having school children do just one minute of jumping (10-20 jumps) three times a day, three to five times a week caused the children to gain more bone mass. The downsides of such an activity is that it is not sustained enough to improve cardiovascular health or to promote weight loss. Because it is difficult to motivate children to participate in the type of cardiovascular activities that adults engage in (running, cycling, aerobics), new strategies must be developed. In Dance Dance Revolution, a participant responds to a series of directional arrows displayed on a video or TV screen to perform choreographed dance steps or hops synchronized to music. Song tempo and degree of difficulty increase as the player successfully progresses in the game. Because of the game's popularity and its cardiovascular exercise and jumping (bone-building) components, it could represent an appealing model for reducing physical inactivity in children.
Games and play have their own types and degree of risk, but often the assessments do not come with the risks of failure, and are not as focused on crystallized content.Games are are not often constructed to provide evidence of transfer. These issues should be a priority in serious game developmentthere should be evidence that learning acquired in a game is applicable outside of the game.
It was important to connect what I was learning in discourse processing in psycholinguistics to what I was doing in the classroom, as well as for the state standardized tests. I was given permission by my principal to attend the Minnesota DoE workgroup on the new Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment. My work on the test made me wonder about the way we were preparing for tests and the DoE’s expectation that if teachers teach to the standards, this would translate into better test scores. I was very troubled by this disconnection in expectation about practice, as well as the principles for the test design; such as lexile scores and Bloom’s taxonomy. The apparent lack of validity was troubling.Rather than asking any more questions, I decided that I would integrate what I was learning about reading comprehension in my graduate courses and see how they worked to drive instruction.
“More than eight in ten (83%) young people have avideo game console at home, and 56% have two ormore."--Gen M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year-olds (Executive Summary, p. 36)
The market• Actual market in 2009– 52 Billion– Growth actually closer to 25%• 2014 Projection– 86 Billion– Projected growth of 9.4%• Serious games projection– 400 to 500 MillionPrice WaterhouseCooper, 2007
Games Club for ReadersRead Aloud Play AloudDubbels, B.R. (2008) Video games, reading, and transmedialcomprehension. In R. E. Ferdig (Ed.), Reference. Information ScienceHandbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education.Dubbels, B.R. & Rummell, A. (2008) Observations on the explorationof comprehension as transmedial. National Reading Conference.
Motivating:Obesity & Bone Density• Importance of mechanical loadingin promoting bone health.Activities such as jumping andgymnastics exert the kind of highimpact force that develops bone.• Regular & Sustained High ImpactForceDubbels, 2008, 2009
INSTRUCTION AND PURPOSETexts and Multimodal NarrativesWalkthroughWord ProblemMultiple Choice
Research Questions1. Will a video game that emphasizes sensorimotorexperience provide greater recall and problemsolving as compared to viewing a video, orreading a printed text?2. Will performance in the reading conditionimprove if it follows the game or the viewingcondition?3. How does the identification of causation predictbuilding a mental representation and problemsolving?
Assessment Criteria & Mechanics• Games assess, measure, and evaluate by their very nature.• Outcomes from scoring criteria can provide evidence forassessment and diagnosis.• Evidence is only as good as the scoring criteria.• Evidence should constitute measures that support transfer oflearning.
Comparison of studentperformance GrowthThe categories for 05-06 performancewas based upon the Minnesota BasicSkills TestThe 06-07 scores were based upon theMCA2All students were taught by oneteacher each year.I taught the 06-07 year using a muchharder test with an emphasis ongames and play.Specifically: Games unit, multimediaunits, sketch up, Etc.
Comparison of studentperformance 8 to 8The categories for 05-06 performancewas based upon the Minnesota BasicSkills TestThe 06-07 scores were based upon theMCA2All students were taught by oneteacher each year.I taught the 06-07 year using a muchharder test with an emphasis ongames and play.Specifically: Games unit, multimediaunits, sketch up, Etc.
Tell me and Ill forget;show me and I may remember;involve me and Ill understand.Confucius (450BC)
Functional EquivalenceModality-specific states are partiallycaptured in online experienceSimulations – Reenactmentsunderlie imagery
Comprehension AnalysisEvent Indexing Situation Model
Causal network analysisEpaminondas Story Epaminondas StoryVan den Broek, et al. (2005, p. 112-13)
How do we build a comprehension model?Comprehension Model• A spatial-temporal framework– spatial locations, time frames• Entities– people, objects, ideas,• Properties of entities– color, emotions, goals, shape, etc.• Relational information– spatial, temporal, causal, ownership, kinship, social, etc.Literary Elements• Character/ Characterization• diction• Plot• Setting• Point of View• Theme• Tone• Voice• Word choice
Setting• Urban middle school in the Minneapolis Metropolitan Area• 77 percent qualified for free and reduced lunch (101) and the remainder (31)either did not qualify or did not report their socio-economic status.• This school has 33 eligible groups and has met 69.7% of the requirements forAdequate Yearly Progress under No Child Left Behind• 2% American Indian, 9% Asian, 21% Black, 34% Hispanic, and 35% White.– 30% of students are limited English proficient;– 14% are listed as special education;– and 61% qualify for free and reduced lunch.– It is an open enrollment public with 8% transferring to this school, and 13% leaving.
Research Design• This was an experimental study with studentsrandomized into six different media orders,consisting of:
Prior Knowledge & WM Inventory8/ 4/ 10 1:15 AMhttps:/ / sewardsurvey.mpls.k12.mn.us/ Print.aspx?SurveyID= 121&Title= Y&Breaks= N&AllPages= Y&Pages=Page 1 of 3Physics Targets Survey 1Page 11. What is velocity?*A rate of increase of velocitySpeed: distance travelled per unit timeVelocity is a novel by Dean Koontz first published in 2005. Set in Napa County, California, it isabout a man in his thirties who takes the law into his own hands when, out of the blue, he isthreatened by an anonymous adversary.An increase in rate of change; "modern science caused an acceleration of cultural change2. What is acceleration?*A straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space isdirection.The rate of change of positionA variable quantity that can be resolved into components.To cause to move faster; to quicken the motion of; to add to the speed of.3. What is a vector?*Someone who is victorious in a race or competition.A line between two points whose length is magnitude and coordinates orient the linesdirection.The rate of change of positionSpeed: distance travelled per unit time4. What is a time interval?*A whole numberA straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space isdirection.The amount of time it takes to go from to eternity.a definite length of time marked off by two instants—a start and beginning5. What are coordinates?*A set of numbers on a map used to find the distance from a specific place, also known as theorigin. In a Cartesian coordinate system, theres an "x,y"A rate of increase of velocityA straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space isdirection.a whole number• The PsychExperiments Numerical MemoryExperiment employs a similar format to DigitSpan tasks found in such instruments as theWAIS-III, while comparing the individual’s short-term memory for digits presented in an auditoryvs. visual format.• The rational of for this type of task is that is agood measure of short-term auditory memoryand attention. Because auditory informationmust be recalled and repeated orally in theproper sequence, the digit span task is oftendescribed as a sequencing task (Sattler, 1992).
Affect of Specific Media onMultiple Choice Across Reading00.511.522.533.544.5Locate &RecallIntegrate&InterpretGame to TextVideo to text
Role of Causation• How does the identification causation predictbuilding a mental representation and problemsolving?– (GLM (F (4, 127)= 299.25) p= .000) PE= .91, and OP= 1.0– Game and Text (Mdiff= .47, p= .000);– No significance from Video to Text (Mdiff= .06, p= .34);– Game to Video (Mdiff= .41, p= .000).
Take Home• How a games is embedded in the curriculum isimportant in providing practice andknowledge building?• The game should connected to criteria fortransfer and to inform traditional academiclanguage and concepts?• Learning game development is different, andshould follow a different development arc.