Overview of Assessment Prepared for School of Occupational Therapy 2011
Challenge questions• Are assessment processes varied and realistic, do they reflect constructivist principles?• Is the power of peer and self-assessment utilised formally, e.g. in formative assessment processes?• Is material from real experience incorporated into assessment methods (e.g. actual case study from fieldwork utilised in assignment or examination assessment)?
Why do assessments need to change?• Ensure integration of assessments in combined courses.• Some assessments 100% - all done at the end.• Feedback from monitor, and walk throughs, e.g., assessment marked in class, group work, use a range (Jackie)• Competency in practical skills not coming through into field work
Authentic assessment• Assessment is integrated with the task rather than as separate abstract testing (Reeves, 2011).• Therefore, when students engage in activities to learn about concepts, the activities should count towards assessment.• Problem-based, scenario-based, project-based
What type of evidence do you need to have that demonstrates your students are learning?• Surface - recall, mastery• Deep – reflective learning, analysis and synthesis, application
Learning-Oriented AssessmentDavid Carless (2007) claims formative and summativeassessment tasks should adhere to three core principles:1. stimulate the kind of learning that is sought – berelated to the course’s key concepts and subject matter;2. involve students actively engaging with assessmentcriteria, notions of quality, and their own and/or peers’performance;3. timely and forward-looking teacher feedback onstudent performance to support current and futurelearning.
Example - Videos about occupation• Criteria for assessment (individual, peer, self) and group work are negotiated with students.• Group work – students work together to search for, share and evaluate suitable videos (use skills learned in Fundamentals of Inquiry), discuss specific concepts, critique against criteria – reflective dialogue. (Formative)• Individuals write reflectively about what they learned about specific concepts - self-assessment, portfolio evidence. (Formative)• Include criteria re the group process.• Use peer assessment to give each other feedback.• Work can be divided up and submitted as a group project, e.g., essay, video, prepare a poster or presentation, pamphlet – used in later courses as a resource. (Summative)
• What are the challenges for students with existing assessments?• What are the challenges for teachers?
Self-assessment• Benefits – raises self-awareness about own learning – monitoring goals (metacognition), increase engagement with content, ideas./• Challenges – criteria, scaffolding needed to do it well – making use of outcomes (actions, goals), learning skills of reflection, getting them to value doing it – recognising the purpose, and self-assessing in a meaningful way.
• How do students currently self-assess?• Do they know they are doing it?• What are they doing with it? – Mastery quizzes in Kinesiology – Debrief in fieldwork
Peer assessment• Benefits – stimulates critical reflection and learning, preparation for professional practice, different perspectives, richer learning experience, more varied feedback, deeper engagement.• Challenges – agreed criteria, scaffolding, reflective dialogue, recognising the purpose, constructive.
Formative and summative assessment• What existing formative assessment could become and/or contribute to summative assessment?• Formative – practice and feedback• Summative – evidence of achievement, not necessarily at the end.
• There is a need for new graduate occupational therapists to be competent in sourcing and using information, solving problems, working collaboratively and in teams, and able to cope with the demands of rapid change in health service provision. They must emerge as graduates with the skills and motivation for ongoing self-directed learning (Jeffrey, 2010).
Summary• We need to think about how tasks and assessments integrate within and across courses• Authenticity of assessment and relevance to preparing students for practice• Workloads for students and staff• Formative and summative, range of assessments
What next?• Look at design of assessments.• Collate information about different forms of assessment.