Lecture 3 political context of international tourism


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  • Tallinn, Estonia
  • Lecture 3 political context of international tourism

    1. 1. Political Context ofInternational TourismTDM 458Ara Pachmayer
    2. 2. GeopoliticsGeographic and Political factorsinfluencing a nation or regionAlso demography, economics, history
    3. 3. Pre-requisites forinternational tourism Diplomatic recognition, reciprocal relations Negotiate agreements ontrade, visas, commerce, transportation, consular rights Exchange consular and ambassadorialofficials Establish facilities and procedures for issuingpassports and visas
    4. 4. Types of DiplomaticRecognitionde jure - highest level, given to agovernment with legal franchise ormandate from its citizensde facto - lesser recognition, may betemporaryNo recognition - complete absence ofdiplomatic relationship (North Korea)
    5. 5. Consulates and Embassies In the US this falls under the Department ofState (DOS) US has embassies in major capitals of theworld Consulates are representative offices insmaller or secondary cities - MexicanEmbassy in DC but Mexican Consulate inPhoenix
    6. 6. Role of US Consular Offices Protect US citizens abroad Provide services for distressed US citizensabroad Promote US interests abroad Report accidents involving US civil aircraftabroad Report disasters involving US vessels Aircrafts Ships
    7. 7. Role of US Consular Officescont. Provide documentation for non-immigrants(tourists) visiting the US on a temporarybasis - issuing visas for visitors who needthem Work with other federal agencies such asDHS, DOT, DOA, FBI, INTERPOL, CIA, CDC,et.
    8. 8. Visa Agreements US visa policy is mostly an extension of itsimmigration policy Visa Agreements are negotiations between countries For example - Visa Waiver programsEstablished to promote inbound tourism to theUS in 1988 between US, UK and JapanTravel for 90 days or less for business orpleasure without a visa but with a validpassportExpanded to 22 countries in 1993More than 30 million had used the program by1995
    9. 9. Warning: Influence of Non-tourismPolicies/rules Customs and immigration policy – can facilitate orhinder international visitation Currency / exchange rate policies – directly affectsdestination cost competitiveness Foreign investment policy – can affect availability ofinvestment capital Taxation – affects costs and thus profitability Environmental policy – limits growth and access toattractive but sensitive areas Local zoning policy – can restrict or encourage specifictypes of tourism facility development
    10. 10. US Foreign PolicyCurrent Travel Warningshttp://travel.state.gov/
    11. 11. Mexico after DOS travelwarninghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kOTgtbDfnfQ&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzpsGaSxFNU&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=voNbCP3I3oI
    12. 12. CIA World Factbookhttps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/provides information on the history,people, government, economy,geography, communications,transportation, military, and transnationalissues for 267 international localesInformation
    13. 13. Centers for Disease ControlTraveler’s Healthhttp://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/Health Information of over 200international destinationsCan impact tourism arrivals to adestination
    14. 14. World Tourism Organization(WTO) www.world-tourism.org Most widely recognized organization in tourism Established: 1925 Goals: Working to support the UN Millennium DevelopmentGoals Serves as a global forum Transfers tourism know-how Produces statistics and market research Developed tourism human resources Works to facilitate travel- pp, visa. Promotes sustainability (Culture, Environment) Regional offices-liaison with the government Special Projects Members:145 countries, seven territories and >350 Affiliate Membersrepresenting local government, tourism associations,educational institutions, private sector companies,including airlines, hotel groups and tour operators.
    15. 15. Tourism and the MillenniumDevelopment Goals End Poverty and Hunger * Universal Education Gender Equality * Child Health Maternal Health Combat HIV/AIDS Environmental Sustainability * Global Partnership *
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