Gas versus Wind as an Energy Source - Georgia


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A Year 12 student from Hawkesdale P12 College produced this slideshow as school assessed coursework for Unit 3 VCE Environmental Science.

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Gas versus Wind as an Energy Source - Georgia

  1. 1. Unit 3: Energy and Greenhouse Gases SAC 1B: A comparison of a fossil fuel and a non-fossil energy source By Georgia
  2. 2. • The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface. When the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases. • Greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and some artificial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). • The absorbed energy warms the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth. This process maintains the Earth’s temperature at an average temperate of 15°C, around 30°C warmer than it would otherwise be, allowing life on Earth to exist.
  3. 3. • The enhanced greenhouse effect is caused by human activities and is causing climate change. • Human activities particularly burning fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas), agriculture and land clearing, are increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases. • This is trapping extra heat and causing the Earth’s temperature to rise as the increasing greenhouse gases absorb the gases which then re-emit energy including heat.
  4. 4. • Natural gas is a non-renewable energy source that took millions of years to form in the Earth’s crust meaning that it is a fossil fuel. • It is a colourless, odourless mixture of hydrocarbon gases, mostly methane. • Australia has about 1% of the world’s reserves of natural gas.
  5. 5. • Wind energy is a renewable energy source which uses the airflow to generate electricity. It is a non-fossil fuel. • It makes up about 3% of Australia’s National Electricity Market and is predicted to increase in the coming years. • If we efficiently harnessed all wind energy and used it to generate electricity, it could produce 10 times more energy than humanity uses each year. Australia
  6. 6. • The Mortlake Gas Plant is located 12km west of Mortlake and is open cycle. • The project began in 2008 however operation started in 2012. • Operating at full capacity the power station generates 550 MW of power. • It is a peak load power plant which means it generates electricity at times of high demand.
  7. 7. • The Macarthur Wind Farm is located 16km east of Macarthur. • It is a 420 MW wind farm and is currently the largest of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. • It has been fully operational since late January 2013. • It is jointly owned by AGL Energy Limited (AGL) and Malakoff Corporation Berhad.
  8. 8. • A gas power station turn the chemical energy in natural gas into electricity. • Air and gas are mixed together and are combusted within the turbine • This force causes the rotor of the turbine to turn. • As the turbine turns, a generator rotates and produces electricity. Natural Gas
  9. 9. • Wind (Kinetic energy) is converted to electricity • The wind turns the blades, which spins a shaft connected to the generator and produces electricity. Wind Energy
  10. 10. Wind Power • Wind doesn’t need to be extracted as it is a naturally occurring resource which is found onsite. Natural Gas • Gas is extracted by drilling wells into the ground, through the geographic layers, to reach the gas deposits. • After the natural gas is extracted it’s treated at gas plants to remove impurities. Pipelines then transport the natural gas from the gas plants to power plants.
  11. 11. Wind Power • Used for electricity in homes • The wind farm says it will produce enough electricity to power about 220,000 average homes in Victoria each year. • The use of wind to produce electricity is approximately 40% energy efficient. • It provides 3% of Australia’s electricity Natural Gas • Used for electricity in homes • Natural gas is used in homes for heating and cooking. • It is used by industry for heating and manufacturing. • Natural gas has an overall energy efficiency of approximately 30% for electricity production and 90% for heating.
  12. 12. Macarthur Wind Farm • Wind doesn’t need to be transported as it is found onsite. • This means that energy is being saved in this process as the wind doesn’t have to be transported from one place to another unlike natural gas however materials during construction have to be transported. Blades and turbines came from Denmark. • Once the electricity is generated it is transported through the High Voltage lines and from there goes into peoples’ homes. Power is lost in transmission reducing the Mortlake Gas Plant • The power station’s natural gas supply is supplied via an 83km underground natural gas transmission pipeline from the Otway gas Plant near Port Campbell. • This means that energy is wasted transporting the natural gas. • Materials had to be transported when constructing the gas plant. • The electricity generated from the natural gas goes into the High Voltage lines where it then goes into homes. During this process power is lost.
  13. 13. Macarthur Wind Farm • Dual use: farmers are paid by AGL per turbine but can also still have sheep/cattle in the same paddocks. • The Macarthur wind farm takes up 5500 hectares of land. • The wind turbines are placed on farmers properties. Mortlake Gas Plant • The Mortlake gas plant is a sole user meaning the land is only used for • Origin Energy own 100 hectares however the plant itself only takes up 20 hectares and the rest is used as a buffer zone.
  14. 14. Macarthur Wind Farm • It only operates when there is wind which means that it is unreliable as not every day is windy and they are unable to know when the turbines will be operating and when they aren’t. • They also are unable to operate when the winds are too strong and are turned off. Mortlake Gas Plant • It can turn off and on whenever it is needed. • It only takes 6 minutes from the moment it is turned on for the plant to start generating electricity
  15. 15. Macarthur Wind Farm A wind farm has to be: • In a windy location • Somewhere with lots of empty space eg. Farming land • Road may have to be created so that they are able to construct the wind farm and materials can be transported. • Close to HV Power lines Mortlake Gas Plant A gas plant has to be: • Close to HV Power Lines as it how the electricity generated is transported from the plant into peoples’ homes. • Close to gas refinery (the gas plant is 83km) • Away from townships and houses.
  16. 16. Macarthur Wind Farm • It costed $1 billion to construct. • Ongoing costs as farmers are paid yearly per turbine • Farmer are paid each year per turbine. They then spend this money in the local community. • Have a community assistance fund to support local organisations, schools and the community. Mortlake Gas Plant • It costed $810 million to construct. • Origin Energy and the 8 employees are the only ones who benefit from the Gas plant. • The community don’t benefit and Origin have no community assistance funds.
  17. 17. Macarthur Wind Farm • The turbine cause a noise which can annoy, anger some people, especially those close to the wind farm. • Roads are damaged and major traffic during the construction of the wind farm however don’t have lasting impact. • Some people believe that the wind farms cause them to be sick. • More than 400 construction jobs with over 250 local people and businesses employed directly • Employ 20 staff onsite Mortlake Gas Plant • Affects air quality for nearby residents. • The emissions released affect society as they add the enhanced greenhouse effect meaning people have to adapt to more extreme weather conditions. • Major traffic during construction and speed limits had to be reduced. • Employ 8 full-time staff. There were more staff employed during the construction of the gas plant.
  18. 18. Macarthur Wind Farm • Causes a disturbance on- site to flora and fauna, especially during construction. Birds are killed by blades at night time. • Construction involves emissions being released. • The wind farm takes up more space meaning more land is affected and used. • Bought a property where they replant native vegetation to replace what was destroyed during the construction stage. Mortlake Gas Plant • Has an impact on wildlife • These is a disturbance along the pipeline to the land, flora and fauna. • Greenhouse gas emissions released throughout operation adding to the enhanced greenhouse effect and climate change.
  19. 19. Macarthur Wind Farm • Greenhouse gas emissions were released during the construction of the wind farm by machinery and transport. • However all of these emissions were paid back in an estimated 6 months once the wind farm starts operation. • It saves approximately 1.5 million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year Mortlake Gas Plant • Natural gas is the cleanest burning fossil fuel. It produces half as much carbon dioxide as the burning of coal does. • It does however still release carbon dioxide when burning the natural gas and adds the enhanced greenhouse effect.
  20. 20. • The Kyoto protocol, which was a step towards effective global action to reduce greenhouse has emission by at least 5%, however it finished in 2012 and was replaced by Copenhagen. • There are 32 countries that have emissions trading schemes (ETS) in place. China is also trialling trading schemes and has plans for a national emissions trading scheme after 2015. • The Australian Government and the European Union (EU) aim to link the European and Australian carbon markets in a move that will help enable effective climate change action across the world.
  21. 21. • In 2012 the Australian Government implemented a emissions trading scheme referred to as the carbon tax which acts as a disincentive for businesses releasing greenhouse emissions. • Subsidies for research and development into alternative energy sources. This gives organisations more incentives to look into renewable energy sources. • The National Greenhouse Strategy (1996) was created. Under this strategy a number of different programs were launched including the Greenhouse Challenger Plus which is a co-operative effort between Australian Industry and the Government to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through voluntary industry action.
  22. 22. • In 2002 the Victorian Greenhouse Strategy outlined a number of ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Victoria including: -Increasing the use of renewable energy sources -Exploring opportunities for carbon capture and storage -Investigating further opportunities for large-scale clean energy projects and new vehicle technologies • The state government introduced requirement under state environment protection policy for business under Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) to take action to improve their energy efficiency.
  23. 23. • The Moyne Shire are part of the Cities for Climate Protection which commits then to reduce their generation of greenhouse gas emissions. • Have recycling and waste product programs including providing recycling bins from those who live in Moyne Shire towns. By reducing waste and reusing products the Moyne Shire is reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions which would be released if these products had to be produced again. • Enhance the carbon sink capacity by planting trees in the Moyne Shire.
  24. 24. • station-officially-opened • • • • gas.html • • • • Issues of Sustainability –VCE Environment Science Units 3 and 4 Textbook