History of Brazil
• The Portuguese were the first European settlers to arrive
in the area, led by adventurous Pedro Cabral, who
began the colonial period in 1500. The Portuguese
reportedly found native Indians numbering around seven
million. Most tribes were peripatetic, with only limited
agriculture and temporary dwellings, although villages
often had as many as 5000 inhabitants. Cultural life
appears to have been richly developed, although both
tribal warfare and cannibalism were ubiquitous. The few
remaining traces of Brazil's Indian tribes reveal little of
their lifestyle, unlike the evidence from other Andean
tribes. Today, fewer than 200,000 of Brazil's indigenous
people survive, most of whom inhabit the jungle areas.
History of Brazil
Landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral at Porto Seguro in 1500. Oil on canvas Oscar
Pereira da Silva (1904).
History of Brazil
• Other Portuguese explorers followed Cabral, in search of
valuable goods for European trade but also for unsettled
land and the opportunity to escape poverty in Portugal
itself. The only item of value they discovered was the
pau do brasil (brazil wood tree) from which they created
red dye. Unlike the colonizing philosophy of the Spanish,
the Portuguese in Brazil were much less focused at first
on conquering, controlling, and developing the country.
Most wereimpoverished sailors, who were far more
interested in profitable trade and subsistence agriculture
than in territorial expansion. The country's interior
History of Brazil
• Nonetheless, sugar soon came to Brazil, and with it
came imported slaves. To a degree unequaled in most
of the American colonies, the Portuguese settlers
frequently intermarried with both the Indians and the
African slaves, and there were also mixed marriages
between the Africans and Indians. As a result, Brazil's
population is intermingled to a degree that is unseen
elsewhere. Most Brazilians possess some combination
of European, African, Amerindian, Asian, and Middle
Eastern lineage,and this multiplicity of cultural legacies is
a notable feature of current Brazilian culture.
History of Brazil
The move to open the country's interior coincided with the discovery
in the 1690s of gold in the south-central part of the country. The
country's gold deposits didn't pan out, however, and by the close of
the 18th century the country's focus had returned to the coastal
agricultural regions. In 1807, as Napoleon Bonaparte closed in on
Portugal's capital city of Lisbon, the Prince Regent shipped himself
off to Brazil. Once there, Dom Joao established the colony as the
capital of his empire. By 1821 things in Europe had cooled down
sufficiently that Dom Joao could return to Lisbon, and he left his
son Dom Pedro I in charge of Brazil. When the king attempted the
following year to return Brazil to subordinate status as a colony,
Dom Pedro flourished his sword and declared the country's
independence from Portugal (and his own independence from his
History of Brazil
Declaration of the Brazilian independence by the Portuguese born Emperor Dom
Pedro I on 7 September 1822.
History of Brazil
In the 19th century coffee took the place of sugar as Brazil's most
important product. The boom in coffee production brought a wave of
almost one million European immigrants, mostly Italians, and also
brought about the Brazilian republic. In 1889, the wealthy coffee
magnates backed a military coup, the emperor fled, and Brazil was
no more an imperial country. The coffee planters virtually owned the
country and the government for the next thirty years, until the
worldwide depression evaporated coffee demand. For the next half
century Brazil struggled with governmental instability, military coups,
and a fragile economy. In 1989, the country enjoyed its first
democratic election in almost three decades. Unfortunately, the
Brazilians made the mistake of electing Fernando Collor de Mello.
Mello's corruption did nothing to help the economy, but his peaceful
removal from office indicated at least that the country's political and
governmental structures are stable.
History of Brazil
The Brazilian coup d'état of 1930 raised Getúlio Vargas (center-front, no hat) to
power. He ruled the country for fifteen years. Photo from 1939, commemorating
50 years of the Republic.
History of Brazil
Brazil has the sixth largest population in the world--about 148 million
people--which has doubled in the past 30 years. Because of its size,
there are only 15 people per sq. km, concentrated mainly along the
coast and in the major cities, where two-thirds of the people now
live: over 19 million in greater Sao Paulo and 10 million in greater
The immigrant Portuguese language was greatly influenced by the
numerous Indian and African dialects they encountered, but it
remains the dominant language in Brazil today. In fact, the Brazilian
dialect has become the dominant influence in the development of
the Portuguese language, for the simple reason that Brazil has 15
times the population of Portugal and a much more dynamic linguistic
What is the flag of Brazil?
The flag of Brazil is green with a large yellow diamond in the centre bearing a blue celestial globe with 27
white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the
night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO
(Order and Progress).
How did Brazil get it’s name?
• When the Portuguese first arrived, they called
the land "Ilha de Vera Cruz" (Vera Cruz Island).
When they realized that this land was not an
island, they changed it's name to "Terra de
Santa Cruz" (Land of Santa Cruz). However, to
avoid losing the territory that France was now
interested in obtaining, they started to extract
wood from a tree named "Pau-Brasil". Due to the
extraction from this tree, they changed the lands
name to "Brasil" (Brazil).
Brazil is governed under the 1988 constitution as amended. The
president, who is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (and
may serve two terms), is both head of state and head of
government. There is a bicameral legislature consisting of an upper
Federal Senate and a lower Chamber of Deputies. The 81 senators
are elected for eight years and the 513 deputies are elected for four
years. The president may unilaterally intervene in state affairs.
Administratively, the country is divided into 26 states and one
federal district (Brasília); each state has its own governor and
legislature. The main political parties are the Brazilian Democratic
Movement party, the Liberal Front party (now known as the
Democrats party), the Democratic Labor party, the Brazilian Social
Democracy party, and the Workers party.
• Brazil is a federal presidential constitutional republic,
based on representative democracy. The federal
government has three independent branches: executive,
legislative, and judicial. Executive power is exercised by
the executive branch, headed by the President, advised
by a Cabinet. The President is both the head of state
and the head of government. Legislative power is vested
upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature
comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of
Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary,
consisting of the Supreme Federal Court, the Superior
Court of Justice and other Superior Courts, the National
Justice Council and the regional federal courts.
National Congress Building
Brasília, Federal District, Brazil
Dilma Vana Rousseff (Portuguese
pronunciation: is a Brazilian politician who
has been the President of Brazil since 1
January 2011. She is the first woman to
hold the office.
The 26 Brazilian states are semi-autonomous self-governing entities organized with
complete administration branches, relative financial independence and their own set
of symbols, similar to those owned by the country itself. Despite their relative
autonomy they all have the same model of administration, as set by the Federal
States hold elections every four years and exercise a considerable amount of power.
The 1988 constitution allows states to keep their own taxes, and mandates regular
allocation of a share of the taxes collected locally by the federal government.
The Executive role is held by the Governador (Governor) and his appointed
Secretários (Secretaries); the Legislative role is held by the Assembléia Legislativa
(Legislative Assembly); and the Judiciary role, by the Tribunal de Justiça (Justice
Tribunal). The governors and the members of the assemblies are elected, but the
members of the Judiciary are appointed by the governor from a list provided by the
current members of the State Law Court containing only judges (these are chosen by
merit in exams open to anyone with a Law degree). The name chosen by the
governor must be approved by the Assembly before inauguration. The 1988
Constitution has granted the states the greatest amount of autonomy since the Old
Each of the 26 state governors must achieve more than 50 per cent
of the vote, including a second round run-off between the top two
candidates if necessary. In contrast to the federal level, state
legislatures are unicameral, although the deputies are elected
through similar means, involving an open-list system in which the
state serves as one constituency. State level elections occur at the
same time as those for the presidency and Congress. In 2002,
candidates from eight different parties won the gubernatorial contest
while 28 parties are represented in the country’s state legislatures.
The last set of elections took place in 2006.
The most important Brazilian states (in terms of population and
economic power) are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Rio
Grande do Sul, Paraná, Bahia, Pernambuco and Santa Catarina.
The Brazilian Armed Forces is the unified military organization comprising the
Brazilian Army (including the Brazilian Army Aviation), the Brazilian Navy
(including the Brazilian Marine Corps and Brazilian Naval Aviation) and the
Brazilian Air Force.
Place of Brazil in the WorldMap
• Brazil covers nearly half of South America and is the
continent's largest nation. It extends 2,965 mi (4,772 km)
north-south, 2,691 mi (4,331 km) east-west, and borders
every nation on the continent except Chile and Ecuador.
Brazil may be divided into the Brazilian Highlands, or
plateau, in the south and the Amazon River Basin in the
north. Over a third of Brazil is drained by the Amazon
and its more than 200 tributaries. The Amazon is
navigable for ocean steamers to Iquitos, Peru, 2,300 mi
(3,700 km) upstream. Southern Brazil is drained by the
Plata system—the Paraguay, Uruguay, and Paraná
• The climate of Brazil varies considerably mostly from
tropical north (the equator traverses the mouth of the
Amazon) to temperate zones below the Tropic of
Capricorn (23°27' S latitude). Temperatures below the
equator are high, averaging above 25 °C (77 °F), but not
reaching the summer extremes of up to 40 °C (104 °F) in
the temperate zones. There is little seasonal variation
near the equator, although at times it can get cool
enough for wearing a jacket, especially in the rain.
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
• Rio de Janeiro commonly referred to
simply as Rio,is the capital city of the
State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest
city of Brazil, and the third largest
metropolitan area and agglomeration in
South America, boasting approximately
6.3 million people within the city proper,
making it the 6th largest in the Americas,
and 26th in the world.
Rio de Janeiro
Christ the Redeemer
The idea of placing a large Christian monument atop Corcovado peak in Rio dates
back to the 1850s, when a local Catholic priest requested funds from Princess Isabel
to build one. The princess was not enthusiastic and the plan was scrapped entirely
with the founding of the Republic of Brazil in 1889, which separated church and state.
In 1921, the Catholic Circle of Rio began to collect signatures and donations for a
privately-funded Christian monument. Various designs were considered, including a
large cross and a statue of Christ holding a globe, but ultimately an image of Christ
with his arms wide open was chosen.
Construction began in 1922. The statue of Christ the Redeemer was designed by
local engineer Heitor da Silva Costa and sculpted from concrete and soapstone by
Paul Landowski, a Frenchman. After nine years and a cost of $250,000, the statue
opened to the public on October 12, 1931.
To celebrate Christ the Redeemer's 75th anniversary in 2006, a chapel dedicated to
the patron saint of Brazil (Nossa Senhora Aparecida) was built at the base. The
statue was struck by lightning in February 2008 during a major electrical storm, but
escaped any damage due to the insulating properties of soapstone.
Rio de Janeiro
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city proper in the
southern hemisphere and Americas and the world's eighth largest
city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo
metropolitan area, ranked as the second most populous
metropolitan area in the Americas and among the ten largest
metropolitan areas on the planet. São Paulo is the capital of the
state of São Paulo, Brazil's most populous state. It exerts strong
regional influence in commerce, finance, arts and entertainment and
a strong international influence. The name of the city honors Saint
Paul of Tarsus.
São Paulo has the largest economy, by GDP, among Latin
American and Brazilian cities.Its GDP per capita is the fifth highest
among the larger Latin American cities and Brazil's second highest,
• Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and the seat of
government of the Federal District. Administratively, the
city is located in the Federal District which is in the
Central-West Region. Physically, it is located in the
Brazilian Highlands. It has a population of about
2,562,963 (3,716,996 in the metropolitan area) as of the
2008 IBGE estimate, making it the fourth largest city in
Brazil. However, as a metropolitan area, it ranks lower at
sixth in population. Brasília is the largest city in the world
that did not exist at the beginning of the 20th century.
Wildlife of Brazil
The Amazon rainforest, the richest and most biodiverse rainforest in the world.
Wildlife of Brazil
Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon
rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world,
with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest
biodiversity. In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate
conditions. The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats.
Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in
Brazil could approach four million.
Larger mammals include pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and
foxes; peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos are
abundant. Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World
monkeys are found in the northern rain forests. Concern for the environment
has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues.
Biodiversity can contribute to agriculture, livestock, forestry and fisheries
extraction. However, almost all economically exploited species of plants,
such as soybeans and coffee, or animals, such as chicken, are imported
from other countries, and the economic use of native species still crawls. In
the Brazilian GDP, the forest sector represents just over 1% and fishing
Wildlife of Brazil
A Toco Toucan on the left and a Jaguar on the right
World Heritage List
Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia (1985)
Historic Centre of São Luís (1997)
Historic Centre of the Town of Diamantina (1999)
Historic Centre of the Town of Goiás (2001)
Historic Centre of the Town of Olinda (1982)
Historic Town of Ouro Preto (1980)
Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Mini, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa Maria Mayor
(Argentina), Ruins of Sao Miguel das Missoes (Brazil) (1983)
Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea (2012)
Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Congonhas (1985)
São Francisco Square in the Town of São Cristóvão (2010)
Serra da Capivara National Park (1991)
Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves (1999)
Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves (2001)
Central Amazon Conservation Complex (2000)
Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks (2001)
Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves (1999)
Iguaçu National Park (1986)
Pantanal Conservation Area (2000)
Ignaçu National Park
Finger of God
The economy of Brazil is the world's seventh largest by nominal
GDP. Brazil has moderately free markets and an inward-oriented
economy. Its economy is the largest in Latin American nations and
the second largest in the western hemisphere. Brazil is one of the
fastest-growing major economies in the world with an average
annual GDP growth rate of over 5 percent. In Brazilian reals, its
GDP was estimated at R$ 4.403 trillion in 2013($2.223 trillion USD).
The Brazilian economy has been predicted to become one of the
five largest economies in the world in the decades to come. Brazil is
a member of diverse economic organizations, such as Mercosur,
Unasul, G8+5, G20, WTO, and the Cairns Group. Its trade partners
number in the hundreds, with 60 percent of exports mostly of
manufactured or semimanufactured goods. Brazil's main trade
partners in 2008 were: Mercosul and Latin America (25.9 percent of
trade), EU (23.4 percent), Asia (18.9 percent), the United States
(14.0 percent), and others (17.8 percent)
The real is the present-day currency of Brazil. Its sign is R$ and its ISO code is
Itaipu Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy
generation and second-largest by installed capacity.
• Brazil's economy is diverse,
encompassing agriculture, industry, and many services.
• Agriculture and allied sectors
like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 5.1% of
the gross domestic product in 2007, a performance that
puts agribusiness in a position of distinction in terms of
Brazil's trade balance.
• The industry —
from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computer
s, aircraft, and consumer durables— accounted for
30.8% of the gross domestic product.
• Industry, which is often technologically advanced, is
highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Campinas, Porto Alegre, and Belo Horizonte.
Coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus, beef
Agriculture growth rate
15% of total labor force
GDP of sector
3.5% of total GDP
Automobile industry, petrochemicals, machinery, electronics, cement and
construction, aircraft, textiles, food and beverages, mining, consumer durables, tourism
Industrial growth rate:
8.8% (2008 est.)
21% of total labor force
GDP of sector:
29.7% of total GDP
• Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with
much of its energy coming from renewable sources,
particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol.
• The first car with an ethanol engine was produced in
1978, the first airplane engine running on ethanol in
• It is expected to become a major oil producer and
exporter, having recently made huge oil discoveries.
• The governmental agencies responsible for the energy
policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National
Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of
Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National
Agency of Electricity.
Largest Companies in Brazil
Relations between Brazil and Turkey have roots that predate the foundation of the modern Republic of
Turkey in 1923.
Brazil maintains an embassy in Ankara while Turkey is represented in Brazil through the Embassy of
Turkey in Brasília and a Consulate General in São Paulo. Both countries are full members of the World
Trade Organization (WTO).
In May 2010, Brazil and Turkey signed a tripartite agreement with Iran aimed at partly resolving the
diplomatic crisis surrounding Iran's nuclear program.
• Brazilian roads are the primary carriers of freight and
passenger traffic. The road system totalled 1.98 million
km in 2002.
Sao Paolo traffic
• Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945,
when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The
total length of railway track was 30,875 km in 2002.
• Most of the railway system belonged to the Federal
Railroad Corporation RFFSA, which was privatized in
2007. The São Paulo Metro was the first underground
transit system in Brazil. The other metro systems are
in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo
Horizonte, Brasília, Teresina and Fortaleza.
• There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including
landing fields: the second largest number in the world,
after the United States.
• São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, near São
Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport, handling the
vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the
country and connecting the city with virtually all major
cities across the world. With 13,728,000 passengers
annually it ranks 80th worldwide.
São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport
• For freight transport waterways are of importance, e.g.
the industrial zones of Manaus can only be reached by
means of the Solimões- Amazonas waterway (3250 km
with 6 meters minimum depth).
• The Brazilian public health system, the National Health
System (SUS), is managed and provided by all levels of
government. The public health services are universal
and available to all citizens of the country for free.
However, 45.5 million Brazilians have contracted a
private health plan.
According to the Brazilian Government, the most serious health
Childhood mortality: about 2.51% of childhood mortality, reaching
3.77% in the northeast region.
Motherhood mortality: about 73.1 deaths per 100,000 born children
Mortality by non-transmissible illness: 151.7 deaths per 100,000
inhabitants caused by heart and circulatory diseases, along with
72.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants caused by cancer.
Mortality caused by external causes (transportation, violence and
suicide): 71.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants (14.9% of all deaths in
the country), reaching 82.3 deaths in the southeast region.
• The Federal Constitution and the Law of Guidelines and
Bases of National Education determine that the Federal
Government, States, Federal District and municipalities
must manage and organize their respective education
systems. Each of these public educational systems is
responsible for its own maintenance, which manages
funds as well as the mechanisms and funding sources.
• According to the IBGE, in 2011, the literacy rate of the
population was 90.4%, meaning that 13 million (9.6% of
population) people are still illiterate in the country.
The Brazilian press has its beginnings in 1808 with the arrival of the
Portuguese royal family to Brazil, hitherto forbidden any activity of
the press - was the publication of newspapers or books. The
Brazilian press was officially born in Rio de Janeiro on 13 May 1808,
with the creation of the Royal Printing, National Press by the Prince
Regent Dom João.
The Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, the first newspaper published in the
country, begins to circulate on 10 September 1808. Largest
newspapers nowadays are Folha de São Paulo (from the state of
São Paulo, daily circulation of 297.650), Super Notícia (Minas
Gerias 296.799), O Globo (RJ 277.876) and O Estado de São
• Radio broadcasting began on 7 September 1922, with a
speech by then President Pessoa, and formalized on 20
April 1923 with the creation of "Radio Society of Rio de
• Television in Brazil began officially on 18 September
1950, with the founding of TV Tupi by Assis
Chateaubriand. Since then television has grown in the
country, creating large public networks such as
Globo,SBT,Record and Bandeirantes. Today is the most
important factor in popular culture of Brazilian society,
indicated by research showing that as much as 67% of
the general population follow the same daily soap opera
Non-verbal Communication in
• The population of Brazil, as recorded by the 2008 PNAD,
was approximately 190 million(22.31 inhabitants per
square kilometer), with a ratio of men to women of
0.95:1 and 83.75% of the population defined as urban.
• The population is heavily concentrated in the
Southeastern (79.8 million inhabitants) and Northeastern
(53.5 million inhabitants) regions, while the two most
extensive regions, the Center-West and the North, which
together make up 64.12% of the Brazilian territory, have
a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants.
• The first census in Brazil was carried out in 1872 and
recorded a population of 9,930,478. From 1880 to 1930,
4 million Europeans arrived. Brazil’s population
increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, because
of a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth
rate underwent a slight decline.
• In the 1940s the annual population growth rate was
2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9%
in the 1960s, as life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 years
and to 72.6 years in 2007. It has been steadily falling
since the 1960s, from 3.04% per year between 1950 and
1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a
negative value of –0.29% by 2050 thus completing the
Race and Ethnicity
• According to the National Research by Household
Sample (PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the population
(about 92 million) described themselves as White;
43.80% (about 83 million) as Brown (Multiracial), 6.84%
(about 13 million) as Black; 0.58% (about 1.1 million) as
Asian; and 0.28% (about 536 thousand) as Amerindian
(officially called indígena, Indigenous), while 0.07%
(about 130 thousand) did not declare their race
Religion in Brazil formed from the meeting of the Roman Catholic
Church with the religious traditions of African slaves and indigenous
peoples. This confluence of faiths during the Portuguese
colonization of Brazil led to the development of a diverse array of
syncretistic practices within the overarching umbrella of Brazilian
Roman Catholicism, characterized by traditional Portuguese
festivities, and in some instances, Allan Kardec's Spiritism (most
Brazilian Spiritists are also Christians). Religious pluralism
increased during the 20th century, and a Protestant community has
grown to include over 15% of the population. The most common
Protestant denominations are Pentecostal, Evangelical, Baptist,
Seventh-day Adventist, Lutheran and the reformed churches.
• The largest metropolitan areas in Brazil are São Paulo,
Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte — all in the
• The official language of Brazil is Portuguese (Article 13
of the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil),
which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually
the only language used in newspapers, radio, television,
and for business and administrative purposes.
• Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the
Americas, making the language an important part of
Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture
distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.
• The core culture of Brazil is derived from Portuguese
culture, because of its strong colonial ties with the
Portuguese empire. Among other influences, the
Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language,
Roman Catholicism and colonial architectural styles.
• The culture was, however, also strongly influenced by
African, indigenous and non-Portuguese European
cultures and traditions.
• Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by the
contributions of Italian, German and other European as
well Japanese and Arab immigrants who arrived in large
numbers in the South and Southeast of Brazil.
• The indigenous Amerindians influenced Brazil's
language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced
language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.
• Brazilian art has developed since the 16th century into
different styles that range from Baroque (the dominant
style in Brazil until the early 19th century) to
Romanticism, Modernism, Expressionism, Cubism,
Surrealism and Abstractionism.
• Brazilian cinema dates back to the birth of the medium in
the late 19th century and has gained a new level of
international acclaim in recent years.
The Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro is a world famous festival held
before Lent every year and considered the biggest carnaval in the
world with two million people per day on the streets. The first
festivals of Rio date back to 1723.
One of the many main purposes of the Rio carnival parade is for
samba schools to compete with fellow rival... not (they are called cosisters) samba-schools; this competition is the climax of the whole
carnival festival in this city, related to the samba-schools
environment. Each school chooses a theme to try and portray in
their entry. The samba schools work to build the best
floats,costumes, lyrics, aesthetics, to represent their themes ( in
Carnival terminology called "enredo"), and to include the best music
they can from their drumming band called the bateria. There are
many parts to each school's entry including the six to eight floats
and up to 4,000 ( four thousand ) revelers per Samba-school of the
so-called Special group.
• The music of Brazil was formed mainly from the fusion of
European and African elements. Until the nineteenth
century Portugal was the gateway to most of the
influences that built Brazilian music, although many of
these elements were not of Portuguese origin, but
• The first was José Maurício Nunes Garcia, author of
sacred pieces with influence of Viennese classicism.
• The major contribution of the African element was the
rhythmic diversity and some dances and instruments that
had a bigger role in the development of popular music
and folk, flourishing especially in the twentieth century.
The indigenous hardly left their traces in the mainstream,
except in some genres of folklore.
• Popular music since the late eighteenth century began to
show signs of forming a characteristically Brazilian
sound, with samba considered the most typical and on
the UNESCO cultural heritage list.
Brazilian literature dates back to the 16th century, to the writings of
the first Portuguese explorers in Brazil, such as Pêro Vaz de
Caminha, filled with descriptions of fauna, flora and natives that
amazed Europeans that arrived in Brazil.
Brazil produced significant works in Romanticism — novelists like
Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and José de Alencar wrote novels
about love and pain.
The Brazilian Modernism, evidenced by the Week of Modern Art in
1922, was concerned with a nationalist avant-garde literature,while
Post-Modernism brought a generation of distinct poets like João
Cabral de Melo Neto, Carlos Drummond de Andrade and Vinicius
de Moraes and internationally known writers dealing with universal
and regional subjects like Jorge Amado, João Guimarães Rosa and
• Brazilian cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the
country's mix of native and immigrant populations. This
has created a national cuisine marked by the
preservation of regional differences.
• Examples are Feijoada, considered the country's
national dish; and regional foods such as vatapá,
moqueca, polenta and acarajé.
• Brazil has a variety of candies such as brigadeiros
(chocolate fudge balls), cocada (a coconut sweet),
beijinhos (coconut truffles and clove) and romeu e julieta
(cheese with a guava jam known as goiabada).
• Peanut is used to make paçoca, rapadura and pé-demoleque. Local common fruits like açaí, cupuaçu,
mango, papaya, cocoa, cashew, guava, orange,
passionfruit, pineapple, and hog plum are turned in
juices and used to make chocolates, popsicles and ice
Popular snacks are pastel (a pastry), coxinha (chicken croquete),
pão de queijo (cheese bread and cassava flour / tapioca), pamonha
(corn and milk paste), esfirra (Lebanese pastry), kibbeh (from Arabic
cuisine), empanada (pastry) and empada little salt pies filled with
shrimps or hearth of palm.
But the everyday meal consist mostly of rice and beans with beef
and salad. Its common to mix it with cassava flour (farofa). Fried
potatoes, fried cassava, fried banana, fried meat and fried cheese
are very often eaten in lunch and served in most typical restaurants.
The national beverage is coffee and cachaça is Brazil's native
liquor. Cachaça is distilled from sugar cane and is the main
ingredient in the national cocktail, Caipirinha.
About Brazilian Coffee
Brazil is a coffee giant . As Frank Sinatra sang, "They grow an awful lot of coffee in Brazil". It's the
largest producer of low grade arabica coffee, and a lot of Conilon robusta too. Brazil: there is some in
almost every espresso you drink. In fact, some espresso is 90% Brazil. And there is Brazil in most
canned coffee and big roasters' blends.
The most popular sport in Brazil is football. The Brazilian national
football team is ranked among the best in the world according to the
FIFA World Rankings, and has won the World Cup tournament a
record five times.
Volleyball, basketball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large
audiences. Brazil men's national volleyball team, for example,
currently holds the titles of the World League, World Grand
Champions Cup, World Championship and the World Cup.
Others sports practiced in Brazil are tennis, team handball,
swimming, and gymnastics have found a growing number of
enthusiasts over the last decades. Some sport variations have their
origins in Brazil: beach football, futsal (indoor football) and footvolley
emerged in Brazil as variations of football.
Pele is considered one of or the greatest football player in the world. He was
Brazilian scored 1281 goals in his carer He was notice when he was 11.Played
professional at 15.Went to national at 16.And won his first world cup at 17.
In martial arts, Brazilians developed Capoeira, Vale tudo, and
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. In auto racing, three Brazilian drivers have won
the Formula One world championship eight times.
Brazil has hosted several high-profile international sporting events,
like the 1950 FIFA World Cup and has been chosen to host the
2014 FIFA World Cup. The São Paulo circuit, Autódromo José
Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil.
São Paulo organized the IV Pan American Games in 1963, and Rio
de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007. On 2
October 2009, Rio de Janeiro was selected to host the 2016
Olympic Games and 2016 Paralympic Games, the first to be held in
South America and second in Latin America after Mexico City.
Further, the country hosted the FIBA Basketball World Cups in 1954
and 1963. At the 1963 event, the Brazil national basketball team
won one of its two world championship titles.