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Lecture 10 tourism in southeast asia

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  • 1. TDM 458Spring 2013Tourism in Southeast Asia
  • 2.  What are some things you already know abouttourism in Southeast Asia? What are some things you would like to learnabout tourism in Southeast Asia?
  • 3. Major Geographic Qualities Fragmented region of numerous island countries and peninsulas Physical geography - high relief, crustal instability and tropicalclimates Clustered population patterns Overall low population density 20% of the population is on Java (Indonesia) Variety of political systems Some of the wealthiest and poorest countries Complex ethnic, linguistic and religious patterns Political instability and conflict Shatter Belt A large, strategically located region that is occupied by anumber of conflicting states and is caught between theconflicting interests of adjoining Great Powers in terms ofculture, economic and political systems. A region prone to external and internal cultural and ethnicforces
  • 4. Southeast Asia A zone of interaction Multicultural (Malay-Indonesian dominance) Several political, economicand cultural forces: China India Middle East Europe Japan USA (Since 1898)East AsiaSoutheast AsiaChinaIndiaMiddle EastEuropeJapanUSA
  • 5. COLONIAL SPHERESINSOUTHEAST ASIA
  • 6. Southeast Asia External influences Have been stronger than internal influences China brought civilization and technology (early history) Later - immigrants India brought religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) Later - more immigrants Middle Eastern countries brought Islam after the 10th c. andtrade Europe brought trade and colonialism after the 16th c. USA and Japan brought imperialism (at different levels): Recently brought trade and development Indochina Often used to define the region Hints at the strong historical Chinese and Indian influence Specifically refers to the former French colonies of Vietnam,Cambodia and Laos
  • 7. IndochinaPhilippinesIndonesiaMalaysiaBurmaVietnamCambodiaLaosThailandIndochinaSouth ChinaSeaSingapore
  • 8. Southeast Asia - Problems Straining resources such as petroleum and lumber: Destruction of the tropical forest - logging, conversion of land fordevelopment, climate change Over fishing and coral reefs Changing political regimes In particular Thailand Ethnic problems (Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia) Global (and Asian) recession Terrorism targeting tourism enterprises especially Indonesia &Philippines Civil wars - East Timor Illegal drug traffic Disasters - earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, droughts, environmentaldisasters
  • 9. December 2004 TsunamiIndiaThailandMyanmarLaosIndonesiaVietnamChinaCambodiaMalaysiaBangladeshSri LankaSingaporeBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryMaldivesParacel Is.Epicenter
  • 10. Southeast Asia - Organizations Pursuing economic integration policy (ASEAN):Founded in 1967Promote regional security issues; later concernedeconomic issuesBrunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore andThailandLaos, Burma (1997) and Cambodia (1999) joined laterCommon market by 2012 . . . Still waitingTariffs to be cut to 5% or less between membersTourism is a priority concernGoalsAccelerate economic growth, social progress and cult.DevelopmentPromote regional peace and stabilityPromote Southeast Asian studies
  • 11. Tourism in Southeast Asia
  • 12. Tourism StatisticsCountry ArrivalsReceipts (Billions of $) Malaysia 24.7 million 18.3 Thailand (+20%) 19.0 million 26.3 Indonesia 7.7 million 7.8 Cambodia (+20%) 2.9 million 1.7 Myanmar (+26%) 391,000 N/R
  • 13. Established Destinations Singapore Nation-state, surgical cleanliness, economicdynamo, political stability = positive tourism growth Least corrupt government but some freedomscurtailed Thailand Shedding sex tourism image; excellent beachesand resorts, cultural sites, historicalbackpacker/now flashpacker destination
  • 14. Emerging Destinations Malaysia Business tourism, holiday destination dominated byresorts and Penang and Langkawi Top 10 in global arrivals Cambodia Joint development and campaign with Thailand with“Two Kingdoms, One Destination” Laos Luang Prabang world heritage city, MekongRiver, Newly open . .. . Like Thailand 20 years ago
  • 15. Regions of Southeast Asia Mainland Region Insular Region
  • 16. Mainland Region Mainland Region Vietnam (previously North & South Vietnam) Cambodia (previously French Indo-China) Laos (previously French Indo-China) Thailand Myanmar (previously Burma) Buddhism dominates Multicultural and multi-ethnic region One of the least urbanized areas in the world
  • 17. Thailand Leading state of the region The “Land of the free”: Never colonized by European power Economic growth Relative location Access to the Indian (Bay of Bengal)and Pacific (Gulf of Thailand) oceans Natural environment Stifled by mismanagement Bangkok (Venice of Asia) Problems Influx of refugees Drugs
  • 18. Thailand Population has the slowest growth rate in the regionThai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%.Buddhist 94.4%, Islam 4%, Hindu 1.1%, Christian0.5%.Muslim minority in the south (along the Malaysiaborder) Per capita GNI is higher thanVietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar combined Bangkok- leading city in the country
  • 19. Tourism in Thailand Negative image because of prostitution Backpackers, now Flashpackers Nature Shopping $5/night bungalows to $10,000/night villas http://www.sixsenses.com/Evason-Phuket/index.php
  • 20. Tourism in Thailand Tours to Living Cultures Hill tribes http://www.tourismthailand.org/what-to-see-do/activities/cultural-exploration/hilltribe/ http://www.thailandhilltribeholidays.com/index.html Long Neck Karen Tribe Sea Gypsies - developers force people from theirland to build tourism infrastructures (hotels, etc.)
  • 21. Thailand Airport Protest http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kf5YW7KHP1o&feature=related Thai Airport Protest Strands Thousands (videotitle to search on youtube)
  • 22. Vietnam 83.5 million people Geographical setting Coastal plain along theSouth China Sea The south is more fertilethan the north Most minerals resourcesare in the north Advantageous relative locationon Pacific Rim Not a homogenous country Differences between the northand the south, as the south wasmore exposed to capitalism Divided into three units Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon) Hue
  • 23. Vietnam Economicdevelopment slow(communist system) Ho Chi Minh City(Saigon) hasadvantage overHanoi (capital) -accessible byocean-goingvessels Special EconomicZone downstream
  • 24. Tourism in Vietnam High tourism potential Political and social stability Long coastline; beach resorts Intact coral reefs Rainforests Sub-tropical climate Original cuisine: often adapting French cuisine Lack of development has protected Vietnams numerous naturalresources Growing flight connections within region and Asia to Ho Chi Minh United airlines became first US carrier to fly back Former military personnel Heritage, cultural and religious sites Communist Heritage tourism may have potential
  • 25. Issues and Concerns Vietnam Population (83.5 million) has doubled sincethe end of war in 1975 – straining resourcesas the population grows A classic “elongated country” A bi-polar arrangement exists between Ho Chi MinhCity and Hanoi New strategy - retain communist politicalsystem but pursue market economics Country is open to tourism but still communist Little repeat business - once in a lifetimedestination Poor word of mouth marketing
  • 26. Cambodia and Laos
  • 27. Cambodia and Laos 2 of the fastest growing destinations in SE Asia Cheap Improving infrastructure and accommodations Cambodia War - dark tourism Communist Heritage Tourism Child prostitution and slavery WHS Sites - Angkor Wat Laos Landlocked Rural-based population Undeveloped with no railroads, little industry, and few roads The region’s poorest country The “new” Thailand
  • 28. Myanmar
  • 29. Myanmar (Burma) A former British colony - Burma, which becameindependent in 1948 Population of 55 million, 84% literate Agricultural potential is good; varied soil andenvironmental conditions; self-sufficient in rice Still one of the poorest countries in the world Most isolated and least Westernized in the region
  • 30. Tourism in Myanmar Border tourism Casinos and other attractions along borders Living Cultures Untouched nature Increase in tourism due to greater political stability in thelast several years Being promoted as an economic development tool and away to improve isolation experienced by countryHowever . . . Slaves used in building tourism infrastructure Forced labor program Money earned from tourism directly benefits the gov’t
  • 31. Regions of Southeast Asia Mainland Region Insular Region
  • 32. Insular Southeast Asia Comprised of 6 states, all of which have colonialhistories Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Brunei,East Timor Fragmented political entities A multicultural and multi-ethnic region Islam prevails Colonial legacies persist
  • 33. Malaysia
  • 34. Malaysia A former British colony Malaysia came into being in 1963, referring tothe federal organization and expansion ofMalaya (on the Malay peninsula) to includeparts of Borneo Population of 27 million with strong adherenceto Islam Rapidly growing economy, with the 3rdhighest GNI in the region Penang - a future Singapore? One of the most developed regions of Malaysia andit is an important tourist destination for domesticand international tourists
  • 35. Eye on Malaysia• Malaysians are one of Asia’s largesttravelers, about 26 millioninternational travelers or 28% ofAsia’s total
  • 36. Singapore A city-state Seceded from Malaysia in 1965 Population of 4.3 million (77 % are Chinese, 14%Malay, 8% south Asian) Per capita GNI: $24,180
  • 37. SingaporeHere are some examples of laws currently in effect: The sale of gum was forbidden for 12 years until May 2004 Show your id to buy gum If the pharmacist does not take the name of thebuyer, they could face a roughly $700 fine Heavy fines on people who spit or litter in public areas Pedestrians crossing on red-light Eating and drinking on public transit also carry heavyfines Sexual offences
  • 38. Drug trafficking Singapore
  • 39. Tourism in Singapore Gateway and airport hub for SE Asia Shopping Business tourism Gambling
  • 40. Indonesia
  • 41. Indonesia• More than 17,000 islands• About 6,000 inhabited, Java is the core with 136 million• Coastal zones supports approximately 60% of thepopulation• Successful family planning strategies (50% decline infertility between 1975 and 2000)• Longest coastline in the world• Three time zones• Largest Muslim population in the world• Controls two strategic straits:• Through which much of the world’s oil traffic must pass• Volcanoes - Earthquakes• Intense volcanic and seismic activity• 300 volcanoes of which 200 have been historically active
  • 42. Tourism in Indonesia• One of Fastest growing tourism arrivals in Asia in2008 9.2% growth rate in 2011 (10.7% in 2010)• WHS sites - Religious and Cultural sites• Beaches and resorts• WHS sites• Nature• Orangutans and Tigers• Komodo dragons• In the past primarily westerners visit• Today, greater numbers of regional and domestictravelers• money to spend• Introduction of low cost airlines
  • 43. Tourism in Indonesia - Issues andConcerns• Unplanned development and environmentaldegradation• Terror attacks 2002 and 2005 in Bali• Tourism areas targeted• Many Indonesians and Foreign tourists killed• Impacted tourism for several years, perception of threatremains• 2004 Tsunami• Major impact on tourism• Industry nearly collapsed afterwards
  • 44. December 2004 TsunamiIndiaThailandMyanmarLaosIndonesiaVietnamChinaCambodiaMalaysiaBangladeshSri LankaSingaporeBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryMaldivesParacel Is.Epicenter