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Brian Glass Making Decisions



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  • 1. By: Brian Glass
    Speech 104- Fall 2009
    Chapter 3Making Decisions
  • 2. Every day we make many decisions.
    What time will I get up this morning?
    Will I be late to work if I go to the gym in morning?
    What will I eat this morning?
    Will I study today?
  • 3. Involuntary Decision Making is when you allow your habitual nature to make decision s for yourself instead of making a conscious decision and mentally processing the message. In other words we respond without thinking. We use this method to conserve our higher mental functions for more challenging and demanding tasks.
    There are 4 distinct methods of “hidden persuaders” according to Vance Packard which influence our involuntary decision making.
    Visual Stimuli
    Accelerated Speech
    Embedded Images in a print advertisement
    Suggestiveness that would not normally be seen at first glance
    Hidden messages gain influence from the fact that they circumvent the critical functions of the conscious mind. The unconscious mind is incapable of critical refusal of these subconscious suggestions.
    As Humans we make decisions two ways:
    • Involuntary Decision Making
    • 4. Voluntary Decision Making
  • Voluntary Decision Making allows a person to examine all of the information available, all of the decision alternatives known, and all of the decision consequences before he or she freely selects one of the alternatives. It occurs when we actually use a cognitive process to make a decision.
    Voluntary Decision Making means that the decision maker is an active participant in the process of making decision. However, a person can be influenced by:
    • Credible Sources
    • 5. Authority Figures
    • 6. Peer Influence
    • 7. Groupthink
    • 8. The Interpersonal need for Affection, Inclusion and Control
  • Voluntary Decision Making Influences:
    Credible Sources-people you trust and look to for
    help, guidance, or direction in making a decision.
    Authority Figures- people make decisions based
    on what they think the authority figure would want
    Peer Influence- when a person makes a decision
    Based primarily on the influence of those he or she wants to be identified with.
    Groupthink- occurs when individuals within a group desire cohesiveness and harmony above the critical evaluation of the group’s decisions.
    When we begin to interact socially with others, we begin to seek fulfillment for our interpersonal needs.
    Three Essential Interpersonal Needs:
    Need for Affection- Need to be loved, and in turn, to give love.
    Need for Inclusion- Need to be part of a group or organization.
    Need for Control- Need to exert some real power or influence over decision-making in a relationship.
  • 9. Position of Equilibrium
    As humans we want to be physically, mentally and socially comfortable. When we get “knocked off” of our stasis we look for companionship to get us back in a state of equilibrium.
    The only reason we communicate is maintain
    equilibrium or stasis.
    In critical thinking we don’t like to change our minds. Once we have made a decision, we get comfortable with that decision. Although new information may come along that contradicts our current thought, we dismiss it so we can maintain our comfort.
  • 10. Decision Making and Probability
    • In critical thinking, probability is how likely a target audience believes something will become a reality.
    • 11. The best we can strive for is to make a decision within what we consider an acceptable range of risk or probability. The risk is determined by which probability calculation one is willing to accept.
  • Decision Making Styles
    Four Basic Behavior Categories:
    Driver- pattern of behavior give the impression that they
    know what they want, where they are going and how to get
    there. Makes decisions based on facts.
    2. Expressive- appear communicative, warm, approachable and competitive. Makes decisions based on feelings rather than facts.
    3. Amiable- Place a high priority on friendships. They make decisions on feelings rather than facts.
    4. Analytical- these people make decisions according to facts, principles, logic and consistency rather than pre-established emotions.
  • 12. Guidelines for Critical Decision Making
    • Ask Questions; be willing to wonder
    • 13. Define the Problem
    • 14. What evidence supports or refutes this argument and its opposition?
    • 15. Analyze assumptions and biases
    • 16. Control emotional reasoning
    • 17. Don’t oversimplify
    • 18. Consider other interpretations
    • 19. Tolerate uncertainty.
  • How should critical thinkers evaluate decision making?
    Critical thinkers need to examine not only the outcomes of a decision but the process used to make that decision.
    Good decisions are based on the values and perceptions of the decision-maker and include carefully considered alternatives and options along with periodic reassessments of the decision and its effects.