Serious games for structured interventions for health, academic, productivity & training applications colloquium

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  • Games and play can be a very powerful form of learningThe work of the game designer is to find the happy medium.The key to this is the creation of game mechanics that scaffold the learner into success through repetition and encouraging feedback based upon criteria. Pivot – play is the imagination and representation before it has been internalized.
  • Games and play have their own types and degree of risk, but often the assessments do not come with the risks of failure, and are not as focused on crystallized content.Games are are not often constructed to provide evidence of transfer. These issues should be a priority in serious game developmentthere should be evidence that learning acquired in a game is applicable outside of the game.
  • The technology is in the way that we design instruction. The use of games is not enough. They need to have thoughtful integration into learning abstractions and concept development.Montessori instruction acknowledges this with early childhood education. But many children from poverty do not get this experience. They are immediately put into a process that begins with memorization of the alphabet with the addition of phonics instruction, rhyming, sight words, blending, etc. These are important, but what if the child does not have the experience in the world?
  • Games and play have their own types and degree of risk, but often the assessments do not come with the risks of failure, and are not as focused on crystallized content.Games are are not often constructed to provide evidence of transfer. These issues should be a priority in serious game developmentthere should be evidence that learning acquired in a game is applicable outside of the game.

Transcript

  • 1. G-ScalEBrock R. Dubbels PhD.G-ScalE Game Development and Testing LabMcMaster UniversityDubbels@McMaster.ca
  • 2. Is play is the problem with games?
  • 3. Play and Function• "Biologically, its function is to reinforce the organism’s variability in the face of rigidifications of successful adaptation” – (Sutton-Smith, 1997, 231).• Play allows for a reframing of reality, and reconsideration of context and the realm of the possibilities. – (Dubbels, 2010)
  • 4. Play and Cultural Role• Play strengthens societies by uniting individuals through ritual activity and helping them achieve common goals. – Huizinga (1950) • Toys, jokes, and games are often as symbols of play to face collective fears about cultural issues that quickly overwhelm the individual: bigotry, racism, rejection, terrorism, addiction, and poverty. • Toys, jokes, and games are things we can study as distributed cognition by examining them as tools, rules, roles, and context.
  • 5. Toys structure play• play as imagination in action,• imagination as play without action. – Vygotsky (1977)
  • 6. By design
  • 7. Distributed Cognition
  • 8. Simulation
  • 9. Virtual Worlds
  • 10. Edutainment?From Squire – Games to Teach
  • 11. Serious GamesReplicate You: The Virus Your Goal: Replication The Enemy: The Body
  • 12. Environmental DetectivesComputer simulation on handheld computer triggered by real world location • Combines physical world and virtual world contexts • Embeds learners in authentic situations • Engages users in a socially facilitated context From Klopfer
  • 13. Training
  • 14. Productivity
  • 15. Ethos of Activity Play WorkRisk Emphasis on learning outcomes from assessment, evaluation as consequence
  • 16. Work & play
  • 17. Assessment Criteria & Mechanics• Games assess, measure, and evaluate by their very nature.• Outcomes from scoring criteria can provide evidence for assessment and diagnosis.• Evidence is only as good as the scoring criteria.• Evidence should constitute measures that support transfer of learning.
  • 18. Games & Informative Assessment• Research findings from over 4,000 studies indicate that informative assessment has the most significant impact on achievement. • (Wiliam, 2007).
  • 19. The brain is for actionResearch on instruction thatemphasizes congruentsensorimotor experience andvisualization has been found toimprove the ability tocomprehend, read fluently, andsolve problems.(Glenberg, Brown & Levin, 2007;Glenberg, Gutierrez, Levin, & Japuntich,2004).
  • 20. Functional EquivalenceModality-specific states are partially Simulations – Reenactmentscaptured in online experience underlie imagery
  • 21. Walkthrough Word Problem Multiple ChoiceTexts and Multimodal NarrativesINSTRUCTION AND PURPOSE
  • 22. Research Design• This was an experimental study with students randomized into six different media orders, consisting of:
  • 23. Walkthrough Across Media–Dimensions 10.90.80.70.60.5 Game0.4 Video0.30.2 Text0.1 0*A large, or clinical effect is .8 (Cohen, 1997).
  • 24. Across Media—Word Problem3.5 32.5 2 Game1.5 Video 1 Text 0.5 0 (GLM (F (2, 129)=102.93) p= .000) Word Problem*A large, or clinical effect is .8.
  • 25. Across Media—NAEP CogTargets 4 https:/ / sewardsurvey.m pls.k12.m n.us/ TakeSurvey.aspx ?PageNum ber= 1&SurveyID= 122&Preview= true 2/ 21/ 11 8:26 PM NAEP Cognitive Targets3.5 Note: You are currently in preview mode and your responses are being saved. You should be sure to delete your entries before collecting real responses and analyzing your data. Page 1 of 1 1. The first handrail* leads up 3 is at the beginning of the map. is next the picnic table. blocks the way. 2. Moving into the green spaces on the map * makes you go faster makes you wipe out2.5 3. makes you ollie -- jump in the air makes you go slower If you go over the ramp at the beginning of the map in the center, you have to hit it just right or * you will fall into the bottomless pit. you will run into pedestrians in the crosswalk. 2 you will run into the garbage cans. you will ride on the chain-link and grass which slows you down. 4. You will find pedestrians in the business park if you * Game go the left. go to the center go the right. 1.5 5. go the second level on the left. The fastest way to go through the business park is to * Video turn as little as possible and jump over obstacles. go to the left and jump over obstacles. go to the right and avoid obstacles. 1 go through the center and jump over obstacles. 6. The purpose of this activity is to: * See what you know about skateboarding Text Learn new vocabulary, science talk, and math Estimate the fastest path through the park using vectors and feet per second. 0.5 Try different kinds of media. Page 1 of 3 0 Recall & Integrate Locate & Interpret*A large, or clinical effect is .8.
  • 26. Analysis Setting 3• Walkthrough• Word Problem• NAEP
  • 27. Media Specific Influence Across Order Reading Dimensions
  • 28. 3.2 Word ProblemReading Condition - Across Order
  • 29. Affect of Specific Media on Multiple Choice Across Reading4.5 43.5 32.5 2 Game to Text1.5 Video to text 10.5 0 Locate & Integrate Recall & Interpret
  • 30. Role of Causation• How does the identification causation predict building a mental representation and problem solving? – (GLM (F (4, 127)= 299.25) p= .000) PE= .91, and OP= 1.0 – Game and Text (Mdiff= .47, p= .000); – No significance from Video to Text (Mdiff= .06, p= .34); – Game to Video (Mdiff= .41, p= .000).
  • 31. Landmarks, Concepts, Causation, and Memory• Game required mental rehearsal• The game scaffolded learning & rehearsal through distribution of cognitive load and grounding memory• Context and landmarks –discourse markers -- are important in memory.• These were associated with actions / causation prior to memorable landmarks• The more associations a particular memory can trigger, the more easily it tends to be recalled.• Seemingly irrelevant factors like remembering where, when, why, how, and with whom you learned a thing help solidify information and flexible memory.• Consider the Method of Loci.
  • 32. Assessment Criteria & Mechanics• Games assess, measure, and evaluate by their very nature.• Outcomes from scoring criteria can provide evidence for assessment and diagnosis.• Evidence is only as good as the scoring criteria.• Evidence should constitute measures that support transfer of learning.