Spahalski B M7 A2 Powerpoint

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  • Everyone in all walks of life has heard of child abuse. It is well known that child abuse can have astounding effects on children. Although severe cases are highly publicized, little information extends to the long term psychological ramifications and effects of child abuse. Furthermore, treatment is not designated in all cases of abuse which could result in a healthier child and adult to overcome the traumatic event and psychologically damaging abuse they endured. By becoming aware of how abuse effects individuals, we can try and focus on how to treat child abuse victims to prevent long term issues. I will address 10 studies that I researched which illustrate the long term effects of physical and emotional abuse. Additionally I will present the strengths and weaknesses of the studies and findings.
  • A study was conducted on 541 participants to examine the effects of three types of child abuse on adults and the relevance toward adults suffering from Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The findings suggest that emotional abuse in children significantly impacts adults suffering from PTSD and SPD (Powers, et. al., 2009). The specific symptoms that the victims illustrated include extreme levels of social anxiety, bizarre behaviors or appearance, differential perceptions and a lack of a close support system including close friends (Powers, et. al., 2009). The study followed rigorous guidelines to remove any potential bias that may affect the results. The study was conducted through in depth interviews among three separate days which allowed the researchers to obtain more accurate results. While the results explore a relation of emotional child abuse to SPD and PTSD the findings do not suggest an exact reasoning for the link.
  • This study explores the relationship of internal and external disorders and symptoms in relation to abuse and neglect. The researchers of the study wanted to understand if specific forms of documented abuse and violence related to extreme psychiatric symptoms (Ford, et. al., 2011). The study was conducted using data of admissions for 1 year from an outpatient Psychiatric clinic with participants ranging from age 4 through 18 (Ford, et. al., 2011). Any patient without full data was excluded. The results exemplified that participants with documented physical abuse demonstrated higher levels of externalizing and internalizing problems compared to the other participants (Ford, et. al., 2011). One of the key strengths of the study is the results were examined on different levels and with different variations and factors to rule out any possible discrepancies in the results. A weakness of the study is the information was collected from an outpatient psychiatric clinic which already showed children with certain psychiatric conditions. Furthermore, the study was conducted with extensive information from the charts and data with the diagnosis already existing. Interviews were not conducted which is a weakness of the study.
  • The study was conducted to show a relationship between children that were abused and exposed to domestic violence and exemplified the internal and external behaviors relative to abuse (Moylan, et. al., 2010). Risk factors for children that were abused and exposed to violence were examined to determine the impact of internal and external behavioral issues. Information was collected over several years from different age groups for the same children (Moylan, et. al., 2010). Data was collected through interviews, official records of abuse and self-reports (Moylan, et. al., 2010). This study also found a relation to child abuse victims showing internal behaviors like anxiety, depression and being withdrawn and external behaviors like aggression and delinquency were prevalent (Moylan, et. al., 2010). The study has a strong background of data which was collected during various ages of the abused children from when they were under 6 in 1976 through 1991 during three time increments to explore the long term effects of these behavioral issues (Moylan, et. al., 2010). There were 457 participants with an almost even number of male and female participants (Moylan, et. al., 2010).
  • The study examines child abuse and the correlation of parental attachments and antisocial behaviors. Communication, trust and alienation questions were asked to the children and analyzed on the IPPA scale to determine parental attachment (Sousa, et. al., 2011). The antisocial behavior outcomes were measured through self-reporting of offenses ranging from assault and delinquency (Sousa, et. al., 2011). The results found that children without parental attachments and that were abused had a higher risk for antisocial behaviors than children who were not abused and had normal levels of attachment (Sousa, et. al., 2011). Analysis was done twice, once using a non-exposed group of participants and the other with dual-exposure to examine the effects of attachment and anti-social behaviors among child abuse victims and examine the variations and differences among participants that were abused versus non-abused (Sousa, et. al., 2011). A weakness of the study is the offenses were self-reported which could indicate that some offenses may have gone unreported or were not completely truthful.
  • The article presented information from various study sources and from psychotherapy sessions to explore the effects of child abuse and the protection levels and disassociation among adult victims (Thomas, 2003). The information suggests that child abuse victims tend to feel unprotected and unable to defend themselves because they did not have a protective caregiver when they were children (Thomas, 2003). Additionally, the lack of interpersonal defense the victim feels often leads to disassociation and revictimization (Thomas, 2003). The article presents findings from various studies that represent the effects of child abuse on adults. Although some of the research is from actual clients in psychotherapy which could appear to be a first hand strength of knowledge the proposed ideas coming from the abuse may be biased by the counselor if they were also the researcher. The strength of the article is that the results are from actual clients that are in psychotherapy which can give a first hand insight into how the client feels.
  • Female victims of child abuse were studied during young and middle adulthood to examine the effects of PTSD and substance abuse issues. The study found that women suffering from symptoms of PTSD in adulthood as a result of childhood abuse were at higher risk to abuse substances (White and Widom, 2008). The findings also suggest that intervention is necessary to treat PTSD symptoms and teach coping mechanisms to prevent substance abuse and illicit drug use from female child abuse victims (White and Widom, 2008). The study was conducted on 582 women during two time periods, young adult hood with a mean age of 29 and middle adulthood with the mean ago of 40 (White and Widom, 2008). The large number of participant’s illustrates strength by removing circumstances of casual factors and inferences. Only women are researched in the study which presents an issue on whether or not these same factors effect men.
  • This study examined the relationship between child abuse victims and the long term effects related to extreme amounts of drinking alcohol in middle adulthood (Widom, et. al., 2007). 396 subjects matched controls for cases of child abuse and/or neglect (Widom, et. al., 2007). The victims were interviewed and followed in middle adulthood with the median age of 40 (Widom, et. al., 2007). Alcohol abuse or dependence during young adulthood and excessive alcohol drinking during middle adulthood followed the guidelines set forth in the 3 rd edition of the DSM (Widom, et. al., 2007). Results concluded that female participants who were abused as children compared to non-abuse participants drank more alcohol in the past year and also in the number of days where they consumed 8 or more drink (Widom, et. al., 2007). The information was accurately gained and showed the effects of abuse on women and excessive drinking while concluding it does not have an effect on men in middle adulthood. The weakness is the information was obtained through self-reporting interviews and the information from the participants may be inaccurate.
  • An article by Elam and Kleist presents a collection of studies and the results that indicate long term effects from child abuse (Elam and Kleist, 1999). The research studies were examined to find a collaborative range of long term effects originating from child abuse. The findings suggest that child abuse alone does not indicate problems in adulthood but rather different circumstances like family dynamics and multiple types of abuse contribute to long term psychological effects (Elam and Kleist, 1999). Child abuse victims with family dysfunction or victims that were psychologically abused consistently have more long term effects than those with other types of abuse or family backgrounds (Elam and Kleist, 1999). Some of the issues presented in the article include unstable relationships, lack of boundaries, depression, low self esteem, low trust levels and feeling powerless (Elam and Kleist, 1999). The article presents comparative results from multiple studies which allow the authors to present the information from various resources. All of the studies presented in the article explain the procedures, measurement, participants and specifics of the studies. The article information could be biased if the researchers only pulled studies and information particular to their original hypothesis or beliefs .
  • A study was conducted on children between the ages of 8-12 that were physically abused and the effects it has on their social relationships (Salzinger, et. al., 1993). 87 child abuse victims were compared socially to 87 non-victim children with various ways of collecting information (Salzinger, et. al., 1993). Ratings by peers were done in the classroom, the child’s social network was determined through child interviews, family constructs were analyzed by interviewing the mother and behavior problems were explored by teachers (Salzinger, et. al., 1993). The results found social maladjustment of child abuse victims and the findings suggest lower peer status, more aggression, disturbed behaviors and negative social networking (Salzinger, et. al., 1993). Comparing child abuse victims with non-victims helps set forth any variations between social statuses among their peers. A downfall to the study was that it was conducted on 87 urban victims aged 8-12 which doesn’t allow for variation among race, culture, age and familial backgrounds (Salzinger, et. al., 1993).
  • 410 child abuse victims were studied in adulthood to look at the adverse effects of child abuse in comparison to health risks, specifically the risk of obesity among child abuse victims (Bentley and Widom, 2009). The study compared victims with documented cases of child abuse and a follow up in thirty years with 303 non-abused subjects coming from a similar social class, age, race, and sex to compare their obesity level (Bentley and Widom, 2009). BMI and obesity were measured and the results concluded that physical childhood abuse has a significant correlation to obesity in adulthood (Bentley and Widom, 2009). The research was done over a length of time and included specific factors that were controlled including cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (Bentley and Widom, 2009). Furthermore, the research was done on a large number of victims and non-victims with comparative backgrounds to obtain accurate results.
  • The impact of both physical and emotional abuse on a child can dramatically affect the individual’s development from childhood through adulthood with the effect lasting their entire life. The abuse ends with the individual consequently feeling emotionally scarred and significant damages to their mental state and well-being. It is evident that child abuse takes a toll on adults in both a mental and physical capacity. Some of the physical ramifications related to child abuse research conclude that obesity and BMI are negatively affected in adulthood by victims of child abuse (Bentley and Widom, 2009). Furthermore, two separate research studies were conducted to explore the impact that child abuse had on drinking alcohol and illicit drug use. The results showed women who were abused as children were more likely to drink daily and consume a large number of drinks in a single day (Widom, et. al., 2007). Several other studies conducted show the correlation of child abuse and the abused victim suffering from PTSD symptoms, depression and psychological disorders. Further research illustrates the psychological and emotional impact of child abuse victims including PTSD, internalizing and externalizing behavioral issues, antisocial behaviors, social maladjustment, disassociation, feeling defenseless and revictimization.
  • Spahalski B M7 A2 Powerpoint

    1. 1. Implications of Child Abuse Brittany Spahalski
    2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>Child abuse is a traumatic experience that causes victims suffering and pain throughout their lifetime. The consequence can have debilitating outward effects that cause a variation of issues ranging from low self-esteem to depression and PTSD. The prevalence of child abuse effects are astoundingly high and are considered a worldwide epidemic not specifically isolated to the United States. The struggles children face as they get older is immense and causes a strong emotional trigger in most. The cycle of abuse progressively worsens as each year passes with more children becoming victims. The research objective is to understand how the unresolved conflicts of abuse affect adults. The effects are important to understand so treatment options and prevention methods can cohesively exist. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Study 1 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional abuse in children significantly impacts adults suffering from PTSD and SPD (Powers, et. al., 2009). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms the victims illustrated include extreme levels of social anxiety, bizarre behaviors or appearance, differential perceptions and a lack of a close support system including close friends (Powers, et. al., 2009). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigorous guidelines were employed which removes the potential bias with a smaller number of subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results explore a relation of emotional child abuse to SPD and PTSD the findings do not suggest an exact reasoning for the link. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Study 2 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants who were physically abused demonstrated higher levels of externalizing and internalizing problems compared to the other participants (Ford, et. al., 2011). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety and depression are among the internal behaviors & aggression, substance abuse, impulsiveness & hyperactive behaviors are considered external (Ford, et. al., 2011). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results were examined on different levels and with different variations and factors to rule out any possible discrepancies in the results. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Study was conducted with extensive information from the charts and data and interviews were not implemented. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Study 3 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Children who were victims of abuse and exposed to violence showed internal behaviors like anxiety, depression and being withdrawn and external behaviors like aggression and delinquency were prevalent (Moylan, et. al., 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><li>A strong background of data which was collected during various ages of the abused children from when they were under 6 in 1976 through 1991 during three time increments to explore the long term effects of these behavioral issues (Moylan, et. al., 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>There were 457 participants with an almost even number of male and female participants (Moylan, et. al., 2010). </li></ul>
    6. 6. Study 4 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children without parental attachments that were abused had a higher risk for antisocial behaviors than children who were not abused & had normal attachment (Sousa, et. al., 2011). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis was done twice, using a non-exposed group of participants and a dually-exposed group to examine the variations and differences among participants that were abused versus non-abused (Sousa, et. al., 2011). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The offenses were self-reported which could indicate that some offenses may have gone unreported or were not entirely truthful. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Study 5 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative symptoms suggest that child abuse victims tend to feel unprotected and unable to defend themselves because they did not have a protective caregiver when they were children (Thomas, 2003). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lack of interpersonal defense that the victim feels often leads to disassociation and revictimization (Thomas, 2003). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research is from actual clients in psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential bias if the researcher is also the counselor </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Study 6 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women suffering from symptoms of PTSD in adulthood as a result of childhood abuse are at a higher risk to abuse substances (White and Widom, 2008). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research suggests that intervention is necessary to treat PTSD symptoms and teach coping mechanisms to prevent substance abuse and illicit drug use from female child abuse victims (White and Widom, 2008). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study was conducted on 582 women during two time periods which illustrates strength by removing circumstances of casual factors and inferences (White and Widom, 2008). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only women are researched in the study which presents an issue on whether or not these same factors effect men. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Study 7 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>396 women with documented cases of child abuse consume a higher quantity of alcohol in a year than non-abused women, consumed more drinks monthly and had more than eight drinks daily (Widom, et. al., 2007). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A high number of subjects were interviewed during two time periods to gain accurate analysis on long term effects. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The information was obtained through self-reporting interviews and the information from the participants may be inaccurate. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Study 8 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologically abused children or victims with family dysfunction consistently illustrate long term effects (Elam and Kleist, 1999). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues include unstable relationships, lack of boundaries, depression, low self esteem, low trust levels and feeling powerless (Elam and Kleist, 1999). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative results from multiple studies which allow information from various resources. All of the studies explain the procedures, measurement, participants and specifics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The information could be biased if the researchers only pulled studies and research particular to their hypothesis or belief. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Study 9 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social maladjustment of child abuse victims and the results suggest lower peer status, more aggression, disturbed behaviors and negative social networking (Salzinger, et. al., 1993). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing child abuse victims with non-victims helps set forth any variations between social statuses among their peers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study was conducted on 87 urban victims aged 8-12 which doesn’t allow for variation among race, culture, age and familial backgrounds. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Study 10 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BMI and obesity were measured and the results concluded that physical childhood abuse has a significant correlation to obesity in adulthood (Bentley and Widom, 2009). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The research was done over a length of time and included specific factors that were controlled including cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (Bentley and Widom, 2009). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research was conducted on a large number of victims and non-victims with comparative backgrounds to obtain accurate results. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Conclusion <ul><li>Dramatically affects the individual’s development from childhood through adulthood with the effect lasting their entire life. </li></ul><ul><li>The victim feels emotionally scarred and significant damage tp their mental state and well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical ramifications of child abuse research conclude that obesity and BMI are negatively affected in adulthood by victims of child abuse (Bentley and Widom, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Women who were abused as children are more likely to drink daily & consume a large number of drinks in a single day (Widom, et. al., 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Other studies show a correlation of child abuse and the abused victim suffering from PTSD symptoms, depression and psychological disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Research illustrates the psychological and emotional impact of child abuse victims including PTSD, internalizing and externalizing behavioral issues, antisocial behaviors, social maladjustment, disassociation, feeling defenseless and revictimization. </li></ul>
    14. 14. References <ul><li>Bentley, T., & Widom, C. S. (2009). A 30-year Follow-up of the Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect on Obesity in Adulthood. Obesity (19307381) , 17 (10), 1900-1905. </li></ul><ul><li>Elam, G., & Kleist, D. (1999). Research on the long-term effects of child abuse. Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 7 (2), 154-160. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/62413600?accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Ford, J. D., Gagnon, K., Connor, D. F., & Pearson, G. (2011). History of interpersonal violence, abuse, and non-victimization trauma and severity of psychiatric symptoms among children in outpatient psychiatric treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26 (16), 3316. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/899210614?accountid=34899 </li></ul>
    15. 15. References Cont. <ul><li>Moylan, C. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E. A., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (2010). The effects of child abuse and exposure to domestic violence on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Family Violence, 25 (1), 53-53-63. doi:10.1007/s10896-009-9269-9 </li></ul><ul><li>Powers, D. A., Thomas, K. M., Ressler, J. K., Bradley, B. (2011). The differential effects of child abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder on schizotypal personality disorder , Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52 (4), 438-445. </li></ul><ul><li>Salzinger, S. S. (1993). The effects of physical abuse on children’s social relationships. Child Development , 64 (1), 169-187 </li></ul>
    16. 16. References Cont. <ul><li>Sousa, C., Herrenkohl, T. I., Moylan, C. A., Tajima, E. A., Klika, J., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. (2011). Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence , 26(1), 111-136. doi:10.1177/0886260510362883 </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, P. M. (2003). Protection, dissociation, and internal roles: Modeling and treating the effects of child abuse. Review of General Psychology, 7 (4), 364-364-380. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.7.4.364 </li></ul><ul><li>White, H., & Widom, C. (2008). Three potential mediators of the effects of child abuse and neglect on adulthood substance use among women. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69 (3), 337-347. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/886569615?accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Widom, C., White, H., Czaja, S., & Marmorstein, N. (2007). Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on alcohol use and </li></ul><ul><li>excessive drinking in middle adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68 (3), 317-326. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>http://search.proquest.com/docview/289251346?accountid=34899 </li></ul>

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