Gas versus Wind as an Energy Source - James


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A Year 12 student from Hawkesdale P12 College produced this slideshow as school assessed coursework for Unit 3 VCE Environmental Science.

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Gas versus Wind as an Energy Source - James

  1. 1. Unit 3 Environmental Science: School Assessed Coursework for Area of Study 1 SAC 1B
  2. 2. Fossil and Non-Fossil, Renewable Energy Source
  3. 3. Macarthur Wind Farm Mortlake Gas Plant
  4. 4. “Describe the principles of energy and relate them to the contribution of one fossil fuel and non-fossil energy source to the enhanced greenhouse effect”
  5. 5. Macarthur Wind Farm Mortlake Gas Plant Information  140 3MW turbines, the Macarthur Wind Farm is currently the largest wind farm in the southern hemisphere.  Wind is a non-fossil, renewable energy resource.  550 MW Mortlake gas-fired open cycle power station. And is the largest gas-fired power station in Victoria.  An 83km underground natural gas pipeline connects Mortlake to the Otway Gas Plant at Port Campbell.  Gas is a fossil fuel and a non-renewable energy resource.
  6. 6. Wind Gas Extraction  Wind is extracted from the atmosphere which provides wind for the blades to turn the turbine.  Found deep underground rock formations and extracted from oil wells.  Underground pressure drives fluids to the surface. When the pressure falls, pumps are used to bring more fluids to the surface. Sometimes, natural gas is pumped back down the well underneath the oil. The gas expands, pushing the oil to the surface.
  7. 7. Wind Gas Transport  Wind power is converted into electricity by magnets moving past stationary coils of wire known as the stator. As the magnets pass the stator, AC electricity is produced.  It is then converted into DC electricity which can be used to charge batteries which store the electrical energy or can also be fed into a grid interactive inverter for feeding power into the electricity grid.  Gas is transported by a 83km airtight underground pipeline from where they extract the gas from Thylacine to the Otway Gas Plant  Risky if there is a leak because the gas is colourless, but at the refinery at the Otway Gas Plant, chemical is added to make the gas have an odour so you can smell where the leak is.
  8. 8. Wind Gas Use  A base load power source  Constitutes 2.4% of Australia’s electricity demand  Energy used for electricity  An on-demand, peak load power source.  Constitutes about 20% of Australia's energy use.  Energy used for transport, electricity, heating, cooking and generating electricity.
  9. 9. Macarthur Wind Farm Mortlake Gas Plant Modification of land use  The wind farm area covers approximately 5,500 hectares of freehold agricultural land.  Windy location.  Dual use of farming and a wind turbines.  Close to the Alcoa high voltage power line and 83 kilometres from the refinery.  Origin energy owns 100 hectares and the gas plant area covers approximately 20 hectares.  No Dual use, solely for gas plant.
  10. 10. Macarthur Wind Farm Map
  11. 11.  wind spins the turbine.  the turbine turns the low speed shaft which connects to the gear box.  the gear box connects the low speed shaft to the high speed shaft.  the high speed shaft drives the generator.  the generator produces electricity and connects to the supply grid.
  12. 12.  air and gas are mixed together and combusted within the turbine.  this force causes the rotor of the turbine to turn.  the turbine is coupled to a generator  as the turbine turns, the generator rotates and produces electricity.  electricity from the generator is passed through a transformer and uploaded to the grid.
  13. 13. Macarthur Wind Farm Mortlake Gas Plant Social Impacts  Noise  Aesthetics  Sickness  Community assistance  400 construction jobs created, now 20 on site staff.  Makes people adapt to living with the noise and the look of the wind towers.  Aesthetics  Jobs created  Makes people adapt  Greenhouse gas emissions
  14. 14. Macarthur Wind Farm Mortlake Gas Plant Economic Impacts  The cost was $1 billion.  Farmers being paid for each turbine.  The cost was $650 million.  Quick to build.  Cheaper than wind per MW.
  15. 15. Wind Farm Gas Plant Environmental Impacts  Greenhouse gas emissions produced during construction. (CO2)).  Wildlife and vegetation  Bird Kills  10,000 hectares 420MW  Greenhouse gas emissions produced during construction and operation. (CO2 and water vapour).  Wildlife and vegetation  Bird Kills  100 hectares 550MW
  16. 16. Natural
  17. 17. Natural Enhanced About The Greenhouse Effects  Heat energy from the sun shines down onto the Earth. Some passes through a blanket of gases in our atmosphere.  Greenhouse gases (CO2) create a shield around the earth. Without them, all the heat energy would escape into space an life on earth would be impossible because of the low temperature (-18˚C).  Some heat energy escapes into space and some is absorbed by the blanket of gases.  Human activities such as burning fossil fuels create more greenhouse gases, which means more heat energy is absorbed and the Earth rises in its average surface temperature.  Nine of the ten warmest years in the instrumental record have occurred since 1990.  There wouldn’t only be a rise in temperature. There would also be changes to average rainfall, and an increase in the frequency of extreme events such as very hot weather, storms and storm surges, which would become more severe.
  18. 18. Wind Gas Wind vs Gas Contribution  During construction greenhouse gas emissions were emitted by the transport of parts of the turbine and making the parts etc.  During operation the only emissions emitted are the workers driving from their homes to the two substations. The wind towers do not produce any emissions
  19. 19. Policies and Strategies
  20. 20. International National  Kyoto Protocol Many developed countries have agreed to legally binding limitations/reductions in their emissions of greenhouse gases in two commitments periods. The first commitment period applies to emissions between 2008-2012, and the second commitment period applies to emissions between 2013-2020.  Coalition Direct Action Plan Direct action to reduce carbon emissions. Commitment to a five per cent reduction in carbon emissions by 2020. Reduce of emissions inside Australia, not by paying billions of dollars to foreign carbon traders.
  21. 21. State Local  Victorian Greenhouse Strategy Continue the efforts of the 2002 Victorian Greenhouse Strategy to promote actions that deliver reductions in net greenhouse gas emissions in the short term. Take further steps to position Victoria to prosper in a low carbon economy. Consolidate our understanding of the potential impacts of climate change and progressively shift the focus of research towards understanding the adaptive responses required to deal with those impacts.  Moyne Shire Environmental Sustainability Strategy 2011-2015 “To raise awareness of environmental issues and develop strategies and identify actions, that through implementation, will lead to increased protection and enhancement of the natural and built environment in a sustainable manner.”
  22. 22. Bibliography  energy/macarthur-wind-farm   's_greenhouse_effect_(US_EPA, _2012).png   and-Natural-Gas.html     Mortlake Gas Plant Fact Sheet