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    Theme4pt2pwrpnt Theme4pt2pwrpnt Presentation Transcript

    • The English in North America
      • Brooke Soto
      • History 140
    • American Colonies - Chapter 7 Chesapeake Colonies Chesapeake Colonies
      • Commonwealths
      • In both Chesapeake colonies, Virginia & Maryland, had to share power with the wealthiest & most ambitious colonists
      • They refused to pay taxes unless authorized by their own elected representatives
      • The wealthiest planters dominated the local government
      • Since the Chesapeake had only two towns, Jamestown and St. Mary’s city, the colonists relied on the counties for their local governments
      • Political Hierarchy: distant king, governor council, county court, parish vestry, family household “little commonwealth”
      • Sex ratio was 74% male, 10% female, so men never found wives
    • American Colonies - Chapter 7 Chesapeake Colonies Chesapeake Colonies
      • Labor & Prosperity
      • Chesapeake demanded too much labor from too few colonists
      • English servants composted at least 3/4 if the emigrants to the Chesapeake, about 90,000 of the 120,000
      • The servants were transported as unwanted orphans or criminals punished for vagrancy or theft
      • 1648 Chesapeake became healthier & many servants lived longer due to new plantations expanding upstream with fresh water
      • Frontier conditions enabled labor to create new income & assets, & the farms & farmers were prospering at a faster rate
      • Instead of establishing a great land of opportunity, the Chesapeake’s age of social mobility led to a plantation society of wealth & poverty
    • American Colonies - Chapter 7 Chesapeake Colonies Chesapeake Colonies
      • In Virginia, 1676, the rebellion erupted with angry freedman wanting landowning independence
      • The rebellion founded Nathaniel Bacon as the leader
      • Attacks & violence on the Indians was is defiance against the governor
      • Bacon promised common planters and servants freedom if they joined the rebellion to defeat Berkeley
      • When the rebellion ended, the monarch agreed that the elite was unworthy of its power and was determined to create an alliance with common & great planters
    • American Colonies - Chapter 8 New England New England
      • English Puritans
      • Law demanded that everyone support the official Church of England with taxes & attendance
      • English monarch appointed & commanded a hierarchy of two archbishops, twenty-six bishops, & 8,600 parish clergy in England & Wales
      • Puritans tried to convert & urge people to seek God & practice his values by reading the bible
      • With the king Charles I growing power, many Puritans migrated to New England across the Atlantic
    • American Colonies - Chapter 8 New England New England
      • The Great Migration
      • Puritan emigrants followed French & English mariners, fisherman, & fur traders
      • The first Puritan emigration consisted of 102 Separatists known as the Pilgrims
      • The great migration began under the leadership of John Winthrop
      • In Boston, Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony
      • With 20,000 of the region’s 33,000 inhabitants in 1660, Massachusetts remained the most populous, influential, and powerful of New England Colonies
      • In 1691, four colonies remained: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, & New Hampshire
    • American Colonies - Chapter 8 New England New England
      • Religion & Profit
      • Many Puritans sought a distant refuge, where they could live apart from sinners & from the supervision of persecuting bishops
      • John Winthrop exhorted his fellow colonists to make Massachusetts a “City upon a Hill,” an inspirational set of reformed churches conspicuous to the mother country
      • On voyages across the Atlantic, close quarters & proximity to death gave a new intensity to the daily prayers & religious exercise that kept up the passenger’s spirits
      • With the rite of passage, shared hardships, fear, & services, it strengthened the religious purpose & common bonds of the emigrants
      • Although New England wasn’t the wealthiest colony, it was the healthiest, most populous, & most egalitarian in the distribution of property
    • American Colonies - Chapter 9 Puritans & Indians Puritans & Indians
      • Natives
      • Southern New England Indians possessed cultural, linguistic affinities, but lacked political unity
      • Natives highly productive horticulture supplied most of their diet
      • With fire, the Indians sustained & shaped a forest that suited their needs
      • Indian women did most of the laboring, while men leisured
      • Indians acquired few material possessions, & they shared what they had
      • Compared with the colonists, the Indians demanded less from their nature, investing less labor in, and extracting less energy & matter from their environment
    • American Colonies - Chapter 9 Puritans & Indians Puritans & Indians
      • King Philip’s War
      • New English called this the bloodiest Indian war in their history
      • During summer & fall of 1675, Indian rebels assailed 52 of the region’s 92 towns, destroying 12
      • Puritans sought to kill the Indians, each one manifesting the resurgent power of the Puritan God
      • In 1676, desperate colonial leaders could not win without the assistance of their Indian allies
      • the Indian resistance collapsed & they surrendered as they ran out of food & ammunition
    • American Colonies - Chapter 9 Puritans & Indians Puritans & Indians
      • Victory & Defeat
      • Rather than treat their captives as prisoners of war, the Puritan victors defined the Indians as traitors, executing the chiefs & enslaving others for sale
      • Puritans insisted the colonists needed to shed blood to alienate themselves from Indian ways, thoughts & bodies
      • Natives labored for small wages on farms & sailing ships
      • Puritans returned to rebuild their burned & ravaged homes