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Using Play and COTS Games for Academic Curriculum

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  • having school children do just one minute of jumping (10-20 jumps) three times a day, three to five times a week caused the children to gain more bone mass. The downsides of such an activity is that it is not sustained enough to improve cardiovascular health or to promote weight loss. Because it is difficult to motivate children to participate in the type of cardiovascular activities that adults engage in (running, cycling, aerobics), new strategies must be developed. In Dance Dance Revolution, a participant responds to a series of directional arrows displayed on a video or TV screen to perform choreographed dance steps or hops synchronized to music. Song tempo and degree of difficulty increase as the player successfully progresses in the game. Because of the game's popularity and its cardiovascular exercise and jumping (bone-building) components, it could represent an appealing model for reducing physical inactivity in children.
  • not only provide methodologies that are fundamental to qualitative analysis, but are also fundamental to the study. and It was for this reason that these methods were used to explore and code the phenomenological interview transcript. Although a sample of one participant is not very robust for generalization, it provided a starting point for more focused theory testing, as well as to provide insights for ourselves as designers, and education practitioners.
  • The phenomenological interview methodology was modified to gather descriptions of the described lived experience in terms of what van Manen (1996, p. 101) called Fundamental Life Themes, or as they will be referred to for the sake of brevity: F.L.T.s. F.L.T.s are elements of human experience. They are structural elements of the phenomena of the experience of living in the world. These are really experiences of the self in the world from the traditions of in the world from Merleau-Ponty, Husserl, Heidegger, and Sartre; also affiliated with the analysis built from Marxist traditions
  • As Ellen’s ability with the game progressed, she was being recognized as DDR “gamer girl”, and this conferred a new identity and status. She began to find new connections throughout her school experience, as more people knew about her new status as a “gamer girl” beyond her former status as an International Baccalaureate student (Academic), varsity soccer player (Jock/Athlete), Band Member (Musician). It may have been important for Ellen to branch out and change people’s perceptions In the same way that she described the Desirable Group.Perhaps all that work in Academics, Sports, and Band had made her appear too serious, and maybe she felt constrained by all of her commitments and wanted to break out to meet new, fun people? It is only conjecture and anecdotal, and she did not abandon her commitment to band, sports, or academics — she did graduate with an IB diploma — but as can be imagined, all that work in those areas may have made it important to find friends who had interests beyond her everyday world, and that being with them would allow her to step away from conversations about the team, assignments, practicing to perform, and set her apart.Developing these relations more than fun, but a coping tool. The importance of play, according to Vygotsky (1972), is decontextualization, where an individual can gain gratification and pleasure even in the midst of unresolved issues and larger, time consuming projects. The role of pretense and imagination can bring about pleasure and in the face of uncontrollable circumstances; this can provide some relief. Perhaps the gaming provided an opportunity to decompress and laugh in the midst of all that responsibility and preparation. An example of this may be seen in Ellen’s bringing the game on a band trip.
  • The need for Activity Spaces should not be underestimated, but it seemed clear that Ellen was ready and willing to share her activity in a space, her parents’ holiday party to get the game system, mats, and software.Ellen’s playing the game with family coincides with the Ritual of Integration/Aggregation as described by Van Gennep (1960), where Ellen has returned to her family with a new status. This status may not rival her accomplishments in sports, band or academics in her family’s values, but in many ways it was a revealing of how she had become different – how she had created difference and separated and returned, and her family’s embrace of this new part of her identity — “gamer girl”.Dance Dance Revolution, and other games played in Devon’s basement provided an experience that offered the separation and initiation for obtaining group identity through the ritual of public performance that could be recognized not only by the group, but also by others away from the basement and through this the identity and status are further reinforced through the rite of integration. It was through the activity that Ellen was conferred status and identity as member not only by her new friends, but through her family and the community that had the power to convey her status and acceptance. This conferred new identity and acceptance allowed her to become that gamer beyond her normal relations and to extend her community network and be recognized by others to develop new relations and status:
  • in this instance, the game activity did extend beyond the familiar Activity Spaces like Devon’s basement; it even seemed to provide an activity that she could share with new groups as a Desirable Activity that would make others see her as part of a Desirable Group that others would seek Belonging/ Relatedness. The game seems to have supplanted the importance of being part of the gamer group in Devon’s basement, and the activity became a means for extending her friend network as Gee (2001) as an Affinity Group, where people affiliate because of an affinity for an activity. The next section demonstrates this. As the activity began to change for the group members, relationships started to change, and the emphasis on the game diminished.
  • The DDR game did facilitate the relationship in ways that other games and activities did not, but in the end, the initial motivation may need to come from purpose only the individual can formulate. But play can facilitate this and may make the entrance to a group, the practice, and eventual mastery of knowledge, activity space, and activity more likely to be enticing and possibly provide for sustained engagement and eventual mastery. This makes a case for Play as a Subjunctive Mood.Playgroups, and the activities that support them, provide a common ground for interaction. There is definitely a pecking order that comes from demonstrable competence and evidence of knowledge from the semiotic domains from the game. Games are built upon play, pretense, and decontextualization, but once these activities no longer provide pleasure and gratification, the activity may quickly end and the relationships and spaces that contextualize and support them may change in the way that Ellen’s DDR group cooled off: “and my friendships though have become different. I mean, we’re all still friends.Games are structured forms of play, Dubbels (2008) that provide rules and roles that are defined to help members to decontextualize from the ordinary world where they have responsibility, deadlines, and environments they cannot control. These same rules and roles also help them know their status in the game, share common, spontaneous, and authentic experience without going too deep into personal motives, negative feelings, and Freudian meltdowns. Corsaro (1985) called this play group phenomenon the Actors Dilemma, and according to Corsaro, the Freudian meltdown, or oversharing, is one of the most common causes of playgroup breakup—perhaps play is the coping mechanism that allows for detachment and the ability to constructively work on what can be changed and separating from that which cannot be. Game roles may also allows for exploration of other peoples’ values and experience in a safe space without getting too deep or real, which represents an opportunity to try on and project different emotions, and build comfort and trust through common experience.In terms of Ritual/ Rites of Passage, a game would be a means for rite of passage, where the Activity Space is no longer like the ordinary world, and rules and roles are different and even changed for the sake of experimentation and normal social and interpersonal boundaries can be tested without endangering status and relationships. With Play as the Subjunctive Mood, different parts of person can emerge and people can try on different personae without recrimination — because they are only playing
  • ” it became evident that her motivation to sustain engagement over time changed. She was attracted to the activity because she wanted to be friends with the kids who hung out at Devon’s basement — she wanted to be an acknowledged member of the group, not part of the fan club. To do this she had to perform and risk ridicule and a possible reduction in status. Geertz (1976) described this spatially in that the further away you were from the Center Bet, where the desirable activity takes place, the lower your status and importance to the main event and performers.In order to be part of this group, she needed to perform, but she might was hesitant to try because of the games they were playing did not mesh with her sense of play and fun—perhaps because the play of these group members with these games (Halo, Counterstrike) was already too far advanced for them to tolerate a “newb” (new player) at the controller; and it might be better not impose oneself and risk ridicule or contempt if one is not contributing to the play, learning, and or status of the group.
  • It was important to connect what I was learning in discourse processing in psycholinguistics to what I was doing in the classroom, as well as for the state standardized tests. I was given permission by my principal to attend the Minnesota DoE workgroup on the new Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment. My work on the test made me wonder about the way we were preparing for tests and the DoE’s expectation that if teachers teach to the standards, this would translate into better test scores. I was very troubled by this disconnection in expectation about practice, as well as the principles for the test design; such as lexile scores and Bloom’s taxonomy. The apparent lack of validity was troubling.Rather than asking any more questions, I decided that I would integrate what I was learning about reading comprehension in my graduate courses and see how they worked to drive instruction.
  • I offered my first video game assignment in December of 2003 as part of an Literature course. One the elements I decided to emphasize was high expectations, interesting curriculum, and analysis of a variety of narrative texts. I asked students to bring in their games systems and we would study games as part of our literature course. I found that when I provided a topic that the students had experience with, they had greater facility and interest in talking about the games in complex ways, and eventually writing about them.
  • Rather than doing what was always done, I created a curriculum that emphasized linguistic comprehension.In 2005-06, I was recognized for doing interesting things with games in the classroom. This TV report was one of the many media outlets that did stories on my middle school students and their study of video games as narratives. What I did in this unit on games was to emphasize linguistic comprehension and then leverage it with print literacy.
  • Games and play can be a very powerful form of learningThe work of the game designer is to find the happy medium.The key to this is the creation of game mechanics that scaffold the learner into success through repetition and encouraging feedback based upon criteria. Pivot – play is the imagination and representation before it has been internalized.
  • Games and play have their own types and degree of risk, but often the assessments do not come with the risks of failure, and are not as focused on crystallized content.Games are are not often constructed to provide evidence of transfer. These issues should be a priority in serious game developmentthere should be evidence that learning acquired in a game is applicable outside of the game.
  • The technology is in the way that we design instruction. The use of games is not enough. They need to have thoughtful integration into learning abstractions and concept development.Montessori instruction acknowledges this with early childhood education. But many children from poverty do not get this experience. They are immediately put into a process that begins with memorization of the alphabet with the addition of phonics instruction, rhyming, sight words, blending, etc. These are important, but what if the child does not have the experience in the world?
  • Games and play have their own types and degree of risk, but often the assessments do not come with the risks of failure, and are not as focused on crystallized content.Games are are not often constructed to provide evidence of transfer. These issues should be a priority in serious game developmentthere should be evidence that learning acquired in a game is applicable outside of the game.
  • Squire 20005 conducted case studies of three companies that develop game-based learning products.
  • Face -- you might observe a teenage pregnancy prevention program and conclude that, "Yep, this is indeed a teenage pregnancy prevention program." Of course, if this is all you do to assess face validity, it would clearly be weak evidence because it is essentially a subjective judgment call.Content – the domain is drawn from observations—is this good enough for scientific results? ROI?
  • How is this different from content validity? In content validity, the criteria are the construct definition itself -- it is a direct comparison. In criterion-related validity, we usually make a prediction about how the operationalization will perform based on our theory of the construct. The differences among the different criterion-related validity types is in the criteria they use as the standard for judgment.
  • In our own work we developed for a number of criterion tools. This talk will examine Activities of Daily Living Explicitly
  • Transcript

    • 1. G-ScalEBrock R. Dubbels PhD.G-ScalE Game Development and Testing LabMcMaster UniversityDubbels@McMaster.ca
    • 2. What I’m Playing...
    • 3. Motivating: Obesity & Bone Density• Importance of mechanical loading in promoting bone health. Activities such as jumping and gymnastics exert the kind of high impact force that develops bone.• Regular & Sustained High Impact Force
    • 4. Play may represent animportant portal to engagementand recruiting the work ethos forlearning acceleration—choicemay be more prevalent in Play.
    • 5. Data Analysis• The critical discourse methods• ―the scaffolding of human affiliation within cultures and social groups and institutions,‖ – Gee (1999, pg 1)• ―how do existing societies provide people with the possibilities and resources for rich and fulfilling lives,‖ – Fairclough (2003, pg 202).
    • 6. Methodology:The modified phenomenological interview Place Space Time Body Relationships Sensation van Manen (1996, p. 101)
    • 7. Sustained Engagement• When looking to measure growth or change, or even to understand whether a learner has truly engaged, an educator should also look for evidence of commitment and positive attitudes related to the activity and subject matter.• Engagement is not just doing the work, it is a connection and an affinity to an activity supported from the affective domains (Chapman, 2003).• Skinner & Belmont (1993, p.572) report that engaged learners show sustained behavioral involvement in learning activities accompanied by a positive emotional tone and select tasks at the border of their competencies, initiate action when given the opportunity, and exert intense effort and concentration.• Pintrich and & De Groot (1990, in Chapman) see engagement as having observable cognitive components that can be seen or elicited through exploring the learner’s use of strategy, metacognition, and self-regulatory behavior to monitor and guide the learning processes.
    • 8. Theory
    • 9. ―I could be one of those good people at it and get respectfrom people‖
    • 10. ―Really, I wanted to hang out with them . . . games arefun.‖
    • 11. So how did you do that first time?I PROBABLY FAILED.
    • 12. You play by yourself to get better to play with other people. Imean, it’s always fun to play by yourself and unlock newsongs and things like that.
    • 13. Yeah, it was a school band trip.So a lot of us went and it turned out that a whole bunch ofpeople knew what DDR was. It was interesting to seethem play.Tyler and I, we kind of felt cool because our group that wehad played with had progressed better than these otherpeople that we were seeing play. They were like oh manthis kid is so good and we play with him all the time.Tyler and I played against these people— Yeah, we beatthem pretty bad.
    • 14. What happened?I am a gamer
    • 15. No. I don’t play it as much as I do anymore and my friendshipsthrough that have become different. I mean, we’re all still friends. DDRwas just like this common thing that we had to like start us talking andthen after that we talked about normal things. I became pretty goodfriends with a lot of people. I dated one of the guys that I met forawhile. I don’t know, it wasn’t like any different than like you meetpeople playing for a sports team. You have something in common andthat’s what you’re coming together to do, and then you talk aboutother stuff because we’re not just focused on DDR.Well, at my work it’s kind of similar too. We’re all stuck workingtogether and so then we get talking. Soccer and sports a lot. Any kindof group that you all come together and you have something to talkabout and then we just eventually expand on that and that’s how webecame friends.
    • 16. Why did she sustain engagement?
    • 17. hypothesis• Did identity inform motivation and engagement?• Desire to be part of the group, as well as the fun of the work that was attributed to play helped to create the group identities, which reinforced practice.
    • 18. Curriculum Design
    • 19. Give me a lever longenough and a fulcrum onwhich to place it, and Ishall move the world.
    • 20. Redescription the AAA Way• Average• 1 + 1 + 1 = 3/3= 1• Mean• Symbolic shorthand
    • 21. The Students N= 101 students Reading = 9th % Math = 11th %By October, 2 out of school suspensions
    • 22. Is how we learn > what we learn? • Work is creative activity carried out independently. The Affluent students are continually asked to express and apply ideas Professional and concepts. Work involves individual thought and Model expressiveness, expansion, and illustration of ideas, and choice of method and material. • In the middle-class school, work is getting the right answer. If one accumulates enough right answers, one gets a good grade. One must follow the directions in order to get the right answers, but the directions often call for some figuring, some choice, some decision making. For example, the children must often figure out Middle Class by themselves what the directions ask them to do and Model how to get the answer: what do you do first, second, and perhaps third? Answers are usually found in books or by listening to the teacher. Answers are usually words, sentences, numbers, or facts and dates; one writes them on paper, and one should be neat. Answers must beJean Anyon given in the right order, and one cannot make them up. cannot make them up.(1980)
    • 23. 5 3 1Adaptive Provides documented evidence of Some evidence of analysis, integration, Performs task, but no explicitBehavior analysis, integration, and evaluation of and evaluation of source info from documentation of analysis, source info from assigned texts and assigned texts and graphic information. integration, and evaluation of source graphic information. info from assigned texts and graphic information.Judicious Provides documented evidence of critical Some evidence of critical thinking and Performs task, but no explicitDecision thinking and creative problem solving creative problem solving through documentation of critical thinking and through innovation and analogical innovation and analogical distance. creative problem solving throughMaking distance. innovation and analogical distance.Efficient Provides documented evidence of Some evidence of building a cooperative Performs task, but no explicitBehavior building a cooperative vision yet works vision yet works with autonomy for task documentation of building a with autonomy for task completion, completion, efficiently assessing needs cooperative vision yet works withRegulation efficiently assessing needs such as time such as time materials, roles, and skills. autonomy for task completion, materials, roles, and skills. efficiently assessing needs such as time materials, roles, and skills.Sensible Goal Provides documented evidence of Some evidence of synthesizing course Performs task, but no explicitPrioritization synthesizing course texts, goals, and texts, goals, and assignment into a well- documentation of synthesizing course assignment into a well-communicated communicated workflow. texts, goals, and assignment into a workflow. well-communicated workflow.Reflectivity Provides documented evidence of Some evidence of transfer of skills, Performs task, but no explicit transfer of skills, information, and information, and processes to new documentation of transfer of skills, processes to new formats, technologies formats, technologies and audiences. information, and processes to new and audiences. formats, technologies and audiences.Calibration Provides documented evidence of testing Some evidence of testing views and ideas Performs task, but no explicitof Evidence views and ideas through hypothesis through hypothesis testing and cognitive documentation of testing views and testing and cognitive theories of activity theories of activity of what is happening ideas through hypothesis testing and of what is happening and why. and why. cognitive theories of activity of what is happening and why.
    • 24. Behavioral Management Issues – referrals issued
    • 25. Assignment completion
    • 26. Play vs. Work
    • 27. Work Play POSTURE VOLUME EMPHASIS COMPLEX POSTURE VOLUME EMPHASIS COMPLEX SYM/ ANIM / RELAXED TONE VARIED / LESS / VERBOSE / SYM/ ANIM / RELAXED / TONE VARIED / LESS / VERBOSE / ASSYM NONANIM / STIFF VARIED/MONO CONSISTENT MORE TERSE ASSYM NONANIM STIFF VARIED/MONO CONSISTENT MORE TERSE1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 910 1011 1112 12 Dubbels (Accepted) Learning engagement, student 2.0, and the role of play in convergence culture in the digital age. JISE
    • 28. Awareness of concepts
    • 29. Concepts and Assessment• Motion • Energy/transfer• Force • Technical Design• Resistance • Social Context• Speed • Planning/Purpose• Stability • Eng Notebook• Leverage • Iterative process• Bernoulli • Surface Area• Geometric concepts • Isometrics• Sketch • Mean• Hull Purpose/conditions • Distribution
    • 30. Conceptual Learning
    • 31. Play and Function• "Biologically, its function is to reinforce the organism’s variability in the face of rigidifications of successful adaptation” – (Sutton-Smith, 1997, 231).• Play allows for a reframing of reality, and reconsideration of context and the realm of the possibilities. – (Dubbels, 2010)
    • 32. Play and Cultural Role• Play strengthens societies by uniting individuals through ritual activity and helping them achieve common goals. – Huizinga (1950) • Toys, jokes, and games are often as symbols of play to face collective fears about cultural issues that quickly overwhelm the individual: bigotry, racism, rejection, terrorism, addiction, and poverty. • Toys, jokes, and games are things we can study as distributed cognition by examining them as tools, rules, roles, and context.
    • 33. How do we assess comprehension?Literary Elements Comprehension• Character/ Characterization• diction• Plot• Setting• Point of View• Theme• Tone• Voice• Word choice
    • 34. Genre: Mortal Combat• Characters from left to right are:• Kai, Raiden, Shinnok, Liu Kang, Reptile• Scorpion, Jax, Reiko, Johnny Cage, Jarek• Tanya, Fujin, Sub-Zero, Quan Chi, Sonya• Major Realizations: – 2 females – Cannot hit for as many damage points – Do not have as formidable weapons – Can move faster – Not dressed for battle – Led to: • constructed controversy on women and female depiction in the media • “What if”
    • 35. Once upon a time . . . happily ever after.
    • 36. Games Club for ReadersRead Aloud Play Aloud Dubbels, B.R. (2008) Video games, reading, and transmedial comprehension. In R. E. Ferdig (Ed.), Reference. Information Science Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education. Dubbels, B.R. & Rummell, A. (2008) Observations on the exploration of comprehension as transmedial. National Reading Conference.
    • 37. Towards top sight
    • 38. Invoking play
    • 39. Video games as Learning Tools
    • 40. Characteristics of readers L Low comp High High comp E fluency High fluency V E L of F L U E N C High comp Low comp Y Low fluency Low fluency ability to comprehend in dialogic method /create a model
    • 41. Comparison of studentperformance GrowthThe categories for 05-06 performancewas based upon the Minnesota BasicSkills TestThe 06-07 scores were based upon theMCA2All students were taught by oneteacher each year.I taught the 06-07 year using a muchharder test with an emphasis ongames and play.Specifically: Games unit, multimediaunits, sketch up, Etc.
    • 42. Comparison of studentperformance 8 to 8The categories for 05-06 performancewas based upon the Minnesota BasicSkills TestThe 06-07 scores were based upon theMCA2All students were taught by oneteacher each year.I taught the 06-07 year using a muchharder test with an emphasis ongames and play.Specifically: Games unit, multimediaunits, sketch up, Etc.
    • 43. Distributed Cognition
    • 44. Play is the problem with games
    • 45. Ethos of Activity Play WorkRisk Emphasis on learning outcomes from assessment, evaluation as consequence
    • 46. Learning is hardRetrievalTesting and quizzing involves adiscrimination process (Tulving, 1974; Tulving & Thomson, 1973)Auto Associative Memory• Associating patterns which are – similar, – contrary, – in close proximity (spatial), – in close succession (temporal)• Associative recall – evoke associated patterns – recall a pattern by part of it – evoke/recall with incomplete/ noisy patterns
    • 47. Assessment Criteria & Mechanics• Games assess, measure, and evaluate by their very nature.• Outcomes from scoring criteria can provide evidence for assessment and diagnosis.• Evidence is only as good as the scoring criteria.• Evidence should constitute measures that support transfer of learning.
    • 48. Games & Informative Assessment• Research findings from over 4,000 studies indicate that informative assessment has the most significant impact on achievement. • (Wiliam, 2007).
    • 49. The brain is for action A successful theory of cognition and its application will require recognition of that fact. M. Montessori (1967),Research on instruction thatemphasizes congruentsensorimotor experience andvisualization has been found toimprove the ability tocomprehend, read fluently, andsolve problems.(Glenberg, Brown & Levin, 2007;Glenberg, Gutierrez, Levin, &Japuntich, 2004).
    • 50. Functional EquivalenceModality-specific states are partially Simulations – Reenactmentscaptured in online experience underlie imagery
    • 51. Walkthrough Word Problem Multiple ChoiceTexts and Multimodal NarrativesINSTRUCTION AND PURPOSE
    • 52. Research Questions1. Will a video game that emphasizes sensorimotor experience provide greater recall and problem solving as compared to viewing a video, or reading a printed text?2. Will performance in the reading condition improve if it follows the game or the viewing condition?3. How does the identification of causation predict building a mental representation and problem solving?
    • 53. Setting• Urban middle school in the Minneapolis Metropolitan Area• 77 percent qualified for free and reduced lunch (101) and the remainder (31) either did not qualify or did not report their socio-economic status.• This school has 33 eligible groups and has met 69.7% of the requirements for Adequate Yearly Progress under No Child Left Behind• 2% American Indian, 9% Asian, 21% Black, 34% Hispanic, and 35% White. – 30% of students are limited English proficient; – 14% are listed as special education; – and 61% qualify for free and reduced lunch. – It is an open enrollment public with 8% transferring to this school, and 13% leaving.
    • 54. Research Design• This was an experimental study with students randomized into six different media orders, consisting of:
    • 55. ! !! "# $%! () $!*+, -$. / , 0123! &Narrative Text Condition !4 % , 5 $!(6!7, 89 / 10(; 8$<& 1!= 86-!0/ 1$!5 % -$. / , 01!-?0/ 8; ?!-?(6!@ 0+!( !9 ! !: !, !> !6+, , $66!-?, !, ! 5 ( 8-$A 9 $-!5 $!-$9!% 8!?/ B != 9 / !1(1!(-C !• Constructed by PI D?$0$!, 0$!-?0$$!5 , ( !B , % / 8!) , !; / !E0/ 5 !"F 3!-/ !"G3C 6!% !!G8-!(E!% 8!B , -!-/ !-, +$!-?$!. $6-! /• Reviewed by two middle school 0/ 8-$& / 8! $$1!-/ !9 !% (6-$ !-/ !5 $C !E/ 8 1!, !0/ 8-$!-?, -!(6!5 8) ?!E, 6-$0!-?, !-, +( ; !-?$!6(1$B , 9 ! != +!-/teachers for suggestions on clarity, -?$!0(; ?-!, 1!9 !/ 0!; / ( ; !-?0/ 8; ?!-?$!5 (119 !# $0$& / / +!, -!-?(6!5 , @ !5 , 1$C $E-& $C !9 != !interest, and comprehensibility !• Written with a goal structure to getthe fastest time through theskateboard park, with sub goalsrelated to the main goal, and waswritten to be of interest to middle !school students. H/ 8!, 0$!6-, 1( ; !, -!-?$!"F 3!. %!-?$!, 00/ B !( !-?$!5 (119 !!I / !% 8!6$$!-?$!68 !6?, @ $C / $1!• Written specifically to suggest taking 5 , 0+6!/ !5 % , @ !D?$% B !% 8!B $0$!% 8!) , !, ) ) $9 -$& % / ( ; !1/ B ?(9C ?$ !% 8!; / ! !5 J !6?/ / / $0, !. !; 9!K /the secret route, route 1 1/ B ?(9!% 8!; / !E, 6-$0& !?(-!-?$!68 6C 9 / !6/ !D?$!6-, 06!-$9!% 8!B ?$0$!% 8!69 B !1/ B !. $) , 86$!-?$! 9 / / /• Flesch-Kincaid grade level of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
    • 56. The Walkthrough• The game offers 4 possible routes.• Outcomes of the of the initial reflect aloud and mapping of the walkthrough.• Of the eight experts, only one chose an alternate path as the optimal path. • Yellow indicates path of 7 participants • All of the 7 tended to ollie over the red stars • Red indicates the path of 1 participant • This participant never seemed to find the alternate path to the far left. He also had a slower time than the other 7.
    • 57. Cognitive Target Inventory https:/ / sewardsurvey.m pls.k12.m n.us/ TakeSurvey.aspx ?PageNum ber= 1&SurveyID= 122&Preview= true 2/ 21/ 11 8:26 PM NAEP Cognitive Targets Note: You are currently in preview mode and your responses are being saved. You should be sure to delete your entries before collecting real responses and analyzing your data. Page 1 of 1 1. The first handrail* leads up is at the beginning of the map. is next the picnic table. blocks the way. 2. Moving into the green spaces on the map * makes you go faster makes you wipe out makes you ollie -- jump in the air makes you go slower 3. If you go over the ramp at the beginning of the map in the center, you have to hit it just right or * you will fall into the bottomless pit. you will run into pedestrians in the crosswalk. you will run into the garbage cans. you will ride on the chain-link and grass which slows you down. 4. You will find pedestrians in the business park if you * go the left. go to the center go the right. go the second level on the left. 5. The fastest way to go through the business park is to * turn as little as possible and jump over obstacles. go to the left and jump over obstacles. go to the right and avoid obstacles. go through the center and jump over obstacles. 6. The purpose of this activity is to: * See what you know about skateboarding Learn new vocabulary, science talk, and math Estimate the fastest path through the park using vectors and feet per second. Try different kinds of media. Page 1 of 3
    • 58. Analysis Setting 1• Descriptive data – Student Characteristics – State Standardized Reading Assessment – Working Memory • Visual/ Auditory – Prior Knowledge – Media Preference
    • 59. SampleGrade Level Ethnicity Hispanic 6th grade African 7th American grade Caucasion 8th grade East Aftrican 58 females / 74 males
    • 60. Prior Knowledge & WM Inventoryhttps:/ / sewardsurvey.m pls.k12.m n.us/ Print.aspx ?SurveyID= 121&Title= Y&Breaks= N&AllPages= Y&Pages= 8/ 4/ 10 1:15 AM Physics Targets Survey 1 • The PsychExperiments Numerical Memory 1. What is velocity? * Page 1 Experiment employs a similar format to Digit A rate of increase of velocity Speed: distance travelled per unit time Span tasks found in such instruments as the Velocity is a novel by Dean Koontz first published in 2005. Set in Napa County, California, it is about a man in his thirties who takes the law into his own hands when, out of the blue, he is threatened by an anonymous adversary. WAIS-III, while comparing the individual’s short- An increase in rate of change; "modern science caused an acceleration of cultural change term memory for digits presented in an auditory 2. What is acceleration? * A straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space is vs. visual format. direction. The rate of change of position A variable quantity that can be resolved into components. • The rational of for this type of task is that is a To cause to move faster; to quicken the motion of; to add to the speed of. good measure of short-term auditory memory 3. What is a vector? * Someone who is victorious in a race or competition. and attention. Because auditory information A line between two points whose length is magnitude and coordinates orient the lines direction. must be recalled and repeated orally in the The rate of change of position Speed: distance travelled per unit time proper sequence, the digit span task is often 4. What is a time interval? * A whole number described as a sequencing task (Sattler, 1992). A straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space is direction. The amount of time it takes to go from to eternity. a definite length of time marked off by two instants—a start and beginning 5. What are coordinates? * A set of numbers on a map used to find the distance from a specific place, also known as the origin. In a Cartesian coordinate system, theres an "x,y" A rate of increase of velocity A straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space is direction. a whole number Page 1 of 3
    • 61. Digit Span
    • 62. Pre-Experimental DataWorking memory – normalCut Score – does not meet expectations /Partially meets expectationsPrior Science – 15%Prior Skate – 16%
    • 63. Media Preference Games Video/TV Books/ ReadingN = 132
    • 64. Analysis Setting 21. Will a video game that emphasizes sensorimotor experience provide greater recall and problem solving as compared to viewing a video, or reading a printed text? • Across Media – Walkthrough – Multiple Choice NAEP – Word Problem
    • 65. Walkthrough Across Media–Dimensions 10.90.80.70.60.5 Game0.4 Video0.30.2 Text0.1 0*A large, or clinical effect is .8 (Cohen, 1997).
    • 66. Across Media—Word Problem3.5 32.5 2 Game1.5 Video 1 Text 0.5 0 (GLM (F (2, 129)=102.93) p= .000) Word Problem*A large, or clinical effect is .8.
    • 67. Across Media—NAEP CogTargets 4 https:/ / sewardsurvey.m pls.k12.m n.us/ TakeSurvey.aspx ?PageNum ber= 1&SurveyID= 122&Preview= true 2/ 21/ 11 8:26 PM NAEP Cognitive Targets3.5 Note: You are currently in preview mode and your responses are being saved. You should be sure to delete your entries before collecting real responses and analyzing your data. Page 1 of 1 1. The first handrail* leads up 3 is at the beginning of the map. is next the picnic table. blocks the way. 2. Moving into the green spaces on the map * makes you go faster makes you wipe out2.5 3. makes you ollie -- jump in the air makes you go slower If you go over the ramp at the beginning of the map in the center, you have to hit it just right or * you will fall into the bottomless pit. you will run into pedestrians in the crosswalk. 2 you will run into the garbage cans. you will ride on the chain-link and grass which slows you down. 4. You will find pedestrians in the business park if you * Game go the left. go to the center go the right. 1.5 5. go the second level on the left. The fastest way to go through the business park is to * Video turn as little as possible and jump over obstacles. go to the left and jump over obstacles. go to the right and avoid obstacles. 1 go through the center and jump over obstacles. 6. The purpose of this activity is to: * See what you know about skateboarding Text Learn new vocabulary, science talk, and math Estimate the fastest path through the park using vectors and feet per second. 0.5 Try different kinds of media. Page 1 of 3 0 Recall & Integrate Locate & Interpret*A large, or clinical effect is .8.
    • 68. Analysis Setting 3• Walkthrough• Word Problem• NAEP
    • 69. Reading Order—Dimensions0.90.8 • (GLM (F (10, 248) =104.4) p= .000) PE= .81, OP= 1.0.0.70.60.50.4 First0.3 Second0.2 Third0.1 0*A large, or clinical effect is .8.
    • 70. Media Specific Influence Across Order Reading Dimensions
    • 71. Across Reading—Word Problem • (GLM (F (2, 129)=79.9) p= .000).3.5 32.5 2 First Second1.5 Third 10.5 0 Word Problem*A large, or clinical effect is .8.
    • 72. 3.2 Word ProblemReading Condition - Across Order
    • 73. Reading Order—NAEP CogTargets • Integrate & Interpret 5 – (GLM (F (2, 129) = 13.85) p= .000)4.5 43.5 32.5 First 2 Second • Integrate & Interpret1.5 – (GLM (F (2, 129) = 13.85) p= .000) 1 Third0.5 0 Locate & Integrate Recall & Interpret *A large, or clinical effect is .8.
    • 74. Affect of Specific Media on Multiple Choice Across Reading4.5 43.5 32.5 2 Game to Text1.5 Video to text 10.5 0 Locate & Integrate Recall & Interpret
    • 75. Role of Causation• How does the identification causation predict building a mental representation and problem solving? – (GLM (F (4, 127)= 299.25) p= .000) PE= .91, and OP= 1.0 – Game and Text (Mdiff= .47, p= .000); – No significance from Video to Text (Mdiff= .06, p= .34); – Game to Video (Mdiff= .41, p= .000).
    • 76. Landmarks, Concepts, Causation, and Memory• Context and landmarks –discourse markers -- are important in memory.• When a player remembered, they gesticulated the action.• These were associated with actions / causation prior to memorable landmarks• The more associations a particular memory can trigger, the more easily it tends to be recalled.• Seemingly irrelevant factors like remembering where, when, why, how, and with whom you learned a thing help solidify information and flexible memory.• Consider the Method of Loci.
    • 77. Take Home• How a games is embedded in the curriculum is important in providing practice and knowledge building?• The game should connected to criteria for transfer and to inform traditional academic language and concepts?
    • 78. Why not Games Themselves?• Games have been used for describing complex dynamic systems with multiple variables for many years for a variety of systems including economics, business, social systems, political science, biology, etc. – (Borels, 1938; von Neuman & Morgenstern, 1945)
    • 79. Assessment Criteria & Mechanics• Games assess, measure, and evaluate by their very nature.• Outcomes from scoring criteria can provide evidence for assessment and diagnosis.• Evidence is only as good as the scoring criteria.• Evidence should constitute measures that support transfer of learning.
    • 80. Gigaheart
    • 81. HumanFIRST Lab ng
    • 82. Virtual Clinic
    • 83. Learning Games• “It is worth noting that none of the featured companies started in instructional design…they come from business strategy, marketing, and the games industry”.• “Most game-based learning approaches do not employ that particular category of expert whatsoever” – (Squire, 2005, p. 35).
    • 84. Values, Functions, and Qualities• Values – Why a project is needed – Should have a success measure – e.g. Decrease claims processing time• Functions – What is needed – Typically yes/no – e.g. must accept Medicare claims• Qualities – How Well – Should have a success measure – e.g. don’t add to manual adjudication queue
    • 85. VFQ for this Project• Values – Better understanding of how to apply RSA level 2 – Learners able to ―think‖ RSA• Functions – Graphical• Qualities – Engaging enough that people will choose to play it for 10-15 minutes
    • 86. UI Diagram 1. Are you sure .NET isn’t better? I need a new Java 2. Who will the users be? based portal for Emergency rooms. 3. What information will it provide? Direct the conversation Press when ready to move to design Client Analyst StartValues Functions Qualities Design
    • 87. UI Diagram Press when ready to see what happens Solution/Design 1. Create a new portalClient Analyst Implement 2. Implement using Java 3. Redesign business process Requirements Project 4. … Drag best solutions to SSD below Possible Solutions Solution SummaryValues Functions Qualities Document
    • 88. UI DiagramThis isn’t what I When will it be wanted. over? Replace with a simplified visual of UDP Show key events during implementation, that result from choices the user made Client Analyst Solution Summary Values Functions Qualities Document
    • 89. Serious Game Development• Games need to adopt methods from the field of psychometrics in development for assuring validity and transfer. – Inter rater (coder, judge) reliability should be a critical component of content analysis for serious games.• However, it does not insure validity – but without it, the data and interpretations of the data can not be considered valid.
    • 90. Functional Requirements• Playable in < 5 minutes• Engaging enough that target audience chooses to play multiple times• Easy scripting for additional scenarios• Results in demonstrable improvement in requirements elicitation
    • 91. Ratings• Cohen’s Kappa• Fleiss Kappa• Agreement at .8 – Kappa of <0.2 is considered poor agreement, 0.21-0.4 fair, 0.41-0.6 moderate, 0.61- 0.8 strong, and more than 0.8 near complete agreement.
    • 92. Surface (face) & Content Validity• Games are often built on these. – It looks like it measures what it is supposed to measure. – Have checked how the game represents the content against the relevant content domain. – Approach assumes that you have a good detailed description of the content domain, something thats not always true.
    • 93. Criterion Validity• Criteria-related validity, you check the performance of your operationalization against some criterion. – Predictive validity: assess the ability to predict something it should theoretically be able to predict. Improve ADLs. – Concurrent Validity: measure should be able to distinguish between people who can live independently or in assisted living. – Convergent Validity: correlate the scores on our test with scores on other tests that purport to measure ADLs, where high correlations would be evidence of convergent validity. – Discriminant Validity: gather evidence that shows that the assessment is not similar.
    • 94. Methodology in Assessment• ”Without the establishment of reliability, content analysis measures are useless” – Neuendorf (2002) , p. 141).• "interjudge reliability is often perceived as the standard measure of research quality. High levels of disagreement among judges suggest weaknesses in research methods, including the possibility of poor operational definitions, categories, and judge training" – (Kolbe & Burnett, 1991, p. 248).
    • 95. ADL• Activities of Daily Living • The term “activities of daily living” refers to a set of common, – The facility had already identified 8 everyday tasks, performance of items for identification in their which is required for personal kiosk software. self-care and independent living. – The key game play element here The most often used measure of was modeling the facility kiosks in functional ability is the Katz the game and scoring the resident Activities of Daily Living Scale interaction scenarios with how the (Katz et al., 1963; Katz, 1983). CNAs document their observations. • Wiener, Hanley, Clark, Van Nostrand – In the work environment, the (1990, pg.1 ) kiosks are already used to collect data, and this provides an opportunity to create external, environmental, and population validity and provide ROI analysis for care plans.
    • 96. Complex Relationship Building• Establish therapeutic relationship with patient to promote behavioral change.1. Identify own attitude toward patient and situation.2. Determine ethical boundaries of the relationship.3. Deal with personal feeling evoked by the patient that my interfere with effectiveness4. Provide for physical comfort before interaction5. Discuss confidentiality of information shared6. Create climate of warmth and acceptance7. Reassure patient of your interest in them as a person8. Return at established time to demonstrate trust9. Maintain open body posture10. Monitor, seek clarification & respond to non- verbal messages. – 10 of 31, NIC revised 5th edition 2008
    • 97. Facial Action Coding• The Facial Action 1. 2. Anger Disgust Coding Systems (FACS) 3. 4. Fear Happiness – (Ekman and Frisen 5. sadness 6. surprise 1978). 7. Amusement – 2 or more raters 8. Contempt 9. Contentment 10. Embarrassment 11. Excitement 12. Guilt 13. Pride in achievement 14. Relief 15. satisfaction 16. sensory Pleasure 17. shame
    • 98. Kiosk
    • 99. Tension in workflow• Software Design • Research Design – Typically based upon an – Typically based upon economic consideration. answering a testable • How will this solve a question. problem? • How will this solve a problem? • What are the first steps in • How do I know this? production? – The focus is on method and – The focus is on stages of hypothesis testing: production: • Construct validity, reliability, • Business Partner reliability, and probability. Relations, Function, Behavior, Structure, & Non-Function (qualities).
    • 100. Training Development Process <<Design Review>> Overall Design Maintenance Beta Deploy CPI Prototype Build  Stakeholders Signed Off  Edit OK  Standards Followed Inputs Review [Changes] {At least one must be classroom delivery} Charter Required Outputs AssessTemplates Risk Project Plan DashboardStyle Guide Build Design
    • 101. MATRICS
    • 102. Take home• Can you pose a testable question– hypothesis? – Tension between design process and measurement • How will you assure game mechanics are measuring what you think you are measuring? Theoretically? Conceptually? – Assessments, measures, & evaluations• Usability testing should align with construct – Testing should be happen in development.• Again, emphasis on validity – Without it, there is no capability for ROI analysis
    • 103. • The G-ScalE Laboratory G-ScalE – Game Development and Testing – Scaling across screen size, resolution, and geometry • Critical Print Size, Visual Acuity, Prior Knowledge, and HCI/UX