Gender & Sexuality

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  • 1. Chapter 10 & Chapter 11 Gender & Sexuality
  • 2. Important Distinctions
    • Sex -primary & secondary sex characteristics - bio distinction
      • Male, female, intersexed
      • Transsexuals
    • Gender - socially learned expectations & behaviors based on sex
      • Transgendered, drag queens, berdache
    • Sexuality
      • Heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, asexuals
  • 3. Gender Socialization
    • Gender identity & gender scripts
    • Sources ? - parents, schools, media, religion, sports, peers
    • Social conformity pressures
    • Intersection w/ race and class - difft. gender expectations
  • 4. Gender Stratification
    • Gender as organizing principle of life and basis for unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege.
    • Gendered institutions (patriarchy), segregation
    • Pink-collar jobs, “The Second Shift”, women’s worth
  • 5. Sociological Theories of Gender
    • Functional - women fill expressive roles & men fill instrumental roles, gender is fixed
    • Conflict - power inequities built into structural system/economy
    • Symbolic-Interaction - “doing gender”, constructed during interactions
    • Feminist theory - understand position of women in society
  • 6. Animal Sexuality Research
    • 450 animals engage in same-sex sex
    • Bonobo monkeys
    • Share 98% of human genetic profile
    • Engage in sex to resolve conflicts
    • Female-centered groups
  • 7. Social Basis of Sexuality
    • Human sexual attitudes & behavior vary in different cultural contexts.
    • Sexual attitudes & behaviors change over time.
    • Sexual identity is learned.
    • Social institutions channel & direct human sexuality
    • Sex is influenced by economic forces in society.
    • Public policies regulate sexual & reproductive behaviors.
  • 8. History of Sexuality
    • 17th - 18th c. => Puritans
      • Sex for procreation w/n marriage
      • Characteristics of family life?
        • Family as primary economic unit
        • Child labor important
        • Male impotence grounds for divorce
        • Sex socialization
        • Deviant acts categorized and punished harshly to re-establish social standing
  • 9. 1800-1900
    • New link b/w sex & love WHY?
      • Rise in industrial economy over subsistence farming
      • Growth of consumer culture/pleasure ethic
      • Growth of sex industry –commodification of sexuality
      • More independence for women
      • Increased mobilization & urbanization
  • 10. History of Sexuality
    • 1920-30s => capitalism & emergence of gay community
      • Beginning of homosexual identity
    • WWII – 1950s => sex-segregated spaces, gender norms disrupted by women’s work
    • After WWII => “cult of domesticity” – focus on gender roles & heterosexual procreation
    • Sexuality research – Kinsey
    • 1960-80s => Sexual Revolution & Counterrevolution
  • 11. History of the Vibrator
  • 12.  
  • 13. Handheld vibrators
    • 1880s - first electric vibrator in doctor’s office
    • 1902 - first handheld take-home vibrator
    • 5th electrified appliance (before the iron or toaster)
    • 1917 - more vibrators than toasters in U.S. homes
  • 14.
    • 1920s - stag films blew the cover & showed vibrators as sex toys
    • 1950s-70s - vibrator camouflaged as nail-buffers, vacuums, backscratchers
  • 15. Theoretical Analysis of Sexuality
    • Functionalist - social regulation of sexuality & reproduction
    • Conflict - less economic opportunities & power for women so sexually commodified
      • International sex trade
    • Symbolic-Interaction - social construction of sexuality, cultural variations, changes over time in sexual relations
      • Influence of race, class, and gender - DL
  • 16. The Heterosexual Questionnaire
    • 1 What do you think caused your heterosexuality?
    • 2 When and how did you first decide you were heterosexual?
    • 3 Is it possible that your heterosexuality is just a phase you may grow out of?
    • 4 Is it possible that your heterosexuality stems from a fear of others of the same sex?
    • 5 If you have never slept with a member of your own sex, is it possible that you might be gay if you tried it?
    • 6 If heterosexuality is normal, why are so many mental patients heterosexual?
    • 7 Why do you heterosexual people try to seduce others into your lifestyle?
    • 8 Why do you flaunt your heterosexuality? Can't you just be who you are and keep it quiet?
    • 9 The great majority of child molesters are heterosexual. Do you consider it safe to expose your children to heterosexual teachers?
    • 10 With all the societal support that marriage receives, the divorce rate is spiraling. Why are there so few stable relationships among heterosexual people?
    • 11 Why are heterosexual people so promiscuous?
    • 12 Would you want your children to be heterosexual, knowing the problems they would face, such as heartbreak, disease, and divorce?
  • 17. Sexual Identities
    • Heterosexuality
    • Homosexuality - “coming out”
      • Homophobia - fear or hatred of homosexuals
      • Heterosexism - socially legitimate heterosexuality
    • Bisexuality
    • Asexuality
  • 18. Legislation of Morality
    • Pornography/obscenity - pornography addiction, censorship?
      • Technology and sexual freedom
      • Obscenity definition - 1973 Miller v. California
        • the average person, applying contemporary community standards (not national standards, as some prior tests required), must find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest;
        • the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct or excretory functions specifically defined by applicable state law;
        • the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary , artistic , political , or scientific value.
    • Sex education v. abstinence-only education
  • 19. Controversies
    • Domestic violence & sexual violence **
    • Teen pregnancy - 1 million U.S. teens pregnant per year, higher than other industrialized nations
    • Birth control - Sanger - 1965 Griswold v. Connecticut , 1972 - extended to unmarried
      • Eugenics & compulsory sterilization of minorities
    • Abortion - 1973 - Roe v. Wade
    • STIs/STDs
      • HPV mandatory vaccinations