Gas versus Wind as an Energy Source - Aaron


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A Year 12 student from Hawkesdale P12 College produced this slideshow as school assessed coursework for Unit 3 VCE Environmental Science.

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Gas versus Wind as an Energy Source - Aaron

  1. 1. U N I T 3 E N V I R O N M E N T A L S C I E N C E : S C H O O L A S S E S S E D C O U R S E W O R K F O R A R E A S T U D Y 1 S A C 1 B B Y A A R O N VCE Environmental Science
  2. 2. Macarthur Wind Farm Mortlake Power Station
  3. 3. WIND ENERGY NATURAL GAS  electrical energy obtained from harnessing the wind with windmills or wind turbines.  Natural gas is a highly flammable gas that contains high amounts of methane. What is it?
  4. 4. WIND ENERGY NATURAL GAS  A wind turbine is made up of two or three propeller-like blades called the rotor. The rotor is attached to the top of a tall tower. As the wind blows it spins the rotor. As the rotor spins the energy of the movement of the propellers gives power to a generator. There are some magnets and a lot of copper wire inside the generator that make electricity. How is it converted to electricity?  Like a jet engine, the turbines suck in air, mix it with the fuel and ignite a fireball. The hot gases from the fireball impact the blades of the turbine to cause motion, creating mechanical energy. The turbine, connected to a generator by a shaft, spins and powers the generator. At this point, the generator converts the mechanical energy into electricity before it is transmitted for customer use.
  5. 5. Macarthur Wind Farm -WIND ENERGY- Mortlake Power Station -GAS ENERGY-  ADVANTAGES  Wind energy is friendly to the surrounding environment, as no fossil fuels are burnt to generate electricity from wind power.  Newer technology is making the extraction of wind energy much more efficient.  The wind is free, and we are able to cash in on this free source of energy.  DISADVANTAGES  Wind turbines generally produce allot less electricity than the average fossil fuelled power station, requiring multiple wind turbines to be built in order to make an impact.  Very expensive to construct.  Noise can be a problem and can send sounds out that make people ill.  ADVANTAGES  Can be safely stored and burnt.  Emits 60-90% less smog-producing pollutants.  clean burning process, doesn't produce ash after energy is released.  Most of its natural reserves are still underutilized.  DISADVANTAGES  It is a non-renewable source of energy. Fossil Fuel vs. Non-fossil Fuel
  6. 6. WIND ENERGY NATURAL GAS  The gas is found in layers of rock with tiny holes , the rock holds the gas like a sponge. To bring it to the surface, gas companies drill down hundreds of feet and pump into pipes. Where is it found?  Wind energy is found in the atmosphere and it is used to spin the blades on the turbine. It's caused because the sun heats the planet differently, and over vast areas. As a place warms up, the air expands, causing a pressure change. Wind is simple high pressure air moving towards a low pressure region to balance things out. The boundaries are not normally so definite that you could notice the effect you described.
  7. 7. WIND ENERGY NATURAL GAS HOW IS IT EXTRACTED.  Wind turbines are used to extract energy from the wind and turn it into electricity. ENERGY CONVERSIONS INVOLED.  Sun firstly heats the earths atmosphere unevenly, which then produces wind. Turbines are set up in places where there is wind a lot of the time. The wind spins the turbine which converts wind energy in electricity. HOW EFFICIENT ARE THESE CONVERSIONS. HOW IS IT EXTRACTED.  Natural gas is extracted by drilling into the earth. Once a hole is drilled, it is lined with a pipe. The pipe is then connected to a series of pipelines, that send the gas to a central storage area. ENERGY CONVERSIONS INVOLVED  Natural gas was formed after millions of years when tons of pressure was put on the decayed remains of plants and animals layered under rock and earth. HOW EFFICIENT ARE THESE CONVERSIONS. Extraction
  8. 8. MACARTHUR WIND FARM MORTLAKE POWER PLANT  The Macarthur wind farm uses a much more significant amount of land compared to the Mortlake gas plant.  Mortlake power plant doesn’t need as much land because it is only one big station, where as the turbines have to be spread out everywhere. How much land is used?
  9. 9. MACARTHUR MORTLAKE  Some benefits for the Macarthur wind farm is that it is dual use, which means that you can still run livestock on the land around them. But at Macarthur there might not always be wind which means that the turbines wont spin and no electricity will be made.  The benefit for Mortlake is that you can turn the plant on near instantly, but you cant run stock around them so that is a disadvantage. Benefits and non benefits.
  10. 10. WIND NATURAL GAS  Most countries have abundant renewable energy resources, including solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, and biomass, as well as the ability to manufacture the relatively labour-intensive systems that harness these.  According to recent assessments, the United States has considerably more recoverable natural gas in shale formations than was previously thought. Natural gas is said to be plenty accessible and a lot of natural gas is still around. How abundant and accessible is it?
  11. 11. WIND ENERGY NATURAL GAS  Transported through thick cables to a power grid and then powers through high voltage power lines before reaching houses at 240 Volts.  For example: the turbines are spun producing electricity which travels down the turbine through a thick cable that leads to a power grid at the property and then transported through main power lines to houses.  Transposrted through pipes to a station.  For example: pipes leading from the otways all the way under ground to the Mortlake power station.  This transport is very dangerous and has to be done properly because if there is any leaks in the pipe then the gas can get out and get into the earths atmosphere which is very bad. Transport
  12. 12. WIND ENERGY NATURAL GAS HOW IS THIS SOURCE USED HOW IS THIS SOURCE USED  Natural gas is an essential item for many common products, such as paints, fertilizer, plastics, dyes, photographic film, medicines and explosives. We also get propane, a fuel used for BBQ’s  Natural gas is also used for heating. Use Wind energy is turned in to electricity. So therefore the electricity that is made is used to power many different appliances. It powers about 2.4 % of Australia.
  13. 13. Macarthur Wind Farm Mortlake Power Station  They give the property owner $5,000 per year for each turbine that is located on there property.  Investment of approximately $1 billion.  None that I can think of. Financial Advantages.
  14. 14. Macarthur Wind Farm Mortlake Power Station  Ongoing jobs for about 20 people.  Money put towards upgrading roads  Money given to council.  Community grants given out. Social Impacts.
  15. 15. Macarthur Wind Farm Mortlake Power Plant  Pollutant free.  Bird kills  Wild life and vegetation  Puts CO2 in the atmosphere  Greenhouse gas emissions Environmental Impacts.
  16. 16. KYOTO PROTOCOL  New commitments for Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol who agreed to take on commitments in a second commitment period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2020;  A revised list of greenhouse gases (GHG) to be reported on by Parties in the second commitment period; and  Amendments to several articles of the Kyoto Protocol which specifically referenced issues pertaining to the first commitment period and which needed to be updated for the second commitment period.
  17. 17. WIND ENERGY NATURAL GAS  Wind energy doesn’t put any pollution into the atmosphere. The only pollution that is put into the atmosphere is the transport of vehicles and all the construction equipment from building the turbines.  Natural gas contributes to the greenhouse effect, because although it sounds like it is natural it isn't and it produces CO2 which isn't good for the atmosphere. But compared to coal and oil if isn't doing to bad. Contribution to the greenhouse effect.
  18. 18. Australian Strategy  The goals of the NGS are:  1. To limit net greenhouse gas emissions, in particular, to meet our international commitments.  2. To foster knowledge and understanding of greenhouse issues.  3. To lay the foundations for adaptation to climate change.  To achieve these goals, the NGS includes ongoing measures, many arising from the 1992 NGRS, and new measures announced by the Prime Minister in November 1997.  It also integrates greenhouse into other major policy initiatives, such as the Natural Heritage Trust, and launches new measures to increase greenhouse emission reduction activities across the Australian community. This document provides the strategic framework for an effective greenhouse response and for meeting current and future international commitments. It will provide a fresh impetus for action by governments, stakeholder groups and the broader community and set directions for that action into the next century.
  19. 19. South Australian Policies  It outlines the case for action, the wider international context and three essential strategy requirements, which are:  the need to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions  the need to adapt to climate change  the need to innovate.  Most importantly, the strategy sets out specific goals and targets for South Australia, recommended ways to achieve them and key action areas.
  20. 20. References/Bibliography  of-wind-energy       