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Lecture 7   tourism in the middle east and north africa
 

Lecture 7 tourism in the middle east and north africa

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    Lecture 7   tourism in the middle east and north africa Lecture 7 tourism in the middle east and north africa Presentation Transcript

    • TOURISM IN THE MIDDLE EASTAND NORTH AFRICATDM 458Ara Pachmayer
    • OVERVIEW The Middle East is one of the originalcultural hearths Deserts, Arabs, Oil, Muslims andgeopolitical turmoil represent the commonconceptualization of the Middle East Development of the petroleum industry hashad a large impact on the region OPEC (Organization of Petroleum ExportingCountries) – member countries profoundlyinfluence global prices and production targets forpetroleum
    • INTRODUCTION Regions The Maghreb The Levant Anatolia(Asia Minor) Mesopotamia ArabianPeninsula
    • POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT Geography of the Population More than 400 million people Dominant population clusters around water Maghreb: more humid areas of the Atlas Mts. and coast Exotic Rivers - a river that comes from a humid area andflows into a dry area that otherwise lacks streams, cansupport irrigation Egypt’s Nile River Valley: 70 million live within 10 miles ofthe river – one of the most densely populated places in theworld Jordan River Valley Kibbutz - Israeli collectively worked settlement thatproduce grain, vegetable and orchard crops irrigated bythe Jordan River and feeder canals Agrotourism Tigris and Euphrates
    • POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT Oasis Life Areas where high groundwater or deep-water wellsprovide reliable moisture Small agriculture settlements Trading Centers Al Ain, UAE - Oasis turned resort town
    • POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT Some of the world’s oldest urban areas Some are main tourist centers . . . Others are not Cairo vs. Baghdad Long Urban Legacy City life began in Mesopotamia (modern dayIraq) and Egypt Rise of trade centers around 2000 B.C. These cities eventually became Centers ofIslamic religious administration and education Baghdad, Cairo Traditional urban core of an Islamic City - medina Often the main tourist attraction in an Islamic City Colonialism left European influence
    • POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT Signatures of Globalization Urban Centers have become focal points ofeconomic growth Oil wealth has added modern elements totraditional cities A Region on the Move Migration Rural to Urban – like we see in Latin America and Africa Migration of low-wage workers from other areas (e.g.Bangladesh workers in Dubai) Migration of workers from the region elsewhere
    • POPULATION IN THE REGION
    • PATTERNS OF RELIGION Heart of the Judeo - Christian TraditionJews and Christians trace their roots to theeastern Mediterranean The emergence of IslamOriginated in Middle East in 622 A.D.Judaism and Christianity share many of thesame prophets
    • PATTERNS OF RELIGION The emergence of Islam Five Pillars Repeat the basic creed to accept Islam, Pray five timesdaily facing Mecca, Give charitable contributions (ifpossible), Fast during the month of Ramadan Make at least one religious pilgrimage to Mecca - theHajj Theocratic State - one in which religious leadersguide policy - for example Iran
    • PATTERNS OF RELIGION The emergence of Islam Major religious schism divided Islam early on,and until today Shiites and Sunnis Conflicts impact stability of the region today Modern Islamic diversity Muslim majority in region, except for Israel andCyprus Sunni (73%), Shiites (23%) dominant in Iran, southernIraq, Lebanon, Sudan and Bahrain
    • DIFFUSION OF ISLAM
    • REGIONAL CULTURES IN GLOBALCONTEXT Islamic Internationalism Islamic communities well established in CentralChina, European Russia, the Balkans, CentralAfrica, southern Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia Globalization and Cultural Change Global economy is having an impact on traditionalcultural values Fundamentalism is a reaction in small minority Access to satellite TV, cell phones, the internet bringsglobal culture to the region Some cities are trying to balance these complexcultures – Dubai is pursuing modern growth but stillprotecting cultural heritage and religious tradition
    • GEOPOLITICAL FRAMEWORK The Colonial Legacy European colonialism came late Widespread European colonialism after WWI Many political boundaries set by colonial powers Imposing European Power French in Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Syria andLebanon since 1800 Italians in Libya, Spanish in Morocco Turkey, Iran (Persia) never occupied Britain in Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf by1900 Suez Canal British instrumental in establishing Saudi Arabia
    • GEOPOLITICAL FRAMEWORK Imposing European Power Decolonization and Independence Europeans began to withdraw before WWII By 1950 most independent Algeria independent in 1962 Modern Geopolitical Issues The Arab-Israeli Conflict Creation of Israel in 1948 Three wars - 1956, 1967 (when Israel gained most land)and 1973 Intifada - 1987 - Palestinian uprising protesting Jewishsettlements; Second Intifada in 2000 Ongoing conflict between Israelis and Palestinians
    • GEOPOLITICAL FRAMEWORK Modern Geopolitical Issues Conflicts within states in addition to Iraq andIsrael Lebanon Cyprus Green Line - demarcation set up by UN peacekeepers thatdivided the capital of Nicosia Arab Spring Current Anti-American Sentiment An uncertain Political Future International political relations remain complex Israel, Turkey, Jordan are US allies; Iran, Syria opposeUS Oil plays a major role
    • ECONOMIC & SOCIALDEVELOPMENT Geography of Fossil Fuels Oil unevenly distributed in the area Saudi Arabia, Iran, U.A.E., Libya, Algeria contributesignificantly to oil production, while Morocco and Sudanhave few developed petroleum reserves This region has 7% of the world’s population; holds 68%of the world’s proven petroleum reserves Regional Economic Patterns Higher-Income Oil Exporters Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, U.A.E. Cultural landscape reshaped because of oil wealth Not all benefit – rural Shiites and foreign workers High levels of disposable income makes these countrieslarge tourist source countries
    • ECONOMIC & SOCIALDEVELOPMENT Regional Economic Patterns Lower-Income Oil Exporters Algeria: oil and natural gas are its top exports; butpolitical instability remains a problem Iran: has huge oil reserves, but long war with Iraq (1980-90), and withdrawal from world trade underfundamentalist government have lowered livingstandards Prospering Without Oil Israel has highest living standard in the region Growing hi-tech industry Turkey has a diversified economy; has seen growth
    • ECONOMIC & SOCIALDEVELOPMENT Regional Economic Patterns Regional Patterns of Poverty Morocco is poorer than Algeria or Tunisia and suffersfrom brain drain Brain drain – phenomenon in which some of brightest youngpeople leave for better jobs in Western Europe Egypt’s prospects unclear, with growth in 1990s, butlarge gaps between rich and poor Yemen is poorest country in the Arabian Peninsula Increasing Islamic Extremists presence
    • ECONOMIC & SOCIALDEVELOPMENT Global Economic Relationships Changing Global Linkages Oil is the major export of the region Oil makes up 70% of region’s exports OPEC still influences cost and availability of petroleum Turkey exports textiles, food products, andmanufactured goods Israeli exports include cutdiamonds, electronics, machinery parts Tourism includes religious and historical sites, otheractivities Regional Connections Relationships with the EU are critical; Turkey asks to joinEU (not admitted, but is a member of NATO)
    • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
    • CONCLUSIONS The Middle East and North Africa played critical rolein world history and globalization Important cultural hearth and religious center at theintersection of three continents Oil plays world role in development of the region Political conflicts disrupt economic development Tension between modern ways and fundamentalisttraditions impacts tourism in the country and wherethe population travels Diverse and often harsh and fragile environment
    • TOURISM TODAY
    • REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Created in 1969 Member Countries 5 Islamic countries ruled by Islamic law -Afghanistan, Brunei-Darussalam, Iran, Mauritania, Pakistan 9 monarchies -Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Morocco, Oman, Qatar,Saudi Arabia, UAE 41 republics - Albania, Algeria, countries inAfrica, Asia, South America 2 other - Palestine and Libya Purpose A UN for Muslims A separate Universal Declaration of Human Rights Section which focuses on tourism
    • REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Member Countries Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE Purpose To formulate similar regulations in various fields such aseconomy, finance, trade, customs, tourism, legislation andadministration To foster scientific and technical progress To establish scientific research centers To set up joint ventures To encourage cooperation in the private sector To strengthen ties between the citizens of member states To establish a common currency, the Khaleeji by 2010 . . .haven’t yet
    • TOURISM IN THE MIDDLE EAST &NORTH AFRICA Ancient historical sites and globally significantreligious localities are a large draw Tourist hotels and condos on the Mediterranean Tourism is a large part of the regional economy inTurkey, Israel, and Egypt
    • TOURISM STATISTICS & TRENDS IN THEMIDDLE EAST (Excluding Turkey and Israel) 5.6% of total global international arrivals (smallincrease from 2011) Set backs in growth but still the Fastest growingregion in world Average of 7.3% annual growth 2005-11 in termsof arrivals Tourism down 41% in Syria, 32% in Egypt, 24% in Lebanon But tourism up 60% in Saudi Arabia - efforts to increase role oftourism in the country’s economy 9% in Dubai specifically (only emirate reporting) Continued investment in tourism(UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia)
    • MIDDLE EAST AS A SOURCE MARKETEmerging source marketPeople in the region have money to spend!36 million people traveling internationally8.1% annual growth 2005-11 (highest in world)
    • INTERNATIONAL TOURISMEXPENDITURES Highest expenditures Turkey - $23 Billion Saudi Arabia - $8.4 Billion UAE (Dubai) - $ 9.2 Billion Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE (Dubai) account for 57%of tourism expenditures in Middle East (notcounting Turkey)
    • DESTINATIONS
    •  Business tourism in Riyadh Shopping and Coastal Tourism in Jeddah Over 2 million Muslim pilgrims to Mecca andMedina annuallySAUDI ARABIA
    •  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J4nfycGHnK8&feature=related Hajj tourism packagesTHE HAJJ
    •  Crossroads of Europe/Middle East Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, OttomanEmpire Archaeological and history sites are thefoundation of tourism in Turkey EU Rejection…(somewhat more economically stablethen many of EU nations) Very Diverse Attractions Istanbul (Constantinople) Blue Mosque and Hagia Sofia Mediterranean Coast (Turquoise Coast) Black Sea Coast is underdevelopment CappadociaTURKEY
    •  Continued Violence Israel entry stamp Sacred sites and cities Pilgrimage destination for Jews, Christians, and Muslims Perception by Westerners TV media coverage leads most to conclude it is not a safeplace Diverse tourism in Israel Source and destination for Backpackers- Traditionally long-term, young, middle class on an independently organizedbudget orientated trip Kibbutz Cruise Dead Sea and Spa Tourism Jerusalem and BethlehemISRAEL
    •  Over 2 million annual visitors to Israel Relationship with USA major driver of demand VFR and Birthright Many international connections to Tel Aviv National Carrier El Al US Airways started flights from Philadelphia-Tel Aviv Large source of outbound tourism 3 million annual outbound tourists Lots of VFR touristsISRAEL
    •  Abu Dhabi and Sharjah concentrated on business andconference tourism Dubai Explosion of mass tourism Heavy investment for development of state-of-artinfrastructure, facilities, and man-made attractions Transportation Hub Cruise Terminal Emirates airlines and Dubai International Airport 50+ A380s on order/delivered $9 billion investment in new A380 dedicated terminal Shopping Malls (Mall of Emirates and Dubai Mall) Nightlife (Playground of Middle East) Sport Tourism (golf, racing, tennis, yachting, marinas) Artificial Islands (Palm Islands and World Islands) Desert Safaris Iconic buildings (Burj Khalifa - the tallest building in theworld and Burj al Arab - the most expensive hotel in theworld)UAE AND DUBAI
    • DUBAI ECONOMIC DOWNTURNhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cAg4pHDeXjAAnd recoveryhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=apgRUQ-WX3g
    • EGYPT Population of 70 million people 20 million in Cairo Nile River Pyramids Luxor Alexandria Oasis tourism Red Sea Coast (dive and resort tourism) Religious sights (Mt. Sinai) Tourism concerns Reef destruction Rise of fundamentalism among lower social classes Overloaded infrastructure Pollution and Urban sprawl of Cairo for Pyramids
    • JORDAN Significant oil resources so money to invest in infrastructure Two diverse populations Palestinian refugees and Bedouin Tribes Participate in tourism through camel guiding, overnightexperiences to Bedouin camps King Hussein instrumental in development of tourism Relatively progressive government Major attractions Petra (Indiana Jones/Transformers 2 temple) Dead Sea Wadi Rum Roman city of Jerash Pilgrimage sites on Jordan River (where Jesus wasbaptized) Beach and Resorts on Red Sea (Aqaba) Most hotel development in capital Amman and Aqaba
    • EMERGING DESTINATIONSWould you take a vacation in Iraq?http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-11392098