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Gecs talk on assessment learning by design
 

Gecs talk on assessment learning by design

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presentation on 21st century pedagogy and comprehension and engagement research on games as models and artifacts for learning

presentation on 21st century pedagogy and comprehension and engagement research on games as models and artifacts for learning

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  • We off-load cognitive work to the environment. Complex tasks that might necessitate complex calculation are often aided by artifacts and devices, and institutionalized to help to distribute task load and complexity (Hutchins, 1996).
  • ARGs are sometimes described as the first narrative art form native to the internet, because their storytelling relies on the two main activities conducted there: searching for information, and sharing information. Storytelling as archaeology . Instead of presenting a chronologically unified, coherent narrative, the designers scattered pieces of the story across the Internet and other media, allowing players to reassemble it, supply connective tissue and determine what it meant. Platformless narrative . The story was not bound to a single medium, but existed independently and used whatever media were available to make itself heard. Designing for a hive mind . While it might be possible to follow the game individually, the design was directed at a collective of players that shared information and solutions almost instantly, and incorporated individuals possessing almost every conceivable area of expertise. While the game might initially attract a small group of participants, as they came across new challenges, they would reach out and draw in others with the knowledge they needed to overcome the obstacles. A whisper is sometimes louder than a shout . Rather than openly promoting the game and trying to attract participation by "pushing" it toward potential players, the designers attempted to "pull" players to the story by engaging in over-the-top secrecy (e.g. Microsoft did not acknowledge any connection between the company or the movie and the game, the game did not acknowledge any connection to Microsoft or A.I. , the identities of the designers were a closely-guarded secret even from other Microsoft employees, etc.), having elements of the game "warn" players away from them, and eschewing traditional marketing channels. Designers did not communicate about the game with players or press while it was in play. The "this is not a game" (TINAG) aesthetic . The game itself did not acknowledge that it was a game. It did not have an acknowledged ruleset for players; as in real-life, they determined the "rules" either through trial and error or by setting their own boundaries. The narrative presented a fully-realized world: any phone number or email address that was mentioned actually worked, and any website acknowledged actually existed. The game took place in real-time and was not replayable. Characters functioned like real people, not game pieces, responded authentically, and were controlled by real people, not by computer AI. Some events involved meetings or live phone calls between players and actors. Real life as a medium . The game used players' lives as a platform. Players were not required to build a character or role-play being someone other than themselves. They might unexpectedly overcome a challenge for the community simply because of the real-life knowledge and background they possessed. Participants were constantly on the lookout for clues embedded in everyday life. Collaborative storytelling . While the puppetmasters controlled most of the story, they incorporated player content and responded to players' actions, analysis and speculation by adapting the narrative and intentionally left "white space" for the players to fill in. Not a hoax . While the TINAG aesthetic might seem on the surface to be an attempt to make something indistinguishable from real life, there were both subtle and overt metacommunications in place to reveal the game's framework and most of its boundaries. The most obvious was that the story itself took place in the year 2142, and the websites ostensibly existed in the future (visitors to some of the sites would trigger a pop up warning that their browser was obsolete and unrecognized). The designers also outlined the borders of the game more subtly, e.g. through the names on the site registrations. Puppetmaster - A puppetmaster or "PM" is an individual involved in designing and/or running an ARG. Puppetmasters are simultaneously allies and adversaries to the player base, creating obstacles and providing resources for overcoming them in the course of telling the game's story. Puppetmasters generally remain behind the curtain while a game is running. The real identity of puppet masters may or may not be known ahead of time. The Curtain - The curtain is generally a metaphor for the separation between the puppetmasters and the players. This can take the traditional form of absolute secrecy regarding the puppetmasters' identities and involvement with the production, or refer merely to the convention that puppetmasters do not communicate directly with players through the game, interacting instead through the characters and the game's design. Rabbithole - Also known as a Trailhead. A Rabbithole marks the first website, contact, or puzzle that starts off the ARG. Trailhead - A deliberate clue which enables a player to discover a way into the game. Most ARGs employ a number of trailheads in several media, to maximize the probability of people discovering the game. Some trailheads may be covert, others may be thinly-disguised adverts. This Is Not A Game (TINAG) - Setting the ARG form apart from other games is the This Is Not A Game aesthetic, which dictates that the game not behave like a game: phone numbers mentioned in the ARG, for example, should actually work, and the game should not provide an overtly-designated playspace or ruleset to the players.
  • Play may be a portal to working to develop skills, knowledge, and competency Play groups provide authentic shared experience without the need for Freudian meltdowns This also begins to create group membership and experience to talk about
  • Where the other students were at T & E, Darius was playing at A & P levels according to the observed strategies in play.
  • We use a simple walkthrough here (http://www.gamefaqs.com/console/gamecube/file/447244/36706) as a causal entwork network guide and then us the more indepth walkthrough here: http://metroidrecon.planets.gamespy.com/mprime/walkthrough.php to make meaning of the choices and reasoning from the simple walkthrough template. You can press the picture for a connection too.
  • We created a causal network of Metroid Prime in the same tradition as printed text, like the one here used by van den Broek et al in Paris and Stahl (2005) in order to explore memory and activation from the experience of the game.
  • We used this map along with the walkthrough as a basis for checking memory, but only Darius had gotten past the first door. There really was no need to quiz them place-based memory as they had not gone anywhere! Darius had a pretty good recollection as he had played before and knew it well.
  • In formulating an approach, Brock went with students to the media center from the RS class and listened to them read and asked them about what they were reading. What was found was that the students could decode, but struggled to talk about what they were reading. When we approach an issue of high comp/ low fluency and low comp/high fluency, we predicted that kids with high comprehension and low fluency would accelerate faster than kids with low comprehension and high fluency. Our conundrum was that most of the kids were low comp. In listening to the students read Seed People, Brock found that students needed self-monitoring strategies to chunk, reflect, integrate, and predict. When given this guidance the students were batter able to converse about the story and also connect it to their own experience and relate. This as we will explore later is the interstitial, the creation of meaning, time, and place as self-referential; in the interstices of larger narratives and discourse. Think of interstitial as the personal places in-between. When a student spoke of the trouble his brother was having with substances, prompted by the text,Seed People, and then talked about it, the level of engagement as reviewed by Chapman (2003) increased dramatically from the level complexity and quantity of content from both cognitive, and affective perspectives. The most significant realization from those sessions seemed to be that the students needed to connect and realize, and that narrative and comprehension was a thing inside of them, and that they needed to slow down and hear the words they were reading and know what to do when they were stuck--this help-seeking behavior became more important later in the experience of the games club, as secondary sources and help-seeking were essential when playing complex games that have narratives. Things that these students thought highly of.
  • We used the Event Indexing Model as a way to judge predictions made as the game unfolded as well as descriptions of what was experienced in reflect-alouds. Of primary emphasis was the Situation Level.
  • We were curious of this visually accessible narrative would elicit more response than what we saw with the Seed People Read Aloud and Reflect Aloud.
  • Mental Processes such as memory, thinking, and understanding language are based upon physical interactions that people have with their environment. Just consider that symbols are abstract because they were not derived from interactions with the environment by way of sensory organs. In fact, this idea of symbol and representation leads to a circular argument about thinking that is pretty much chicken and egg – how do they symbols get in memory as between abstract symbols and other concepts, or for semantic features?

Gecs talk on assessment learning by design Gecs talk on assessment learning by design Presentation Transcript

  • Comprehension and Learning Assessment of Cognition and Engagement in the Wild Pandora’s Xbox Brock Dubbels The Center for Cognitive Sciences, The University of Minnesota
  • What is really important is how we use them. Play is absolutely important for engagement portals for comprehension and embodiment for event indexing.
  • Games are structured forms of play Collaborative Production Model – Sustaining Engagement, New Media, Comprehension, Problem Solving/dysrationalia, 21 st Century Pedagogy.
  • Affluent professional school model Middle Class Model Work is creative activity carried out independently. The students are continually asked to express and apply ideas and concepts. Work involves individual thought and expressiveness, expansion, and illustration of ideas, and choice of method and material. In the middle-class school, work is getting the right answer. If one accumulates enough right answers, one gets a good grade. One must follow the directions in order to get the right answers, but the directions often call for some figuring, some choice, some decision making. For example, the children must often figure out by themselves what the directions ask them to do and how to get the answer: what do you do first, second, and perhaps third? Answers are usually found in books or by listening to the teacher. Answers are usually words, sentences, numbers, or facts and dates; one writes them on paper, and one should be neat. Answers must be given in the right order, and one cannot make them up. cannot make them up.
  • Decision Making 21 st Century Skills Adaptive behavioral acts Skillfully access, read, analyze, evaluate, integrate, and use text and graphic information in multiple print and electronic formats; Judicious decision making Think critically, creatively, and systemically to problem solve current issues, identify future opportunities and innovations, and flexibly adapt to change; Efficient behavioral regulation Work with autonomy and cooperatively with available information and build a vision for the completion of task assessing time, materials, team, skills, and needs-based assessments Sensible goal prioritization Synthesize and clearly communicate learning, using appropriate language and presentation to achieve a specific purpose; Reflectivity Have time to discuss, explain, and transfer skills, information, and processes to new formats, technologies and audiences. The proper calibration of evidence Test or views ideas through hypothesis testing and cognitive theories of the activity and what is happening and why
  • Ethos of Activity
  • Invoking play
  • Artifacts of Computation
  • Alternate reality
    • An alternate reality game ( ARG ), is an interactive narrative that uses the real world as a platform, often involving multiple media and game elements, to tell a story that may be affected by participants' ideas or actions.
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  • Play is a portal to Self-Determination and Work Working hard at play?
  • Sustained Engagement
    • When looking to measure growth or change, or even to understand whether a learner has truly engaged, an educator should also look for evidence of commitment and positive attitudes related to the activity and subject matter.
    • Engagement is not just doing the work, it is a connection and an affinity to an activity supported from the affective domains (Chapman, 2003).
    • Skinner & Belmont (1993, p.572) report that engaged learners show sustained behavioral involvement in learning activities accompanied by a positive emotional tone and select tasks at the border of their competencies, initiate action when given the opportunity, and exert intense effort and concentration.
    • Pintrich and & De Groot (1990, in Chapman) see engagement as having observable cognitive components that can be seen or elicited through exploring the learner’s use of strategy, metacognition, and self-regulatory behavior to monitor and guide the learning processes.
  • Four Principles for Engagement by Design Play as a Subjunctive Mood Desirable Activities Spaces Desirable Groups Dubbels (2009) Dance Dance Education and Rites of Passage. IJGCMS.
  • Sustained Engagement
    • When looking to measure growth or change, or even to understand whether a learner has truly engaged, an educator should also look for evidence of commitment and positive attitudes related to the activity and subject matter.
    • Engagement is not just doing the work, it is a connection and an affinity to an activity supported from the affective domains (Chapman, 2003).
    • Skinner & Belmont (1993, p.572) report that engaged learners show sustained behavioral involvement in learning activities accompanied by a positive emotional tone and select tasks at the border of their competencies, initiate action when given the opportunity, and exert intense effort and concentration.
    • Pintrich and & De Groot (1990, in Chapman) see engagement as having observable cognitive components that can be seen or elicited through exploring the learner’s use of strategy, metacognition, and self-regulatory behavior to monitor and guide the learning processes.
  • How about Math and Science? Scientific Habits of mind Applied curriculum Modeling Simulation STEM Modeling 3r STEM
  • Dubbels (Accepted) Learning engagement, student 2.0, and the role of play in convergence culture in the digital age. JISE   Work     Play   SYM/ ASSYM ANIM / NONANIM POSTURE RELAXED / STIFF TONE VARIED/MONO VOLUME VARIED / CONSISTENT EMPHASIS LESS / MORE COMPLEX VERBOSE / TERSE   SYM/ ASSYM ANIM / NONANIM POSTURE RELAXED / STIFF TONE VARIED/MONO VOLUME VARIED / CONSISTENT EMPHASIS LESS / MORE COMPLEX VERBOSE / TERSE 1               1               2               2               3               3               4               4               5               5               6               6               7               7               8               8               9               9               10               10               11               11               12               12              
  • Behavioral Management Issues – referrals issued
  • Academic Growth –Awareness of concepts
  • Assignment completion
  • Washburn High School Yacht Club Race and Regatta –Engineering Intro
    • The major design concepts:
    • Surface Area
    • Resistance
    • Force
    • Balance
    • Speed
    • Stability
    • Center of gravity
    • Leverage
  • Informative Assessment
    • The performance is the assessment where production fits with the description from the criteria or it does not. This provides instant feedback through manipulation and peer interaction.
  • What this means for schools Maybe we need to motivate and engage through recruiting play for developing work-like competencies. You can go to: http//:5 th -teacher.blogspot.com www.vgalt.com/blog www.vgalt.com/moodle www.videogamesaslearningtools.com
  • Built like a game Graphic by Dan Cook
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  • Towards top sight
  • Non-traditional Narrative for Assessment
  • Decision Trees
    • For a decision tree to work, it must have the following qualities:
      • Time in the game takes place in turns or other discrete units.
      • Players make certain number of finite decisions that have knowable outcomes
      • The game is finite, it cannot go on forever.
      • Different, but just as good
  • Causal network analysis Epaminondas Story Epaminondas Story Van den Broek,P., Kendou, P., Kremer, K., Lynch, J. Butler, J., White, M., and Pugzles Lorch, E. (2005, p. 112-13)
  • Why are they important?
    • Because a decision tree is also a diagram of the formal space of possibility in a game.
    • Games represent the same design elements as research and curriculum design.
    • They also represent the basis of causal network analysis in discourse processing.
    • And conveniently can be found in walkthroughs in video games.
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  • Characteristics of readers +1 Level of fluenc Y ability to comprehend in dialogic method /create a model High comp High fluency Low comp High fluency Low comp Low fluency High comp Low fluency
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  • The Event Indexing Model Zwann, Langston, & Graesser, 1995; Zwann & Radavansky, 1998
  • Situation model
    • When a reader has well-developed comprehension skills, they can recruit prior knowledge to bootstrap lower level processes (Stanovich, 2000) and this is an important idea for making a case for using more accessible texts that are relevant and interesting to the learner. Once again, the reader can use higher-level process in order to support lower level process (Stanovich, 2000).
  • How do we build a comprehension model? Comprehension Model
    • A spatial-temporal framework  
      • spatial locations, time frames
    • Entities
      • people, objects, ideas,
    • Properties of entities
      • color, emotions, goals, shape, etc.
    • Relational information
      • spatial, temporal, causal, ownership, kinship, social, etc.
    Literary Elements
    • Character/ Characterization
    • diction
    • Plot
    • Setting
    • Point of View
    • Theme
    • Tone
    • Voice
    • Word choice
  • Developmental Sequence of Inference Types in Narrative Comprehension
    • Concrete physical relations that occur close together
    • Concrete physical relations between distant events
    • Causal relations involving the character’s goals, emotions, and desires
    • Hierarchical and thematic relations between clusters of events
    • Translation of the story theme into a moral or lesson
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  • Embodiment and Motor Resonance
    • The brain is for action
    • Sensory Organs
    • There is an intimate relationship between the brain and action through sensory modalities, modality specific memory and processing
  • Indexical Hypothesis
    • Mapping Perception to schema
    • Prior experience is mapped in the form of schema through transduction and grounding through sensory experience and often the memories themselves are mapped in plastic, complex dynamic networks that are activated in off-line as well as online processing.
  • The Brain is for Action
    • Embodiment Theory
    • Transduction: is the problem of how perceptual experiences are translated into arbitrary symbols used to represent concepts
    • The grounding problem: how symbols are mapped back into the real world.
  • Sensory-motor dependence for event indexing
    • Cognition is situated
    • Cognition is time pressured
    • We off-load cognitive work to the environment
    • The environment is part of the cognitive system.
    • Cognition is for action
    • Off-line cognition is body-based.
          • Wilson (2002)
  • Examples of Developmental Trends in Inference Making in Narrative Comprehension
    • Relations between Concrete Event
    • Relations between Abstract Events
    • Relations between External Events
    • Relations involving Internal Events
    • Relations between Individual Events
    • Relations between Clusters of Events
    Scoring packet for comprehension and engagement
  • Better Living Production
  • Gigaheart
    • Performance Improvement (PI) activities describe a structured, long-term process by which a healthcare professional or team can learn about specific performance measures, retrospectively assess their practice, apply these measures prospectively over a useful interval, and reevaluate their performance. Performance Improvement is an evidence-based participatory program with emphasis on quality of care and patient safety.
    • The Performance Improvement CME/CE process involves three separate but integrated stages of learning: Stage A) learning from active involvement in identifying and analyzing important organizational and individual performance gaps; Stage B) learning from designing interventions to close performance gaps identified in Stage A, and implementing the interventions to patient care using suitable tracking tools; and
    Production
  • HumanFIRST Lab ng Modeling
  • Virtual Clinic Production
  • Embodiment Theory & Comprehension
    • Tony Hawk RIDE
  • The Brain is for Action One  of  the  greatest  mistakes  of  our  day  is  to  think  of  movement  by   itself,  as  standing  apart  from  higher  functions  .  .  .  Mental   development  must  be  dependent  on  it.  It  is  vital  that  educational    theory  and  practice  should  become  informed  by  this  idea  .  .  .   Watching  a  child  makes  it  obvious  that  the  development  of  his   mind  comes  about  through  his  movements  .  .  .  Mind  and   movement  are  parts  of  the  same  entity.             Montessori,  1967,  pp  141-­‐142
  • Presentation Order
  • Games Unit Inquiry Reading comprehension Composition Sustained engagement Behavioral management Planning Cooperative learning Classroom as game Outcomes Dubbels, B.R. (in press) Video games, reading, and transmedial comprehension. In R. E. Ferdig (Ed.),  Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education.   Information Science Reference. Artifacts
  • Rhythm & Flow
    • High interest
    • Role Playing
    • Performance
    • Technology
    • RFOL
    • Writing
    • Video
    • Music
    Design
  • Educate me
    • Participants design a board game to identify outcomes and the context, route, and obstacles to getting there.
  • Dance Dance Education Because kids won’t let an education get in the way of their learning Brock Dubbels The Center for Cognitive Sciences The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
  • Productivity Games
  • Discussion
    • Based upon these concepts in game design and the literacies and habits of mind supported by them, how can we use these design elements to construct curriculum for our classroom?
    • To test hypotheses?
    • To create new media
    • To embody learning experiences and informative assessment
    • Do we need computers to do this?
  • Affluent professional school model Middle Class Model Work is creative activity carried out independently. The students are continually asked to express and apply ideas and concepts. Work involves individual thought and expressiveness, expansion, and illustration of ideas, and choice of method and material. In the middle-class school, work is getting the right answer. If one accumulates enough right answers, one gets a good grade. One must follow the directions in order to get the right answers, but the directions often call for some figuring, some choice, some decision making. For example, the children must often figure out by themselves what the directions ask them to do and how to get the answer: what do you do first, second, and perhaps third? Answers are usually found in books or by listening to the teacher. Answers are usually words, sentences, numbers, or facts and dates; one writes them on paper, and one should be neat. Answers must be given in the right order, and one cannot make them up.
  • Decision Making 21 st Century Skills Adaptive behavioral acts Skillfully access, read, analyze, evaluate, integrate, and use text and graphic information in multiple print and electronic formats; Judicious decision making Think critically, creatively, and systemically to problem solve current issues, identify future opportunities and innovations, and flexibly adapt to change; Efficient behavioral regulation Work with autonomy and cooperatively with available information and build a vision for the completion of task assessing time, materials, team, skills, and needs-based assessments Sensible goal prioritization Synthesize and clearly communicate learning, using appropriate language and presentation to achieve a specific purpose; Reflectivity Have time to discuss, explain, and transfer skills, information, and processes to new formats, technologies and audiences. The proper calibration of evidence Test or views ideas through hypothesis testing and cognitive theories of the activity and what is happening and why
  • Brock Dubbels