Lecture 9   tourism in south asia-1
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Lecture 9 tourism in south asia-1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. TDM 458AraPachmayerTOURISM IN ASIA
  • 2.  Strong and vibrant cultures Less assimilated by the west Preserved traditional practicesLanguageAgriculturalReligionLifestyleOVERVIEW OF ASIA
  • 3.  South AsiaPakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal . . .Greatest diversity of ethnicities in the world South East AsiaThailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Singapore . . .Culturally diverse East AsiaChina, Korea, Japan . . .Relatively homogenous, share Chinese influencesOVERVIEW OF ASIA
  • 4. Size - largest continentArea - 31,415,000 sq km (23% of the globalland area)Variety of countries - 48Population - close to 3.8 billion or 56% of theworld’s populationLarge population base for domestic andregional travel, short and long haul tourismFACTORS AFFECTING ASIA TOURISMEVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT
  • 5. Has more than double the average worldpopulation - crowded citiesHas 6 of the world’s 10 largest cities: Tokyo,Mumbai (Bombay), Shanghai, Calcutta, Seoul,BeijingDiversity - Oil rich to peasant poor, rural tourban, industrialized to traditional; varyingpolitical systemsFACTORS AFFECTING ASIA TOURISMEVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT
  • 6. Tremendous historical and cultural resources:religious, architectural, festivals, gastronomic,lifestyle - which makes it an attractive andinteresting place to visitVariation in landforms, ecological and physicalenvironments: almost from the Mediterraneanto the Pacific and the Indian Ocean; deserts toalpine and forests zones; plains tomountains; islands to mainlandFACTORS AFFECTING ASIA TOURISMEVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT
  • 7. In 2011Asia accounted for about 20% of global arrivalsAsia and the Pacific accounted for 20% of departuresBoth are increasing quickly!Asia and the Pacific account +30% globalarrivals by 2030TOURISM OVERVIEW
  • 8. INTERNATIONAL TOURIST ARRIVALS,1950-2030
  • 9. KEY DESTINATIONS IN ASIA 2011Country Arrivals (Millions) Receipts(Billions of$)China 57.6 48.5Hong Kong 22.3 27.7Malaysia 24.7 18.3Thailand 19.1 26.3Macau 13 NRSingapore 10.4 18Indonesia 7.7 8* In 2011 growth was primarily driven by Southeast Asiandestinations (Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Cambodia . . . )
  • 10. Four Countries receive over 65% ofarrivals in AsiaThese are China (including HongKong and Macau) Thailand, Malaysiaand SingaporeCONCENTRATION OF TOURISM
  • 11. OTHER DESTINATIONS IN ASIA 2011Country Arrivals (Millions) Receipts(Billions of$)South Korea 9.8 12.3Japan(-27.8%) 6.2 11India 6.3 17.5Taiwan 6.0 11.0Vietnam 6.0 5.6Philippines 3.9 3.2Cambodia 2.9 1.7
  • 12. FREE FLIGHTS TO BOOST TOURISM TOJAPANhttp://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-10-10/japan-offering-free-trips-to-foreigners/3459548?section=world
  • 13.  Global (and Asian) recession Terrorism targeting tourism enterprises especiallyIndonesia, India, Philippines Islamic Fundamentalism Civil wars - India/Pakistan, East Timor, Tamil Tigers North - South Korea conflict Illegal drug traffic Disasters - earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, droughts,environmental disastersCURRENT AND FUTURE ISSUES IN ASIA
  • 14. TOURISM IN SOUTH ASIA
  • 15. PakistanIndiaBangladeshNepalBhutanSri LankaThe MaldivesSOUTH ASIA
  • 16.  The world’s second largest population cluster (where is 1st?) Significant demographic problems Linguistic diversity & More than 2000 ethnic groups Strong cultural regionalism - culturally fragmented Fast growing birthrates Religious Patterns Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism Low income economies - 2nd lowest average income afterSub-Saharan Africa Culture Shock for western visitors Population concentrated in villages - subsistence agriculture Boundary problems (Pakistan - India, Jammu & Kashmir) Climatic disturbanceMAJOR QUALITIES OF SOUTH ASIA
  • 17. PAKISTAN
  • 18. Islamic Republic of PakistanPopulation - 166.9 million80% Sunni Muslim; 16% Shia MinorityPAKISTAN
  • 19. West PakistanEast PakistanIndiaPAKISTAN (AT PARTITION)
  • 20.  Partition and Independence Leaders of Jammu and Kashmirjoined with India (they were Hindu) Hindu ruler but Muslim population Pakistan wants region back Almost continuous state of war since 1947 Long history of tourism in the region, Main source of income Floating luxury hotels and houseboats on lakes However, issues with tourism in the region include Dal Lake - has shrunk due to unregulated tourism andresidential development Periodic terrorist and military action Decline in tourismKASHMIR
  • 21. Used to be fairly significant Abundance of natural and cultural resourcesPolitical crisis and war have deteriorated tourism Travel warnings aboundRelationship between India and PakistanLittle other tourism beyond VFR but missing India to some degree Difficult for Indians and Pakistanis to get visas to eithercountry (though citizens of other countries can cross)TOURISM IN PAKISTAN
  • 22. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KWc1cEV-wAoBORDER CROSSING VIDEO
  • 23. INDIA
  • 24. Encompasses 75% of the total area in SouthAsiaPopulation - 1.2 billion - largest democracy inthe world28% Urbanized14 major and many minor languagesINDIA
  • 25. Average annual income - $2,880 Per person38% live below the poverty lineTraditional village farming and modernagricultureHandicraft, old and new branches of industrySupport services - Call CentersClothing IndustryECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
  • 26. Kolkatta (Calcutta) - 14.6 million500,000 Homeless/est. 200,000 are childrenFormer British Colonial Capital - 1772 - 1911Delhi (New and Old) - 16.2 millionBritish and Indian seat of GovernmentMumbai (Bombay) - 18.9 millionAchieved primacy based on location (SuezCanal)CITIES
  • 27. Transportation Well developed train system allowed for mobility, alsocomprehensive road networkAdapted from the English Legal system Political system Education systemConflicts between Hindus and Muslims(partition)Caste system Abolished in 1950 but still important in rural and moretraditional areasCOLONIALISM AND THEMODERNIZATION OF INDIA
  • 28.  Grew by 9% in 2011, 12% in 2010 Growing as a source market as well VFRHuge Indian Diaspora from emigration, voluntary andforced (indentured servitude). These people return“home” BackpackerExotic, beaches, trekkingRishikesh - 100K visitors/per year (vegetarian city bylaw, have banned the use of plastic bags, worldcapital of Yoga, famous for the Beatles visit)TOURISM IN INDIA
  • 29.  NatureNational parks, mountains and nature preserves CultureMultiplicity of cultures and historic sites Religious TourismHindu, Buddhist and Muslim pilgrimagesKumbha Mela and other festivalsAshrams (meditation centers Medical Tourism Full Service “package” Business TourismTOURISM IN INDIA
  • 30. TRANSPORTATION/INFRASTRUCTURE
  • 31. VFR
  • 32. BANGLADESH
  • 33. Independent since 1971Formerly East PakistanPopulation - 147 millionDensity - 3914/square mile (AZ = 91/squaremile, Phoenix = 2700/square mile2.1% annual growth rateAnnual income $1870 per personNatural Hazards - Cyclones, FloodingBANGLADESH
  • 34. TOURISM POTENTIALWorld’s largest unbroken beach in the Bay ofBengalWorld’s largest mangrove forestHome of the Bengal tigerSeveral ancient cities dating to the 12thcentury
  • 35. BARRIERS TO TOURISM Annual ClimaticDisturbances Muslim - perceived securityconcerns Low levels of technologicaldevelopment One of the world’s poorestand least developedcountries
  • 36. HIMALAYAN KINGDOMS
  • 37.  Turbulent political situation Maoist rebels, Changes in government Traditions of tourism due to hundreds of years of religioustourism Culture Kathmandu - City of Temples, Freak Street, gateway to Everest Kathmandu Valley - 7 UNESCO WHS Lumbini - birthplace of Lord Buddha - WHS Nature Chitwan National Park - Rhinos, tigers, and elephants, oh my! Trekking - Annapurna Mount Everest Mt. Everest…Grew by 37% in 2007…declined by 5% in 2008 $10K - $65K per person for a climbing permit which =majorrevenue Environmental degradation is a major issue! - trash, tramping,burning bushes which leads to erosionNEPAL
  • 38.  Mountain Kingdom in Himalayas Closed Buddhist Society GNH - Gross National Happiness Unique tourism modelTourism highly restricted, only 25,000 a yearProtectionismCulture and religionNatural environment“High Value, Low Volume/Low Impact”BHUTAN
  • 39.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m9MFDOGUJA0 Watch this short video if you would like additional informationon Bhutan - not required http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FbCus2hNUcoSustainable Adventure Rural Tourism Projectbetween Bhutan and Costa RicaBHUTAN
  • 40.  The Maldives >1,000 Islands <115 square miles Population - 300,000 Mainly Muslim Highest GNP in the region Tourism dependent Prone to disasters Only 8 feet above sea level on average so vulnerable tostorms, tsunamis The sinking islands It is expected that the Maldives will be below sea level withinthe next century due to rising sea levelsTHE MALDIVES
  • 41.  Unique tourism modelCatering to affluent EuropeansIslands as self-contained resortsTourists aren’t encouraged to leave resortsTourism restricted by the government Maldives PR disasterhttp://minivannews.com/society/resort-wedding-ceremony-in-dhivehi-degrades-tourist-couple-as-infidel-swine-mocks-islam-12671THE MALDIVES