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Invited presentation for educational testing services on video games as learning tools ...

Invited presentation for educational testing services on video games as learning tools

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  • 1. Video Games Learning Tools Pandora’s Xbox Brock Dubbels The Center for Cognitive Sciences, The University of Minnesota
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. Towards top sight
  • 6. Building comprehension process Basic reading skills Decoding Reading Comprehension Comprehension Skills Age/ time Figure 1. Kintsch & Kintsch in Paris & Stahl (2006) Grade 4 Reading to Learn Learning to Read
  • 7. Non-traditional Narrative for Assessment
  • 8. Decision Trees
    • For a decision tree to work, it must have the following qualities:
      • Time in the game takes place in turns or other discrete units.
      • Players make certain number of finite decisions that have knowable outcomes
      • The game is finite, it cannot go on forever.
      • Different, but just as good
  • 9. Causal network analysis
    • Epaminondas Story
    • Epaminondas Story
    Van den Broek,P., Kendou, P., Kremer, K., Lynch, J. Butler, J., White, M., and Pugzles Lorch, E. (2005, p. 112-13)
  • 10. Why are they important?
    • Because a decision tree is also a diagram of the formal space of possibility in a game.
    • Games represent the same design elements as research and curriculum design.
    • They also represent the basis of causal network analysis in discourse processing.
    • And conveniently can be found in walkthroughs in video games.
  • 11. Video games as Learning Tools Background
    • Developed a curriculum for teachers after using them with success at Northeast Middle School
  • 12. Walkthroughs and supporting documents
    • The key to understanding the complexity of a game is knowing what to do, then knowing what you did. Examples of the genre called the walkthrough for composition for Metroid Prime.
    • Press the picture for an example of a Walkthrough.
  • 13. Video Walkthrough
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16. Characteristics of readers +1 Level of fluenc Y ability to comprehend in dialogic method /create a model High comp High fluency Low comp High fluency Low comp Low fluency High comp Low fluency
  • 17. The Event Indexing Model Zwann, Langston, & Graesser, 1995; Zwann & Radavansky, 1998
  • 18. Situation model
    • When a reader has well-developed comprehension skills, they can recruit prior knowledge to bootstrap lower level processes (Stanovich, 2000) and this is an important idea for making a case for using more accessible texts that are relevant and interesting to the learner. Once again, the reader can use higher-level process in order to support lower level process (Stanovich, 2000).
  • 19. How do we build a comprehension model?
    • Comprehension Model
    • A spatial-temporal framework  
      • spatial locations, time frames
    • Entities
      • people, objects, ideas,
    • Properties of entities
      • color, emotions, goals, shape, etc.
    • Relational information
      • spatial, temporal, causal, ownership, kinship, social, etc.
    • Literary Elements
    • Character/ Characterization
    • diction
    • Plot
    • Setting
    • Point of View
    • Theme
    • Tone
    • Voice
    • Word choice
  • 20. Developmental Sequence of Inference Types in Narrative Comprehension
    • Concrete physical relations that occur close together
    • Concrete physical relations between distant events
    • Causal relations involving the character’s goals, emotions, and desires
    • Hierarchical and thematic relations between clusters of events
    • Translation of the story theme into a moral or lesson
  • 21. Examples of Developmental Trends in Inference Making in Narrative Comprehension
    • Relations between Concrete Events Relations between Abstract Events
    • Relations between External Events Relations involving Internal Events
    • Relations between Individual Events Relations between Clusters of Events
    Scoring packet for comprehension and engagement
  • 22. Invoking play
  • 23. Ethos of Activity
  • 24. Will Games and Play Destroy Us
  • 25. Maybe
  • 26. 16-year-old drops out of school to play Guitar Hero
    • young Mr. Peebles is dropping out of high school... in order to focus on Guitar Hero full time. Peebles hopes to join the small but growing crew of players looking to make gaming a job. Citing his victories in Guitar Hero tournaments, which include "gift certificates, gaming equipment, and chicken sandwiches," Peebles thinks he has the chops to play competitively and earn actual money in the process. As the story notes, top gamers on the competitive circuit can earn up to $80,000 a year (though $25,000 is more common). Peebles, of course, can count his 52 Chick-fil-A combo meals toward that total.
  • 27. A Life Without Play
    • Whitman had been raised in a tyrannical, abusive household.  From birth through age 18, Whitman’s natural playfulness had been systematically and dramatically suppressed by an overbearing father.
    • A lifelong lack of play deprived him of opportunities to view life with optimism, test alternatives, or learn the social skills that, as part of spontaneous play, prepare individuals to cope with life stress. The committee concluded that lack of play was a key factor in Whitman's homicidal actions – if he had experienced regular moments of spontaneous play during his life, they believed he would have developed the skill, flexibility, and strength to cope with the stressful situations without violence.
    • Dr. Brown’s subsequent research of other violent individuals concludes that play can act as a powerful deterrent, even an antidote to prevent violence. Play is a powerful catalyst for positive socialization.
  • 28. And rather than fight it, we need to use it to accelerate learning and sustain engagement.
  • 29. Play is a portal to Self-Determination and Work
    • Working hard at play?
  • 30. Sustained Engagement
    • When looking to measure growth or change, or even to understand whether a learner has truly engaged, an educator should also look for evidence of commitment and positive attitudes related to the activity and subject matter.
    • Engagement is not just doing the work, it is a connection and an affinity to an activity supported from the affective domains (Chapman, 2003).
    • Skinner & Belmont (1993, p.572) report that engaged learners show sustained behavioral involvement in learning activities accompanied by a positive emotional tone and select tasks at the border of their competencies, initiate action when given the opportunity, and exert intense effort and concentration.
    • Pintrich and & De Groot (1990, in Chapman) see engagement as having observable cognitive components that can be seen or elicited through exploring the learner’s use of strategy, metacognition, and self-regulatory behavior to monitor and guide the learning processes.
  • 31.  
  • 32. What is really important is how we use them. Lets not forget about play and engagement.
  • 33. Better Living Production
  • 34. Gigaheart
    • Performance Improvement (PI) activities describe a structured, long-term process by which a healthcare professional or team can learn about specific performance measures, retrospectively assess their practice, apply these measures prospectively over a useful interval, and reevaluate their performance. Performance Improvement is an evidence-based participatory program with emphasis on quality of care and patient safety.
    • The Performance Improvement CME/CE process involves three separate but integrated stages of learning: Stage A) learning from active involvement in identifying and analyzing important organizational and individual performance gaps; Stage B) learning from designing interventions to close performance gaps identified in Stage A, and implementing the interventions to patient care using suitable tracking tools; and
    Production
  • 35. HumanFIRST Lab ng Modeling
  • 36. Virtual Clinic Production
  • 37. How about Math and Science?
    • Scientific Habits of mind
    • Applied curriculum
    • Modeling
    • Simulation
    • STEM
    Modeling 3r STEM
  • 38. Clapping Academy Design
  • 39. Games Unit
    • Inquiry
    • Reading comprehension
    • Composition
    • Sustained engagement
    • Behavioral management
    • Planning
    • Cooperative learning
    • Classroom as game
    • Outcomes
    Dubbels, B.R. (in press) Video games, reading, and transmedial comprehension. In R. E. Ferdig (Ed.),  Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education.   Information Science Reference. Artifacts
  • 40. Rhythm & Flow
    • High interest
    • Role Playing
    • Performance
    • Technology
    • RFOL
    • Writing
    • Video
    • Music
    Design
  • 41. Educate me
    • Participants design a board game to identify outcomes and the context, route, and obstacles to getting there.
  • 42. Dance Dance Education
    • Because kids won’t let an education get in the way of their learning
    Brock Dubbels The Center for Cognitive Sciences The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
  • 43. Barbell Factory Production
  • 44.  
  • 45. Games are structured forms of play
    • Do we need to have definition for play?
    • Can we only know it when we see it?
  • 46.  
  • 47. What this means for schools
    • Maybe we need to motivate and engage through recruiting play for developing work-like competencies. You can go to:
    • http//:5 th -teacher.blogspot.com
    • www.vgalt.com/blog
    • www.vgalt.com/moodle
    • www.videogamesaslearningtools.com
  • 48. Where are we now? We have taken away play in school
  • 49. Built like a game Graphic by Dan Cook
  • 50. How about Chutes and ladders? Describe the game play mechanics
  • 51. What are the elements of this game? What makes the play emergent? Is it non-linear? Games as a metaphor for instructional design
  • 52. Discussion
    • Based upon these concepts in game design and the literacies and habits of mind supported by them, how can we use these design elements to construct curriculum for our classroom?
    • To test hypotheses?
    • To create new media
    • To embody learning experiences and informative assessment
    • Do we need computers to do this?
  • 53.  
  • 54. Brock Dubbels