Gender & Sexuality


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Gender & Sexuality

  1. 1. Chapter 10 & Chapter 11 Gender & Sexuality
  2. 2. Important Distinctions <ul><li>Sex -primary & secondary sex characteristics - bio distinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male, female, intersexed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transsexuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender - socially learned expectations & behaviors based on sex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transgendered, drag queens, berdache </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexuality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, asexuals </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Gender Socialization <ul><li>Gender identity & gender scripts </li></ul><ul><li>Sources ? - parents, schools, media, religion, sports, peers </li></ul><ul><li>Social conformity pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Intersection w/ race and class - difft. gender expectations </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gender Stratification <ul><li>Gender as organizing principle of life and basis for unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege. </li></ul><ul><li>Gendered institutions (patriarchy), segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Pink-collar jobs, “The Second Shift”, women’s worth </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sociological Theories of Gender <ul><li>Functional - women fill expressive roles & men fill instrumental roles, gender is fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict - power inequities built into structural system/economy </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic-Interaction - “doing gender”, constructed during interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Feminist theory - understand position of women in society </li></ul>
  6. 6. Animal Sexuality Research <ul><li>450 animals engage in same-sex sex </li></ul><ul><li>Bonobo monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Share 98% of human genetic profile </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in sex to resolve conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Female-centered groups </li></ul>
  7. 7. Social Basis of Sexuality <ul><li>Human sexual attitudes & behavior vary in different cultural contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual attitudes & behaviors change over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual identity is learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Social institutions channel & direct human sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Sex is influenced by economic forces in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Public policies regulate sexual & reproductive behaviors. </li></ul>
  8. 8. History of Sexuality <ul><li>17th - 18th c. => Puritans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex for procreation w/n marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of family life? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family as primary economic unit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child labor important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male impotence grounds for divorce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex socialization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deviant acts categorized and punished harshly to re-establish social standing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 1800-1900 <ul><li>New link b/w sex & love WHY? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise in industrial economy over subsistence farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of consumer culture/pleasure ethic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of sex industry –commodification of sexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More independence for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased mobilization & urbanization </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. History of Sexuality <ul><li>1920-30s => capitalism & emergence of gay community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of homosexual identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WWII – 1950s => sex-segregated spaces, gender norms disrupted by women’s work </li></ul><ul><li>After WWII => “cult of domesticity” – focus on gender roles & heterosexual procreation </li></ul><ul><li>Sexuality research – Kinsey </li></ul><ul><li>1960-80s => Sexual Revolution & Counterrevolution </li></ul>
  11. 11. History of the Vibrator
  12. 13. Handheld vibrators <ul><li>1880s - first electric vibrator in doctor’s office </li></ul><ul><li>1902 - first handheld take-home vibrator </li></ul><ul><li>5th electrified appliance (before the iron or toaster) </li></ul><ul><li>1917 - more vibrators than toasters in U.S. homes </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>1920s - stag films blew the cover & showed vibrators as sex toys </li></ul><ul><li>1950s-70s - vibrator camouflaged as nail-buffers, vacuums, backscratchers </li></ul>
  14. 15. Theoretical Analysis of Sexuality <ul><li>Functionalist - social regulation of sexuality & reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict - less economic opportunities & power for women so sexually commodified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International sex trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symbolic-Interaction - social construction of sexuality, cultural variations, changes over time in sexual relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of race, class, and gender - DL </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. The Heterosexual Questionnaire <ul><li>1 What do you think caused your heterosexuality? </li></ul><ul><li>2 When and how did you first decide you were heterosexual? </li></ul><ul><li>3 Is it possible that your heterosexuality is just a phase you may grow out of? </li></ul><ul><li>4 Is it possible that your heterosexuality stems from a fear of others of the same sex? </li></ul><ul><li>5 If you have never slept with a member of your own sex, is it possible that you might be gay if you tried it? </li></ul><ul><li>6 If heterosexuality is normal, why are so many mental patients heterosexual? </li></ul><ul><li>7 Why do you heterosexual people try to seduce others into your lifestyle? </li></ul><ul><li>8 Why do you flaunt your heterosexuality? Can't you just be who you are and keep it quiet? </li></ul><ul><li>9 The great majority of child molesters are heterosexual. Do you consider it safe to expose your children to heterosexual teachers? </li></ul><ul><li>10 With all the societal support that marriage receives, the divorce rate is spiraling. Why are there so few stable relationships among heterosexual people? </li></ul><ul><li>11 Why are heterosexual people so promiscuous? </li></ul><ul><li>12 Would you want your children to be heterosexual, knowing the problems they would face, such as heartbreak, disease, and divorce? </li></ul>
  16. 17. Sexual Identities <ul><li>Heterosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Homosexuality - “coming out” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homophobia - fear or hatred of homosexuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterosexism - socially legitimate heterosexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bisexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Asexuality </li></ul>
  17. 18. Legislation of Morality <ul><li>Pornography/obscenity - pornography addiction, censorship? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology and sexual freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obscenity definition - 1973 Miller v. California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the average person, applying contemporary community standards (not national standards, as some prior tests required), must find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct or excretory functions specifically defined by applicable state law; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary , artistic , political , or scientific value. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sex education v. abstinence-only education </li></ul>
  18. 19. Controversies <ul><li>Domestic violence & sexual violence ** </li></ul><ul><li>Teen pregnancy - 1 million U.S. teens pregnant per year, higher than other industrialized nations </li></ul><ul><li>Birth control - Sanger - 1965 Griswold v. Connecticut , 1972 - extended to unmarried </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eugenics & compulsory sterilization of minorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abortion - 1973 - Roe v. Wade </li></ul><ul><li>STIs/STDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HPV mandatory vaccinations </li></ul></ul>