live apart from sinners & from the supervision of persecuting bishops
    • John Winthrop exhorted his fellow colonists to make Massachusetts a “City upon a Hill,” an inspirational set of reformed churches conspicuous to the mother country
    • On voyages across the Atlantic, close quarters & proximity to death gave a new intensity to the daily prayers & religious exercise that kept up the passenger’s spirits
    • With the rite of passage, shared hardships, fear, & services, it strengthened the religious purpose & common bonds of the emigrants
    • Although New England wasn’t the wealthiest colony, it was the healthiest, most populous, & most egalitarian in the distribution of property
  • 8. American Colonies - Chapter 9 Puritans & Indians Puritans & Indians
    • Natives
    • Southern New England Indians possessed cultural, linguistic affinities, but lacked political unity
    • Natives highly productive horticulture supplied most of their diet
    • With fire, the Indians sustained & shaped a forest that suited their needs
    • Indian women did most of the laboring, while men leisured
    • Indians acquired few material possessions, & they shared what they had
    • Compared with the colonists, the Indians demanded less from their nature, investing less labor in, and extracting less energy & matter from their environment
  • 9. American Colonies - Chapter 9 Puritans & Indians Puritans & Indians
    • King Philip’s War
    • New English called this the bloodiest Indian war in their history
    • During summer & fall of 1675, Indian rebels assailed 52 of the region’s 92 towns, destroying 12
    • Puritans sought to kill the Indians, each one manifesting the resurgent power of the Puritan God
    • In 1676, desperate colonial leaders could not win without the assistance of their Indian allies
    • the Indian resistance collapsed & they surrendered as they ran out of food & ammunition
  • 10. American Colonies - Chapter 9 Puritans & Indians Puritans & Indians
    • Victory & Defeat
    • Rather than treat their captives as prisoners of war, the Puritan victors defined the Indians as traitors, executing the chiefs & enslaving others for sale
    • Puritans insisted the colonists needed to shed blood to alienate themselves from Indian ways, thoughts & bodies
    • Natives labored for small wages on farms & sailing ships
    • Puritans returned to rebuild their burned & ravaged homes