Mobility, traffic engineering and redundancy using RPL
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Master thesis presentation. Design and implementation of a solution to improve mobility between two physical WSNs using RPL. Based on the 6LBR implementation of the CETIC.

Master thesis presentation. Design and implementation of a solution to improve mobility between two physical WSNs using RPL. Based on the 6LBR implementation of the CETIC.

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Mobility, traffic engineering and redundancy using RPL Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL and several border routers Maxime Denis D´epartement d’Informatique Universit´e de Mons June 21th 2013 Director : Pr. Bruno Quoitin External experts : M. S´ebastien Dawans Reviewers : Pr. S´ebastien Bette M. Laurent Deru M. Mathieu Michel
  • 2. Summary Outline 1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Multi-BR problematic 4 State of the art 5 Validation 6 Conclusion Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 2 / 29
  • 3. Introduction Introduction Figure 1 : WSN layout on the bridge[1]. Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) Set of sensors, i.e., devices with limited capabilities, often with energy constraints and wireless interface. Internet of Things (IoT) Allows Internet connectivity for any devices : Smart Cities, Smart Building, Smart Grids, Smart . . .IoT = interconnection of WSNs. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 3 / 29
  • 4. Introduction Interfacing WSNs with classical networks With Border Routers (BRs) A sensor with two stacks, bridging the WLAN and the WSN ; Most of the time a more capable sensor without energy constraints ; In this master thesis : interconnection between IEEE 802.15.4 and Ethernet. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 4 / 29
  • 5. Introduction Master thesis subject Study the interconnection through multiple BRs with a focus on : 1 Redundancy ; 2 Mobility ; 3 Traffic engineering. using RPL and Contiki. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 5 / 29
  • 6. Background Outline 1 Introduction 2 Background IPv6 Stacks RPL Contiki 3 Multi-BR problematic 4 State of the art 5 Validation 6 Conclusion Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 6 / 29
  • 7. Background IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 [2, 3, 4] large address space (2128 adresses) ; minimal MTU (1280 Bytes) ; autoconfiguration process (NDP) ; ... Neighbor Discovery Protocol [5] contains ARP (IPv4) ; Autoconfiguration using the Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) mechanism ; Reachability detection using the Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD). Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 7 / 29
  • 8. Background Stacks Stacks IPv6 ICMP NDP UDP TCP 802.3 MAC layer 802.3 PHY layer Figure 2 : Classical stack. IPv6 ICMP RPL UDP TCP 802.15.4 MAC layer 802.15.4 PHY layer 6LoWPAN layer Figure 3 : WSN stack. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 8 / 29
  • 9. Background RPL Routing Protocol for Lossy networks (RPL) Lightweight distance vector protocol [6] used in WSNs. Description Collect oriented : designed to collect data from sensors to sink. Topology covered by a tree with a single root. Datapath validation : no periodical messages. Two concepts : instances and DODAGs (Destination Oriented Directed Acyclic Graphs). Traffic RPL allows three kinds of traffic : Peer-to-Peer, Peer-to-Multi-Peer and Multi-Peer-to-Peer. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 9 / 29
  • 10. Background RPL DODAGs DODAG : tree covering and partitioning the WSN. Root : node managing the DODAG ; Upward routes : created by DIOs, to reach the root ; A node owns a parent which leads to the root ; Downward routes : created by DAOs, to reach the sensor ; Node’s rank means the distance between the node and the root ; Metrics are used to qualify links and choose parents ; Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 10 / 29
  • 11. Background RPL DODAGs DODAG : tree covering and partitioning the WSN. Root : node managing the DODAG ; Upward routes : created by DIOs, to reach the root ; A node owns a parent which leads to the root ; Downward routes : created by DAOs, to reach the sensor ; Node’s rank means the distance between the node and the root ; Metrics are used to qualify links and choose parents ; Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 10 / 29
  • 12. Background RPL DODAGs DODAG : tree covering and partitioning the WSN. Root : node managing the DODAG ; Upward routes : created by DIOs, to reach the root ; A node owns a parent which leads to the root ; Downward routes : created by DAOs, to reach the sensor ; Node’s rank means the distance between the node and the root ; Metrics are used to qualify links and choose parents ; Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 10 / 29
  • 13. Background RPL DODAGs DODAG : tree covering and partitioning the WSN. Root : node managing the DODAG ; Upward routes : created by DIOs, to reach the root ; A node owns a parent which leads to the root ; Downward routes : created by DAOs, to reach the sensor ; Node’s rank means the distance between the node and the root ; Metrics are used to qualify links and choose parents ; Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 10 / 29
  • 14. Background RPL DODAGs DODAG : tree covering and partitioning the WSN. Root : node managing the DODAG ; Upward routes : created by DIOs, to reach the root ; A node owns a parent which leads to the root ; Downward routes : created by DAOs, to reach the sensor ; Node’s rank means the distance between the node and the root ; Metrics are used to qualify links and choose parents ; Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 10 / 29
  • 15. Background RPL Instances Set of DODAGs, optimized for a QoS or designed for a constraint. Rules A node can join only a single DODAG per instance ; A node can join all the instances available ; A node may not join an instance if the QoS is not appropriate. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 11 / 29
  • 16. Background Contiki Contiki : a lightweight operating system for WSNs Description Real time operating system [7], for embedded platforms. What Contiki brings uIP stack : small IPv6 (or IPv4) compliant stack, few RAM, single interface support ; Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 12 / 29
  • 17. Multi-BR problematic Outline 1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Multi-BR problematic Mobility Redundancy Traffic engineering Extracted RPL root 4 State of the art 5 Validation 6 Conclusion Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 13 / 29
  • 18. Multi-BR problematic Mobility Mobility Mobility case Parent failure : switching to another parent in the DODAG. Mobility : new neighborhood : DODAG ? Instance ? In multi-BR case... Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 14 / 29
  • 19. Multi-BR problematic Mobility Mobility Mobility case Parent failure : switching to another parent in the DODAG. Mobility : new neighborhood : DODAG ? Instance ? In multi-BR case... Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 14 / 29
  • 20. Multi-BR problematic Mobility Mobility Mobility case Parent failure : switching to another parent in the DODAG. Mobility : new neighborhood : DODAG ? Instance ? In multi-BR case... Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 14 / 29
  • 21. Multi-BR problematic Mobility Mobility Mobility case Parent failure : switching to another parent in the DODAG. Mobility : new neighborhood : DODAG ? Instance ? In multi-BR case... Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 14 / 29
  • 22. Multi-BR problematic Redundancy Redundancy Redundancy consequences Border router failures : recovery increased ; RPL overhead on sensors (several DODAGs). Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 15 / 29
  • 23. Multi-BR problematic Redundancy Redundancy Redundancy consequences Border router failures : recovery increased ; RPL overhead on sensors (several DODAGs). Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 15 / 29
  • 24. Multi-BR problematic Traffic engineering Traffic engineering Force paths on the WSN to balance the traffic among several paths. Solutions Multi-instance to balance traffic over sensors ; Multi-instance over several channels to balance traffic over channels. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 16 / 29
  • 25. Multi-BR problematic Traffic engineering Traffic engineering Force paths on the WSN to balance the traffic among several paths. Solutions Multi-instance to balance traffic over sensors ; Multi-instance over several channels to balance traffic over channels. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 16 / 29
  • 26. Multi-BR problematic Extracted RPL root Implementation : extracted RPL root over Ethernet 1 RPL root over Ethernet ; 2 Border routers running in a single DODAG per instance ; 3 Mobility and redundancy increased, complexity decreased. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 17 / 29
  • 27. Multi-BR problematic Extracted RPL root Implementation : extracted RPL root over Ethernet 1 RPL root over Ethernet ; 2 Border routers running in a single DODAG per instance ; 3 Mobility and redundancy increased, complexity decreased. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 17 / 29
  • 28. State of the art Outline 1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Multi-BR problematic 4 State of the art 6LBR 5 Validation 6 Conclusion Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 18 / 29
  • 29. State of the art Existing 6LoWPAN border router solutions Computer dependant Contiki’s border router integrated solution ; Jackdaw USB stick [8] ; Computer independant Grinch project[9] ; 6LoWPAN-ND on Hogaza platform[10] ; CETIC’s 6LBR[11, 12]. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 19 / 29
  • 30. State of the art 6LBR 6LBR Features 6LoWPAN border router using RPL ; Support of two interfaces in Contiki (filtering rules and translation). Platforms Linux native (PC, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone), Redwire Econotag with Ethernet controller. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 20 / 29
  • 31. Validation Outline 1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Multi-BR problematic 4 State of the art 5 Validation Configuration Experimentations Results 6 Conclusion Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 21 / 29
  • 32. Validation Configuration Scenarios Platforms Zolertia Z1 (N1, N2, BR2) ; Crossbow TelosB (BR1) ; Four scenarios captured in five experimentations. Traffic capture done using sniffer[13]. Traces in pcap format and sequence diagrams, performance indication (values measured in traces). Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 22 / 29
  • 33. Validation Experimentations Scenario 1 (S1) : Multi-instance advertisement Multi-instance advertisement and the route creation with packet exchange between the WSN and the Ethernet using the extracted RPL root. A single BR and a single sensor are used in this scenario. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 23 / 29
  • 34. Validation Experimentations Scenario 1 (S1) : Multi-instance advertisement Multi-instance advertisement and the route creation with packet exchange between the WSN and the Ethernet using the extracted RPL root. A single BR and a single sensor are used in this scenario. BR 802.15.4EthernetRPL Root DIO(instance=2) DIO(instance=2) DAO(instance=2, target=BR) DAO(instance=1, target=BR) DIO(instance=1) DIO(instance=1) DIO(instance=2) DIO(instance=1) DAD(global) DAD(link-local) Visual Paradigm for UML Standard Edition(University of Mons) Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 23 / 29
  • 35. Validation Experimentations Scenario 1 (S1) : Multi-instance advertisement Multi-instance advertisement and the route creation with packet exchange between the WSN and the Ethernet using the extracted RPL root. A single BR and a single sensor are used in this scenario. 1 2 3 (3) Time Sensor 802.15.4RPL Root Ethernet BR UDP(Ack) UDP(Ack) UDP UDP DIO(instance=1) DIO(instance=1) DAO(instance=1, target=Sensor) DIS Sensor turned on DIO(instance=2) DIO(instance=1) DAO(instance=1, target=Sensor) DIO(instance=2) DIO(instance=1) sual Paradigm for UML Standard Edition(University of Mons) Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 23 / 29
  • 36. Validation Experimentations Scenario 4 (S4) : Mobility A single instance with two BRs and a single sensor. Simulation of mobility between two BRs. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 24 / 29
  • 37. Validation Experimentations Scenario 4 (S4) : Mobility A single instance with two BRs and a single sensor. Simulation of mobility between two BRs. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 24 / 29
  • 38. Validation Experimentations Scenario 4 (S4) : Mobility A single instance with two BRs and a single sensor. Simulation of mobility between two BRs. Ethernet 802.14.5 Sensor BR1RPL root DIO DIO DIO DIO DIO DIO DAD(global) DAD(link-local) UDP DAO(target=Sensor) UDP UDP DAO(target=Sensor) UDP DAO(target=BR1) DAO(target=BR1) UDP(Ack)UDP(Ack) Visual Paradigm for UML Standard Edition(University of Mons) Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 24 / 29
  • 39. Validation Experimentations Scenario 4 (S4) : Mobility A single instance with two BRs and a single sensor. Simulation of mobility between two BRs. 2 1 (1) Time 802.14.5Ethernet BR2 SensorBR1RPL root UDP UDP UDP UDP DAO(target=Sensor) DIO DAO(target=BR2) DIS UDP DIO DIS UDP UDP UDP(Ack) DAO(target=Sensor) UDP(Ack) UDP UDP UDP UDP(Ack)UDP(Ack) Visual Paradigm for UML Standard Edition(University of Mons) Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 24 / 29
  • 40. Validation Results Results - S1 and S4 Summary of the main values gathered during scenarios Route creation (S1) : about 7s ; Retransmissions in mobility (S4) : about 30 ; Route recreation after switch (S4) : about 18s. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 25 / 29
  • 41. Conclusion Outline 1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Multi-BR problematic 4 State of the art 5 Validation 6 Conclusion Contributions Future work Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 26 / 29
  • 42. Conclusion Contributions Contributions 1 Complete description of the background notions used : RPL, IPv6, NDP, 6LoWPAN and IEEE 802.15.4. ; 2 State of the art of the existing BRs solutions ; 3 The multi-BR problematic developed using redundancy, mobility and traffic engineering ; 4 Design and implementation of the extracted RPL root and the border routers ; 5 Four scenarios with traces and sequence diagrams ; 6 Multi-instance validation. Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 27 / 29
  • 43. Conclusion Future work Future work 1 Implementation of several instances using several channels ; 2 Dynamic load balancing implementation ; 3 Dynamic instance determination for Ethernet traffic ; 4 Validation using other applications (e.g., Pings, HTTP) ; 5 Bigger testbed and simulation validation ; 6 More realistic topologies (border routers and RPL root connected through a backbone network) ; 7 ... Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 28 / 29
  • 44. Conclusion Future work Thank you for your attention Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 29 / 29
  • 45. Conclusion Future work [1] Sukun Kim, Shamim Pakzad, David Culler, James Demmel, Gregory Fenves, Steven Glaser, and Martin Turon, “Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures Using Wireless Sensor Networks.” http: //www.cs.berkeley.edu/~binetude/work/ipsn07_ggb.pdf (last access : 12/05/13). [2] J.-P. Vasseur and A. Dunkels, Interconnecting smart objects with IP. Morgan Kauffman, 2012. [3] B. Quoitin, “IPv6.” Computer Networks course (UMONS). [4] Internet Engineering Task Force, “RFC 2460 : Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification.” http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2460 (last access : 16/03/13). [5] Internet Engineering Task Force, “RFC 4861 : Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6).” https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/rfc4861/ (last access : 2/10/12). Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 29 / 29
  • 46. Conclusion Future work [6] Internet Engineering Task Force, “RFC 6550 : RPL : IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks.” https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/rfc6550/ (last access : 2/10/12). [7] “Contiki 2.6 Doxygen.” http://contiki.sourceforge.net/docs/2.6/ (last access : 17/09/12). [8] “Jackdaw USB stick.” http://dak664.github.com/contiki-doxygen/a01677.html (last access : 2/10/12). [9] “Grinch - simple 6lowpan RPL border router.” http://sixpinetrees.blogspot.be/2011/06/ grinch-simple-6lowpan-rpl-border-router.html (last access : 2/10/12). Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 29 / 29
  • 47. Conclusion Future work [10] L. M. Ara, “Neighbor Discovery Proxy-Gateway for 6LoWPAN-based Wireless Sensor Networks.” KTM Information and Communication Technology. [11] Maxime Denis, “6LoWPAN Border Router prototype on a Redwire Econotag,” February 2013. [12] CETIC, “A deployment-ready 6LoWPAN Border Router solution based on Contiki.” https://github.com/cetic/6lbr (last access : 23/02/13). [13] David Hauweele, “Wsn tools.” https://github.com/gawen947/wsn-tools (last access : 22/05/13). Maxime Denis (UMONS) Traffic engineering, redundancy and mobility with RPL June 21th 2013 29 / 29