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  • 1. Ernest Hemingway and “The Sun Also Rises” Brooke Riedeman Instructor‟s Name The Modern Novel September 24, 2013
  • 2. Introduction Ernest Hemingway is the author of three novels which are still required reading in high school as well as college classrooms across the nation today. Unsurprisingly, Hemingway‟s personal life has become equally as fascinating as his literary work. This presentation will explore both his personal life and his literary works, focusing on his first major novel, The Sun Also Rises.
  • 3. Table of Contents 1. Pre-War Hemingway 2. Hemingway‟s War 3. Post-War Hemingway 4. “Mini BIO: Ernest Hemingway” 5. “The Sun Also Rises” 6. Historical Content 7. Courtship Narrative 8. Religious Narrative 9. Theme of “The Sun Also Rises” 10. Literary History of “The Sun Also Rises” 11. “The Sun Also Rises” Movie 12. “A Farewell To Arms” 13. “For Whom the Bell Tolls” 14. Nobel Prize 15. Annotated Bibliography 16. Annotated Webliography 17. Annotated Webliography Continued
  • 4. Table of Images 1. Ernest Hemingway – Biographical 2. Picture of Agnes von Kurowsky 3. No Picture 4. Mini BIO - Ernest Hemingway 5. “The Sun Also Rises” Cover 6. 1920s Woman 7. No Picture 8. No Picture 9. No Picture 10. No Picture 11. The Sun Also Rises Movie Poster The Sun Also Rises (1957) Trailer 12. “A Farewell to Arms” Cover 13. “For Whom the Bell Tolls” Cover 14. No Picture
  • 5. Pre-War Hemingway Ernest Hemingway was born July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois. According to Reynolds his, “father is a strongly religious doctor and naturalist; mother, a concert-quality contralto and voice teacher.” He worked on his school newspaper and literary magazine as a boy and eventually went on to write at the Kansas City Star after high school. (Reynolds) 1
  • 6. Hemingway‟s War In 1918, Hemingway was rejected by the United States military due to his weak eye. In order to serve in the war, he became a member of an Italian volunteer ambulance unit. He served at the front until he was wounded by shrapnel and machine gun fire and spent a lot of time in hospitals afterwards. While in the hospital, he fell in love with his nurse, Agnes Von Kurowsky. The Italian government decorated him for his service and he eventually returned home to Illinois. (Reynolds) 2
  • 7. Post-War Hemingway After his injury in the war, Hemingway returned to Illinois where he started writing short stories. While there, he was rejected by the nurse he had fallen in love with after he was injured, Agnes Von Kurowsky. Eventually, Hemingway moved to Toronto to write free-lance for the Star. He moved to Chicago briefly, where he met his future wife, Hadley Richardson, and started writing and editing the Cooperative Commonwealth magazine. Eventually, the Toronto Star brought Hemingway on part time to “write feature stories in Europe” (Reynolds, ix). He and his new wife moved to Paris where Hemingway met many of the famous expatriates, including Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein. By 1926, Hemingway was separated from his first wife, Hadley, and had started the process for divorce so he could marry Pauline Pfeiffer. By this time, Hemingway had already traveled much of the Continent and published his first major work, The Sun Also Rises, in October of that year. (Reynolds) 3
  • 8. “Mini BIO: Ernest Hemingway” 4
  • 9. “The Sun Also Rises” This was Hemingway‟s first major novel, published in 1926. It focuses on Jacob Barnes and his friends and their trip to Pamplona to watch the bull fights. Although the book can seem to revolve around Brett or Robert Cohn, Michael Reynolds, author of The Sun Also Rises: A Novel of the Twenties asserts that it‟s really about Jake and his fall from morality. 5
  • 10. Historical Content The Sun Also Rises is often seen as a snapshot of the 1920s “Lost Generation”. The narrator is a WWI veteran surrounded by characters which readers have come to associate with the expatriates and Jazz age. Jake and his friends drink too much in reaction to prohibition in the US as much as to escape their personal problems and live it up with little regard to money, foreshadowing the great depression on the horizon. 6
  • 11. Courtship Narrative The courtship narrative must be mentioned in conjunction in relation to The Sun Also Rises if only for how many relationships are tangled together in the novel and how these relationships are handled. At the center of these relationships is Lady Brett Ashley who has subverted the courtship narrative by taking her relationships into her own hands and choosing when to start and end them. Jake subverts the courtship narrative in his own way, as well. Due to the nature of his injury, he‟s unable to have a physical relationship with women, but allows himself to be manipulated by Brett. 7
  • 12. Religious Narrative Religion is subtly present in The Sun Also Rises. The fact that Robert Cohn is Jewish is brought up several times throughout the novel, although that could be due to the heightened anti-Semitism in the United States at the time. More subtle, but much more relative to the subversion of the religious narrative, is Jacob Barnes‟ Catholicism. Although not as prevalent as Cohn‟s Jewishness, Jake‟s Catholicism subverts the religious narrative by treating religion as if it is more of a social status than a faith. Even though Jake is by far the most religious of the main characters (as far as we are allowed to know), he doesn‟t think of himself as a good Catholic. At one point, he even complains about how the fact he‟s a Catholic couldn‟t get him a seat in the dining car on the train he‟s riding on. 8
  • 13. Theme of “The Sun Also Rises” The theme of The Sun Also Rises is centered around Jake‟s moral fall from grace when he chooses to help Brett in her frivolous pursuit of Romero rather than trying to put Brett off and protecting Romero from the corruption which Montoya fears. By the time Jake leaves Pamplona, he is no longer a welcome aficionado, he has traded in his insider status to help the woman he loves seduce another man. 9
  • 14. Literary History of “The Sun Also Rises” According to Michael Reynolds, reviewers of Hemingway‟s first major novel, The Sun Also Rises, “fell into three camps: the repulsed, the antiexpatriate, and the effusive” (9). Among the repulsed was Hemingway‟s own mother, who found the characters‟ lifestyle offensive. However, “The New York Times admired Hemingway‟s dialogue, his “gripping” story, and his “lean, hard, athletic narrative prose.” (11)” Although the novel doesn‟t have quite the same scandalized reaction today as it enjoyed immediately after its publication, The Sun Also Rises is still in print and read regularly in classrooms as well as by individuals. (Reynolds) 10
  • 15. “The Sun Also Rises” Movie A movie of The Sun Also Rises was released in 1957 starring Tyrone Power, Ava Gardner, and Errol Flynn (The Sun Also Rises (1957)). 11
  • 16. “A Farewell to Arms” Hemingway began working on A Farewell to Arms in 1928 and it was published the following year. The novel involves a young soldier named Frederic Henry who only takes the war and his own mortality seriously after his is injured. Frederic runs away to be with a woman named Catherine, whom he only became serious about after he was injured, only for her to die giving birth to their stillborn child. (Macdonald) 12
  • 17. “For Whom The Bell Tolls” Hemingway‟s last major novel focuses on Robert Jordan and his mission to blow up a bridge. Although the novel only spans three days, Robert falls in love and has an affair with Maria, a woman who lives with the guerrilla fighters who are his contacts. Eventually, Jordan is killed while fulfilling his mission. (For Whom the Bell Tolls) 13
  • 18. Nobel Prize and Hemingway‟s Last Years Hemingway won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954, two years after he published his last complete novel, The Old Man and the Sea and one year after receiving the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. He spent much of his last years traveling, but eventually bought a home in Ketchum, Idaho, where he would return after his trips abroad. In 1960, “he suffers serious bouts of paranoia and depression (xii)” while in Spain. Although he sought treatment, he eventually succumbed to his depression. He died by a self inflicted shotgun wound on July 2nd, 1961. (Reynolds) 14
  • 19. Annotated Bibliography Benson, Jackson J. "Ernest Hemingway: The Life As Fiction And The Fiction As Life." American Literature 61.3 (1989): 345. Academic Search Complete. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. This article talks extensively about the tendency for reviewers to confuse Hemingway‟s work with his life, not allowing for the necessary space between an author and his work. It also addresses how Benson believes Hemingway‟s works were inspired by the events of his life and were „daydreams‟ which he eventually confused with reality. "For Whom The Bell Tolls." Magill Book Reviews (1990): MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. A short review of Hemingway‟s “For Whom The Bell Tolls” which largely consists of a summary of the novel. Macdonald, IV, Michael John. "Hemingway's A Farewell To Arms." Explicator 67.1 (2008): 45. MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. Macdonald analyzes “A Farewell to Arms” by taking Carlos Baker‟s “proposal for a symbolic home or not-home equation” and changing it to normalcy versus absurdity/reality versus illusion. Macdonald breaks down the novel using these two concepts and ends with the contention that, “Hemingway shows that happiness is an illusion based solely on perspective, and that the illusion offers only a temporary shelter from the real.” Reynolds, Michael S. The Sun Also Rises: A Novel of the Twenties. Boston: Twayne, 1988. Print. A short book which mostly focuses on analyzing “The Sun Also Rises” and it‟s relation to the 1920s. Also contains biographical information on Hemingway. "The Sun Also Rises (1957)." IMDb. IMDb.com, Inc. Web. 28 Sept. 2013. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0051028/>. This website provided a consise source for basic information on “The Sun Also Rises” 1957 film. 15
  • 20. Annotated Webliography 1920s Woman. Digital image. Paris in the 1920s: Changes in Society Lead to Changes in Fashion. Maggie Burch, 17 Nov. 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://uramericansinparis.wordpress.com/2010/11/17/paris-in- the-1920s-changes-in- society-lead-to-changes-in-fashion/>. I found this excellent example of a 1920s woman through an image search for Lady Brett Ashley. "A Farewell to Arms" Cover. Digital image. A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway - Reviews, Discussions, Bookclubs, Lists. Goodreads Inc. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/10799.A_Farewell_to_Arms? from_search=true>.I utilized Goodreads.com for the cover art of all of Hemingway's novels covered in this presentation. "Ernest Hemingway - Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 24 Sep 2013. <http:// www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1954/hemingway-bio.html> A short bio from the Nobel Prize website, this article gives some good, if basic, information on Hemingway which was not included in my other sources. "For Whom the Bell Tolls" Cover. Digital image. For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway - Reviews, Discussions, Bookclubs, Lists. Goodreads Inc. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/ 46170.For_Whom_the_Bell_Tolls?from_search=true>.I utilized Goodreads.com for the cover art of all of Hemingway's novels covered in this presentation. Mini BIO - Ernest Hemingway. YouTube. Bio, 21 Sept. 2012. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0JQDe0GCNHg>. I found an excellent video by Bio which I thought was an excellent addition. 16
  • 21. Annotated Webliography Continued Picture of Agnes von Kurowsky. Digital image. John F. Kennedy Library & Museum. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. <http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset- Viewer/AClLv93GJUmbDT4jlUHHww.aspx>. Found a quality picture of Agnes von Kurowsky on this site. "The Sun Also Rises" Cover. Digital image. The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway - Reviews, Discussions, Bookclubs, Lists. Goodreads Inc. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <http://www.goodreads.com/ book/show/3876.The_Sun_Also_Rises>. I utilized Goodreads.com for the cover art of all of Hemingway's novels covered in this presentation. The Sun Also Rises Movie Poster. Digital image. IMDb - The Sun Also Rises (1957). IMDb.com, Inc. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0051028/>. IMDb provided consise information and a movie poster for my slide on the 1957 movie. The Sun Also Rises (1957) Trailer. Perf. Tyrone Power, Ava Gardner. YouTube. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wlwBZGPJuDE>. This was the video I chose from YouTube to represent the movie trailer for my presentation. I chose this over any of the other trailers because there were several very familiar lines from the novel throughout. 17