It was important to connect what I was learning in discourse processing in psycholinguistics to what I was doing in the classroom, as well as for the state standardized tests. I was given permission by my principal to attend the Minnesota DoE workgroup on the new Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment. My work on the test made me wonder about the way we were preparing for tests and the DoE’s expectation that if teachers teach to the standards, this would translate into better test scores. I was very troubled by this disconnection in expectation about practice, as well as the principles for the test design; such as lexile scores and Bloom’s taxonomy. The apparent lack of validity was troubling.Rather than asking any more questions, I decided that I would integrate what I was learning about reading comprehension in my graduate courses and see how they worked to drive instruction.
I did this because I was simply frustrated with what I was being told by my TAPP mentors and the “reading specialist”. That I needed to understand Bloom’s Taxonomy and Lexile scores. This did not add up. I was invited by the DoE to work on the panels for the MCA2, and my principal was generous enough to let me participate. It was here that I was told that teaching the standards would prepare the students, but their brochure for teachers was basically lost in translation.
What I wanted to do was to have a transfer of power. I modified the fluency rubric my district used for CBM– content based measures. My approach was an attempt to coach comprehension and strategic reading by emphasizing the event indexing model.
Rather than doing what was always done, I created a curriculum that emphasized linguistic comprehension.In 2005-06, I was recognized for doing interesting things with games in the classroom. This TV report was one of the many media outlets that did stories on my middle school students and their study of video games as narratives. What I did in this unit on games was to emphasize linguistic comprehension and then leverage it with print literacy.
The technology is in the way that we design instruction. The use of games is not enough. They need to have thoughtful integration into learning abstractions and concept development.Montessori instruction acknowledges this with early childhood education. But many children from poverty do not get this experience. They are immediately put into a process that begins with memorization of the alphabet with the addition of phonics instruction, rhyming, sight words, blending, etc. These are important, but what if the child does not have the experience in the world?
Comprehension and Literacy
The Brain is for ActionPsychology for Classroom Gains Brock Dubbels The Center for Cognitive Sciences The University of Minnesota
ComprehensionWhat is it?It must be guided with socio-cognitive experience.
IP & Working Memory157999763321423514921942197617761492 1942 1976 1776
Comprehension AnalysisEvent Indexing Situation Model
Causal network analysisEpaminondas Story Epaminondas Story Van den Broek,P., Kendou, P., Kremer, K., Lynch, J. Butler, J., White, M., and Pugzles Lorch, E. (2005, p. 112-13)
How do we build a comprehension model?Comprehension Model Literary Elements• A spatial-temporal framework • Character/ Characterization – spatial locations, time frames • diction• Entities • Plot – people, objects, ideas, • Setting• Properties of entities • Point of View – color, emotions, goals, shape, • Theme etc. • Tone• Relational information • Voice – spatial, temporal, causal, ownership, kinship, social, etc. • Word choice
Reading & ClassroomAssessment1. Literacy Coaching a) Use rubric and fluency scale for literacy coaching.2. Oral Interpretation a) Use Girl Assignment
Comprehension measures for reflect aloud using the event indexing model --Studen Boo Fl D Pro Sit Plo Set Char Them PO Tone W Voice/ Genr Authot k ec p t e V C Diction e r o d e Scoring 4 3 2 1 0 Defined Meaning in Mentioned Cued/ Cued/ Absent context Explained Recognize Recognize Detailed Term term Description Explained
Modified fluency with play and agency1 I have chosen a challenging book. I read with hesitation with emphasis on single words—I am trying to learn them in isolation from one another. The "flow" in my reading is a little clunky like a telegraph with word-by-word reading.2 I just read with two to three word phrasing. My reading seems very hesitant, like I might be unsure, with considerable pausing. I am blending and decoding the words. I am naming the words rather than letting them flow.3 I am pausing for ending punctuation, but am not making inflection changes from sentence to sentence. I read in phrases but I am lacking in tone necessary in fluent understandable reading.4 Most of the time, I have, "flow" and phrasing. It is like telling a story to my friends, with vocal intonation and prosody that indicates awareness of punctuation for pausing and breath, and appropriate inflection (i.e., happy voice). I should be doing Shakespeare! My performance is characterized by reading that generally "flows."My voice5 changes to reflect meaning changes in the passage. My inflections are consistently appropriate, and my reading is fluent and smooth, generally easy to listen to and understood. Adapted from Table 1. from Marston, Mansfield, cited in (pg. 81 Heineman, in Fountas and Pinnell, 1996) by Dubbels (2005).
Characteristics of readers L Low comp High High comp E fluency High fluency V E L of F L U E N C Low comp High comp Y Low fluency Low fluency ability to comprehendin dialogic method /create a model
40 38Comparison of student 35performanceThe categories for 05-06 performance 30was based upon the Minnesota BasicSkills Test 25 24The 06-07 scores were based upon the 21 Grade 7 (05-MCA2 06) 20 16 Grade 8 (05-All students were taught by one 15 06)teacher each year. Grade 8 (06-I taught the 06-07 year using a much 10 07)harder test with an emphasis ongames and play. 5Specifically: Games unit, multimediaunits, sketch up, Etc. 0 Exceed Meets Partial Does not
Research Questions• Will a video game that emphasizes sensorimotor experience provide greater recall and problem solving as compared to viewing a video, or reading a printed text?• Will performance in the reading condition improve if it follows the game or the viewing condition?• How does the identification of causation predict building a mental representation and problem solving?
The brain is for action A successful theory of cognition and its application will require recognition of that fact. M. Montessori (1967),Research on instruction thatemphasizes congruentsensorimotor experience andvisualization has been found toimprove the ability tocomprehend, read fluently, andsolve problems.(Glenberg, Brown & Levin, 2007;Glenberg, Gutierrez, Levin, & Japuntich, 2004).
Embodiment &DevelopmentalResearch SuggestsPerceptualknowledge istransformed toconceptualknowledge andschema constructionthrough identificationaffordances ofaction, and potentialaction which we useto construct situationmodels to relate tocontext, for, andusage.