Comparative History Articles Brooke Soto M. Arguello
Cultural Change in the 1920s• The change in the 1920s created a new, modern America.• Economic innovation created work & thrifty values.• Cars & consumer goods increased consumption & leisure• Media boomed with advertising & Jazz• Values & morality seemed to be slipping away causing a panic among Americans.• This started political & cultural conﬂict over issues like immigration, racial relations, and prohibition.
Cultural Change in the 1920s • Post-war prosperity create new attitudes towards sexuality, prohibition, and automobiles. • Flappers & Speakeasies were seen as the popularity in the 1920s. • Prohibition seemed to make drinking even more popular. • The feeling of rebelling during the time period sent a chill of excitement through people of the age.
Cultural Change in the 1920s• Movies played a central role in freeing middle class manners & morals.• People ﬂocked to movies to see a compilation of men, jazz, champagne baths, midnight revels, and a gasping climax.• Smoking, drinking, ﬂirting, dressing & undressing had brought thrilling attention to theater.• Silent ﬁlms brought comedy to this time period as well.
Cultural Change in the 1920s • Jazz developed in late 19th century out of a long tradition of African American expression. • Jazz includes work songs, marches, dance music, & spirituals. • Music brought a spontaneous, emotional, & improvisational impact. • Jazz music was born in New Orleans. • It slowly gained acceptance because of its racial origin. • Only when white orchestras started using Jazz music is when the mass of Americans widely accepted it.
Cultural Change in the 1920s• Jazz symbolized the “Americanization” of France.• The spread of American modernity was linked to Jazz.• The French were fascinated by the “Americanization”, yet also frightened that they might lose their identity.• Jazz was seen as jungle music because it started in the “partially civilized” black culture.• Jazz was seen as a sign of the times!• The soundtrack of this era stripped away morals, values, tastes, & rules.
The Great Depression • Early 1930s, a worldwide crises occurred. • October 29, 1929, New York stock market crashed. • Since U.S. was more successful that other countries, the fall hit harder with dramatic defeat. • There was a pattern of plunging production, prices, and employment. • Most national economies plummeted & hit rock bottom by 1933. • The great depression lasted until 1939.
The Great Depression• The Great Depression demoralized American banks, investors, & consumers.• The impact reverberated around the world, while security markets declined, lending decreased, & prices deﬂated.• Between 1929-1933, over 11,000 American banks failed, national production was cut in half, & 13 million people were put out of work.
The Great Depression• Agricultural countries ended up faring better.• In Brazil & India, crop prices declined, but peasants were able to make their own food.• Local businessmen in these countries also recovered quickly by production of textile manufacturing and other industries.• Western governments attacked joblessness with planned production.• Citizens were anxious to restore order with President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal.
The Great Depression• While the rest of the world crumbled, the Soviet Union seemed to be immune to the crash.• This country broke away from capitalism of the time.• The U.S.S.R. engaged in massive ultra-rapid industrialization under its ﬁve- year plans.• 1929-1940 Soviet industrial production tripled.• Surprisingly, there was no unemployment either.
The Great Depression• People during the Great Depression turned to two political leaders: Adolf Hitler & Franklin Roosevelt.• There were many similarities between the two leaders than anyone ever thought there could be.• Bother leaders came to power around the same time.• Both symbolized “energy & commitment” & were willing to experiment with government initiatives to bring economic recovery.• The New Deal & Nazi’s economic policies were surprisingly similar as they both combined deﬁcit spending on modern improvements with old fashioned idealization.• Neither Hitler nor Roosevelt solved the problem of the Great Depression, but Hitler seemed to be more successful at restoring employment.• Action, conﬁdence, & purpose brought both leaders into their roles.