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Lecture 11   tourism in east asia
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Lecture 11 tourism in east asia


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  • 1. Tourism in East AsiaTDM 458Ara Pachmayer
  • 2. Major Geographic Qualities of EastAsia World’s most populous region One of the world’s culture hearths Political and economic forces continue totransform traditional cultural landscapes Intensifying regional disparities
  • 3. Tourism Statistics and Trends 2011 - International arrivals down Aftermath of Japan Earthquake, Tsunami• Fewer international arrivals• Japanese not traveling (impacts region) South Korea - 11% up Hong Kong - 11% up Macau - 8% up
  • 4. StatisticsCountry Arrivals (Millions) Receipts(Billions of $)China 57.6 48.5Hong Kong 22.3 27.7South Korea 9.8 12.3Japan(-27.8%) 6.2 11Taiwan 6.0 11.0
  • 5. Asia’s Established Destinations Hong Kong Economic (trade, business) hub, slowlyrecovering from British transfer to China Japan Religious heritage, natural landscapes,decline in tourism after Earthquake andTsunami
  • 6. Eye on China Has the most potential in Asia; mystic and fascinationby westerners; Political and economic liberalization 3rd most visited country in the world! 10% growth in tourism arrivals in 2008, a result ofOlympics Macau - China’s territory Concentrates on casinos that contribute 50% of itsrevenue, largest gambling industry in world in termsof profits Venetian, Wynn, Sands Resorts China as a source market
  • 7. People’s Republic of China Largest population in the world with 1.3 B 1/5 of all mankind are Chinese! Land area of China slightly larger than the US Major player in world politics, permanentmember of the UN Security Council Dominant culture in East Asia, influencingreligion, art, philosophy and culture One of the world’s oldest continuouscivilizations Communist government Strict political control, free market areas
  • 8. Deng Xiaoping Era Took power in 1979 Attempted to wed communist political rule with capitalisteconomic practice Socialist market economy Introduced economic liberalization measures Opened China to foreign science and technology Permitted students to study abroad Allowed for the tourism economy Decentralized decision making (economics) Created SEZs, open cities, open coastal areas
  • 9. Special Economic Zones Investor incentives Easing of import and export regulations Simplified land leases Hiring of contract labor permitted Products may be sold in foreign markets and inChina (under certain restrictions) Location was prime consideration
  • 10.  China’sEconomicZones
  • 11. Tourism in China Inbound tourism…rapid growth (though slower than 2010) Outbound tourism… Rapidly growing # of Chinese tourists Some of the biggest spenders (3rd overall in 2011 +32%)increase in tourism expenditures Countries should prepare for Chinese tourists Australia - Chinese visitors increase by 17% Approved Destination Status Culture, heritage, nature Hong Kong and Macau
  • 12. Some of the Main Tourist Attractions Beijing - Reflective of Old China Tianamen Square, Great Wall, Forbidden City Beijing Olympic sites Shanghai City of Future High Tech, Highly Developed, High Industry Special Economic Zone, (capitalism bubble withinCommunist state) Hong Kong and Macau Tibet
  • 13. Infrastructure International Airports Domestic Airlines network Freeway system Increasing accommodation styles andpricing Increased number of trained hospitalityworkers Tibet pressurized Railway
  • 14. Hong Kong Excellent deep water port 7 million people in 400 square miles Economy is larger than half of the worlds countries July 1, 1999 British transferred control to China Acquired a new status as China’s only SpecialAdministrative Region (SAR)
  • 15. Hong Kong Tourism Shopping Culture Business and Conferences Heritage
  • 16. Tibet A harsh physical environment Sparsely populated Came under Chinese control in 1720 Gained separate status in the late 19th century China’s communist regime took control in the1950’s Buddhism, the Dalai Lama and monasteries Formally annexed in 1965 and administered as anautonomous region
  • 17. Tibet tourism
  • 18. Taiwan
  • 19. Taiwan Historical background: A Chinese province for centuries Colonized by Japan in 1895 Returned to China > WWII 1949 – Chinese Nationalists (supported by the US)fled from the mainland and established the Republicof China (ROC) Territory - approximately 14,000 Square miles Population – 22.8 million 78% urbanized
  • 20. Tourism in Taiwan Largest number of visitors from MainlandChina Tourism is characterized by Parks Trails Culture Gambling• Limited to outer islands• controversial
  • 21. Japan
  • 22. Japan Historical Background Japan is the richest country in East Asia Isolated from rest of the world until arrival ofCommodore Perry in 1850’s After initially opposing modernization anddevelopment, Japan under Meiji emperor promotingeconomic growth and development Rapid economic growth in 19th and 20th C Democratic development of Japan into 1920’s thenrise of militarism that led to WW II Dramatic post-war economic growth in Asia
  • 23. Position of Japan Japan stands above the rest of Asia in the areaof tourism expenditure Japanese as source market - Huge! The Japanese spent about $27 billion (2011)(but still behind China) Decrease from 2010 due to Earthquake andTsunami Reduced number of outbound tourists
  • 24. Tourism in Japan Vibrant, Technologically advanced cities Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka Value on Tradition, Culture, old-ways Can be seen in socialinteractions, architecture, restaurants, traditional teahouses, food, geisha’s, etc Heritage Sites,Temples Natural Landscapes Population concentrated in urban areas leaving space Mt. Fuji, Skiing, Country side, Beaches in South WWII Other Factors Cost Transportation model
  • 25. Japan’s Aging Population and Impact onEconomy and Tourism
  • 26. The Koreas
  • 27.  The size of Idaho but with a population of73 million Turbulent political history A dependency of China A colony of Japan Divided along the 38th parallel by AlliedPowers > WW II (1945) Cease-fire line established in 1953The Koreas
  • 28. North-South Contrasts North Korea 55% of the land, 1/3 of the population, extremely rural Antiquated state enterprises Inefficient, non-productive agriculture Limited trade – former Soviet Union and China South Korea 45% of the land, 2/3s of the population, highly urbanized Modern factories Intensive, increasingly mechanized agriculture Extensive trade – US, Japan, and Western Europe
  • 29. The Koreas Population 24.5 million 48 million GNP (billions) $28 $1014 GNI/capita $1,800 $20,800
  • 30. Tourism in North Korea Strict communist state No FIT Designated areas only Only recently for South Koreans andAmericans DMZ
  • 31. Tourism in South Korea Shopping VFR Rural areas Temples, heritage sites DMZ
  • 32. Visitors by country of Origin (2010)
  • 33. Mongolia Steppe and desert physical environment Sparsely populated with about 2.6 millioninhabitants Part of the Chinese empire from late 1600’suntil 1911 Functions as a buffer state Economy is focused on herding and animalproducts
  • 34. Mongolia Tourism Yurts Nomadic lifestyles National parks Deserts Paleontology Communist legacy, heritage