Building Serious Games for Medical Intervention and Training


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  • Squire 20005 conducted case studies of three companies that develop game-based learning products.
  • Face -- you might observe a teenage pregnancy prevention program and conclude that, "Yep, this is indeed a teenage pregnancy prevention program." Of course, if this is all you do to assess face validity, it would clearly be weak evidence because it is essentially a subjective judgment call.Content – the domain is drawn from observations—is this good enough for scientific results? ROI?
  • How is this different from content validity? In content validity, the criteria are the construct definition itself -- it is a direct comparison. In criterion-related validity, we usually make a prediction about how the operationalization will perform based on our theory of the construct. The differences among the different criterion-related validity types is in the criteria they use as the standard for judgment.
  • In our own work we developed for a number of criterion tools. This talk will examine Activities of Daily Living Explicitly
  • Building Serious Games for Medical Intervention and Training

    1. 1. G-ScalEBrock R. Dubbels PhD.G-ScalE Game Development and Testing LabMcMaster
    2. 2. Games UnitInquiryReading comprehensionCompositionSustained engagementBehavioral managementPlanningCooperative learningClassroom as gameOutcomes Dubbels, B.R. (in press) Video games, reading, and transmedial comprehension. In R. E. Ferdig (Ed.), Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education. Information Science Reference.
    3. 3. How about Math andScience?Scientific Habits of mindApplied curriculumModelingSimulationSTEM
    4. 4. Dance Dance EducationBecause kids won’t let an education get in the way of their learning
    5. 5. Games are a structured form of play.What are the elements of this game?What makes the play emergent?Is it non-linear?Games as a metaphor for instructional design
    6. 6. Invoking play Probability Branching Rules Roles & IdentityImagery &visualization
    7. 7. Towards top sight
    8. 8. Built like a game
    9. 9. What if we made a game about going to Las Vegas
    10. 10. It sounds kind of fun
    11. 11. And it is . . .
    12. 12. What do you end up with?
    13. 13. The Vegas EffectShould everything that happens in games, stay in games?It is not enough to invoke games and play.Serious games should provide evidence that they delivered.This should be quantifiable in performance metrics
    14. 14. UI Diagram 1. Are you sure .NET isn’t better? I need a new Java 2. Who will the users be? based portal for Emergency rooms. 3. What information will it provide? Direct the conversation Press when ready to move to design Client Analyst StartValues Functions Qualities Design
    15. 15. Functional Requirements• Playable in < 5 minutes• Engaging enough that target audience chooses to play multiple times• Easy scripting for additional scenarios• Results in demonstrable improvement in requirements elicitation
    16. 16. VFQ for this Project• Values – Better understanding of how to apply RSA level 2 – Learners able to “think” RSA• Functions – Graphical• Qualities – Engaging enough that people will choose to play it for 10-15 minutes
    17. 17. Values, Functions, and Qualities• Values – Why a project is needed – Should have a success measure – e.g. Decrease claims processing time• Functions – What is needed – Typically yes/no – e.g. must accept Medicare claims• Qualities – How Well – Should have a success measure – e.g. don’t add to manual adjudication queue
    18. 18. UI Diagram Press when ready to see what happens Solution/Design 1. Create a new portalClient Analyst Implement 2. Implement using Java 3. Redesign business process Requirements Project 4. … Drag best solutions to SSD below Possible Solutions Solution SummaryValues Functions Qualities Document
    19. 19. UI DiagramThis isn’t what I When will it be wanted. over? Replace with a simplified visual of UDP Show key events during implementation, that result from choices the user made Client Analyst Solution Summary Values Functions Qualities Document
    20. 20. BP: We need an online method to train people for the United Compliance ProjectWhat would Do you have a Have you hadyou like the timeline in mind? projects similarproject to to this in theaccomplish? past
    21. 21. Ratings• Cohen’s Kappa• Fleiss Kappa• Agreement at .8 – Kappa of <0.2 is considered poor agreement, 0.21-0.4 fair, 0.41-0.6 moderate, 0.61- 0.8 strong, and more than 0.8 near complete agreement.
    22. 22. Learning Games• “It is worth noting that none of the featured companies started in instructional design…they come from business strategy, marketing, and the games industry”.• “Most game-based learning approaches do not employ that particular category of expert whatsoever” – (Squire, 2005, p. 35).
    23. 23. Surface (face) & Content Validity• Games are often built on these. – It looks like it measures what it is supposed to measure. – Have checked how the game represents the content against the relevant content domain. – Approach assumes that you have a good detailed description of the content domain, something thats not always true.
    24. 24. Criterion Validity• Criteria-related validity, you check the performance of your operationalization against some criterion. – Predictive validity: Improve performance. – Concurrent Validity: correlates to other validated tools. – Convergent Validity: correlate the scores on our test with other constructs – Discriminant Validity: the constructt is not similar to other constructs
    25. 25. HumanFIRST Lab ng
    26. 26. Virtual Clinic
    27. 27. Gigaheart
    28. 28. Design Deliver content Student Learning MotivateContent Play &Frame Engage Apply & Reflect
    29. 29. rolesimagebeliefslanguagewritingpublic perception Are you on your way up?producingperformingmaking the band
    30. 30. How about the cover art? Creating a web presence? Press kits? Aband itinerary? A band identity and branding? Video?MAKING THE BAND
    31. 31. Rhythm & Flow • High interest • Role Playing • Performance • Technology • Writing • Video • Music
    32. 32. Making the grades • Character/ Characterization • diction • Plot/ story grammar • Setting • Point of View • Theme • Tone • Voice • Word choice
    33. 33. Modeling
    34. 34. Kiosk
    35. 35. ADL• The term “activities of daily living” refers to a set of common, everyday tasks, performance of which is required for personal self-care and independent living. The most often used measure of functional ability is the Katz Activities of Daily Living Scale (Katz et al., 1963; Katz, 1983). • Wiener, Hanley, Clark, Van Nostrand (1990, pg.1 )
    36. 36. Complex Relationship Building• Establish therapeutic relationship with patient to promote behavioral change.1. Identify own attitude toward patient and situation.2. Determine ethical boundaries of the relationship.3. Deal with personal feeling evoked by the patient that my interfere with effectiveness4. Provide for physical comfort before interaction5. Discuss confidentiality of information shared6. Create climate of warmth and acceptance7. Reassure patient of your interest in them as a person8. Return at established time to demonstrate trust9. Maintain open body posture10. Monitor, seek clarification & respond to non- verbal messages. – 10 of 31, NIC revised 5th edition 2008
    37. 37. Facial Action Coding• The Facial Action 1. 2. Anger Disgust Coding Systems (FACS) 3. 4. Fear Happiness – (Ekman and Frisen 5. sadness 6. surprise 1978). 7. Amusement – 2 or more raters 8. Contempt 9. Contentment 10. Embarrassment 11. Excitement 12. Guilt 13. Pride in achievement 14. Relief 15. satisfaction 16. sensory Pleasure 17. shame
    38. 38. Tension in workflow• Software Design • Research Design – Typically based upon an – Typically based upon economic consideration. answering a testable • How will this solve a question. problem? • How will this solve a problem? • What are the first steps in • How do I know this? production? – The focus is on method and – The focus is on stages of hypothesis testing: production: • Construct validity, reliability, • Business Partner reliability, and probability. Relations, Function, Behavior, Structure, & Non-Function (qualities).
    39. 39. Training Development Process <<Design Review>> Overall Design Maintenance Beta Deploy CPI Prototype Build  Stakeholders Signed Off  Edit OK  Standards Followed Inputs Review [Changes] {At least one must be classroom delivery} Charter Required Outputs AssessTemplates Risk Project Plan DashboardStyle Guide Build Design
    40. 40. MATRICS
    41. 41. Take home• Can you pose a testable question– hypothesis? – Tension between design process and measurement • How will you assure game mechanics are measuring what you think you are measuring? Theoretically? Conceptually? – Assessments, measures, & evaluations• Usability testing should align with construct – Testing should be happen in development.• Again, emphasis on validity – Without it, there is no capability for ROI analysis
    42. 42. • The G-ScalE Laboratory G-ScalE – Game Development and Testing – Scaling across screen size, resolution, and geometry • Critical Print Size, Visual Acuity, Prior Knowledge, and HCI/UX