Lecture 4 tourism in the caribbean


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  • While the region offers many of the same tourism opportunities, I want to give an overview of some places in the Caribbean
  • Lecture 4 tourism in the caribbean

    1. 1. The CaribbeanTDM 458Ara Pachmayer
    2. 2. Main Geographical Features Tropical location: between 5 and 30 degreesnorth of the Equator Sheltered from strong trade winds Significant and diverse maritime andhydrological resources – in addition to oceans- reefs, ship wrecks, etc. Diverse relief and ecological habitats Tropics, volcanic islands, beaches, deserts Mild and reliable climatic conditions
    3. 3.  Stretches about 2,000 miles from north tosouth (Florida to South America) Consists of about 32 countries; each made upof several individual islands Strategic location between North and SouthAmerica (proximity to US & CanadianMarket) Location in summer hurricane regionMain Geographical Features
    4. 4. Map of Caribbean
    5. 5.  Warm blue waters an average of 76F yearround Many of the countries have evolved into water-sport destinations They refined the luxury, all-inclusive holidayconcept Heavy dependence on tourism About 25%-75% direct and indirect employment isin tourismThe Caribbean
    6. 6. The CaribbeanGenerally, single-destination “stay-puts”, but inter-island air travel andisland hopping tourism is increasingLeading cruise region in the worldExpanding wedding and honeymoontourism (Romance Tourism)Bareboat self-charters and crewedyacht cruising are also important
    7. 7. Historical FactorsOriginally settled by peaceful ArawakIndiansFollowed by Fierce Carib IndiansEuropean exploration about 500 yearsago, led by Spain; destruction ofCaribs, Arawaks and their cultures Dominica - only island with a remaining indigenouspopulationEuropean colonization, exploitation, andmercantilism (mostlyFrance, England, Spain and the Dutch)
    8. 8. Historical Factors Introduction and establishment of plantationeconomy (sugarcane, banana, distilleries); Resulted in the region’s incorporation into globaleconomy through trade) Forced slave labor from West Africa tosupport labor-intensive plantation economies Similar to the USA Led to current Afro-Caribbean heritage inthe forms of music, dance, language,religion, etc.
    9. 9. Historical Factors Importation of indentured (domestic) laborfrom Europe, India and South Asia Some regions still retain the cultural influence ofimmigrants in the region European settlement in the region during thewave of migration in the late 19th century Political partitioning of the region betweenEuropean countries in the late 1800s -English, Dutch, French and Spanish
    10. 10. Historical andPolitical Factors Different policies affected socio-culturallandscape - Martinique and Guadalupe areoverseas French territories US influence - other US territories Prohibition in the US and origins ofCaribbean cruise industry (booze cruises) Post WWII economic diversification fromtraditional agriculture and expansion of theTourism sector
    11. 11. Some Factors Central toCaribbean TourismMild, pleasant, reliable climateUniquely attractive hydrologicalresource baseRich, abundant, diverse natural andcultural resourcesHospitality of the residentpopulation, despite their history ofcolonization and exploitation
    12. 12. Some Critical Factors Proximity to the North American Market Linguistic Assets Dollar zone, easy use of credit cards Political Stability, foreign investments Affordability, competition among destinationand tourism service providers Extensive marketing and promotion
    13. 13. Regional Cooperation Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO) http://www.onecaribbean.org/aboutus/ http://vimeo.com/16897755 Caribbean Hotel and Tourism Association(CHTA) http://www.caribbeanhotelandtourism.com/ Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) http://www.ustr.gov/trade-topics/trade-development/preference-programs/caribbean-basin-initiative-cbi The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) http://www.caricom.org/
    14. 14. Microstates A Microstate is a country or sovereign state withless than 1 million people Microstates have small land area - less than1000 square kilometers of land Typically limited resource and economic base There are numerous island and non-islandmicrostates around the worldCaribbeanOceaniaIndian OceanEurope
    15. 15. Tourism on Island Microstates Tourism tends to dominate the economies of islandmicrostates (measured in terms of tourism receiptsaccounting for more than 10% of export earnings or5% of GNP) Most Caribbean countries are considered IslandMicrostates About 12 of these Caribbean microstates havetourism-dependent economies Hence tourism can overwhelm, and lead to manysevere adverse social, economic and environmentalimpacts
    16. 16. Tourism: The Irritant Industry Although tourism is big business in the Caribbeanbasin, it has serious drawbacks: The invasion of poor communities by affluent tourists resultin a rising sense of local anger and resentment by the locals The intervention of local governments and multinationalcorporation removes opportunities from localentrepreneurs in favor of large operations and majorresorts, e.g., Club Med
    17. 17. Selected Impacts of Tourismin the Caribbean Social: drugs, crime, prostitution Economic: Leakage, dependency,urbanization, alienation of land, economicdemonstration effect, high costs, inflation,land speculation Environmental: pollution, excess carryingcapacity, land use conflicts
    18. 18. Overview of Tourism inCaribbean2011 - 20.8 million visitorsGrowth 1.6% 2000 -10…stagnant (notmuch growth as we learned last week)2011 - $23.9 billion in touristexpenditure$1,150 per visitorExpenditures up from 2010 but per visitorexpenditures down by $30/visitor
    20. 20. Puerto RicoAmerican territory, cruise shiphub, airline gateway to the Caribbeanand Latin AmericaBeach, forest and cultural resourcesProximity to USVIMajor hotel construction and renovations3.7 million arrivals 2010 (no stats - 2011)$3.6 billion
    21. 21. Dominican Republic Has some of the best beaches in the Caribbean Expanding tourism marketing inEurope, North, and South America Major resort beach development Among the fastest growing destinations in theCaribbean 2000-2006 4.1 million arrivals (2010), 4.3 million (2011) $4.2 billion (2010), $4.35 billion (2011)
    22. 22. Jamaica Diversified product:golf, beaches, mountains, fine resorts, musicfestivals, wedding and honeymoon tourism Very popular as an all inclusive resort destination Main resorts include Montego Bay, Negril, andOcho Rios Recent violence and increase in crime threatento undermine tourism 1.9 million arrivals (2010), same in 2011 $2 billion (2010), same in 2011
    23. 23. Cayman IslandsDive tourism and internationalbankingPioneered strict rules for coralreef protectionConsiderable cruise tourismFairly up-scale and expensivedestination
    24. 24. The Bahamas Has about 700 islands, many labeled“paradisical” Major tourism is concentrated on GrandBahamas, Nassau/Paradise Islands Off-shore international banking Gambling, Casinos and cruise tourism Proximity to the USA - only 160 miles fromFlorida 1.37 million arrivals (2010), 1.34 million (2011) $2.1 Billion (2010), no stats for 2011
    25. 25. BermudaBermuda consists of 150 islands and islets, ofwhich 20 are inhabitedThe country is divided into 9 ParishesTotal land area is 55 Square Kilometers witha population of about 62,000Population density is 1127 people per squarekilometer (compared to Japan = 326, US = 26and Bahamas = 27)
    26. 26. BermudaProximity to North America influencestourismAbout 600 miles from the eastern seaboard87% of tourists are from the USAPer capita income is higher than USATourism is the main employer, contributes33% to GNP
    27. 27. BermudaTourist receipts in 2008 - $550 millionDown to $466 million in 2011Air arrivals in 2008 - 350,000Cruise arrivals in 2008 - 280,000During peak tourist season, ratio is about 10tourists per 1 resident - High Irritation Index
    28. 28. Bermuda videoGo to Bermuda promotional videohttp://www.youtube.com/bermuda#p/u/7/_jfILNAPZkI
    29. 29. BermudaBermuda Hospitality Institutehttp://www.bhi.bm/website/?page_id=2Hospitality is a way of life in BermudaHospitality Skills = Life Skillshttp://www.youtube.com/user/LookBermudaTV
    30. 30. Other leading destinationsAruba - 871,000 visitors, $1.3 billion(2011)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nfy2E_Xp7eo&feature=relatedBarbados - 568,000 visitors, just under$1 billion (2011)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7TtY_kTbD8
    31. 31. Emerging DestinationsCuba: Havana and the Varaderoresort areas2.5 million arrivals (2010), 2.68million arrivals (2011)$2.1 billion (2010), no stats for 2011
    32. 32. History Between WWI and the late 1950’s Cuba wasa major destination for Americans Havana was dubbed the “Latin Las Vegas” # 1 tourism destination in the Caribbean Socialist Revolution in the 1950’s Resulted in placement of communist government Improved relations with the USSR and Cuba Disintegration of relations with the US and Cuba Economic embargo that stands until todayTravel to Cuba prohibited, purchase or use of Cubanproducts illegal for Americans
    33. 33. 1961 - arrivals dropped to only 4180 tourists!
    34. 34. History until today Tourism to Cuba was generally curtailed after therevolution Perceived connection to capitalism High spending tourists replaced by low spending touristsfrom the Eastern block countries to some extent 1970’s renewed interest in travel to Cuba (small #s) Early 1990’s collapse of the Soviet Union Results in collapse of Cuban economy as they were tied soclosely to the USSR economy New interest by the Cuban government in development oftourism - mainly as a quick means to earn money Goals - 1) increase revenues generated by the tourismindustry 2) increase the number of tourist arrivals
    35. 35. Strategies to develop Three measures to meet goals (1990s) Build relationships with international companiesto build and manage hotels and other facilities Attracting new foreign investment in othersections of their economy Restructuring of bureacracy responsible fortourism This has worked - tourists increased,revenues increased
    36. 36. Some problems Some major tourist developments in Cuba but muchof the infrastructure is not on par with otherCaribbean countries Lack of skilled managers and other professionalseducated in tourism profession Differentiation from other Caribbean destinations Worldwide economic recession Tourism unlikely to grow while the US embargo isstill in place
    37. 37. Some positive things “Untouched by time” Health tourism Havana designated a UNESCO World Heritagesite Well known people have history in Cuba Potential novelty of travel to Cuba Relatively higher levels of safety
    38. 38. No Reservations - Cubahttp://www.travelchannel.com/Video/relive-cuba-with-tony-15423