3B.3 Conservation Categories

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VCE Environmental Science: Unit 3: Area of Study 2: Biodiversity.

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  • http://www.bspcn.com/2009/04/03/11-extinct-animals-that-have-been-photographed-alive/
  • 3B.3 Conservation Categories

    1. 1. Conservation Categories VCE Environmental Science Unit 3: Area of Study 2
    2. 2. Scientists recognize FIVE episodes of mass extinction during the past 500million years –First Mass Extinction: It occurred around 438 million years ago in theOrdovician Period during which more than 85 % of species on the earthbecame extinct.Second Mass Extinction occurred around 367 million years ago near the endof the Devonian period when about 82 % of species became extinct.Third Mass Extinction occurred around 245 million years ago at the end ofthe Permian period when about 96 % of species became extinct. Thedevastation was so great that Paleontologists use this event to mark the endof ancient or the Paleozoic Era and the beginning of the middle or theMesozoic Era. During this era many new groups of animals and plantsevolved on the earth.Fourth Mass Extinction occurred around 208 million years ago, near the endof the Triassic Period during which about 76 percent species had becomeextinct from the earth. The populations that had gone extinct during thatperiod mostly belonged to amphibians and reptiles.
    3. 3. Fifth Mass Extinction occurred around 65 million years ago atthe end of the Cretaceous Period when about 76 % of thespecies of the earth including Dinosaurs had gone extinct. It issupposed that this Mass Extinction occurred when one ormore big meteorite(s) had struck the earth during theMesozoic era. This era is also called as the era of reptiles.Scientists are of the opinion that now the earth is facing themost severe episode of extinction since the extinction ofdinosaurs. Biologists say that about 27,000 species arebecoming extinct each year, which means: three species peryear. The causes of the current mass extinction or the SixthMass Extinction are changes in the world climate andanthropogenic pressures. The penguin-like great auk, thePassenger Pigeon, the Balinese tiger, the quagga, and the moaare all victims of the 6th mass extinction.
    4. 4. Conservation Categories• IUCN - International Union of Conservation of Nature - Red List of Threatened species http://www.iucnredlist.org/• National EPBC Act - Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/index.html• State FFG - Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and- animals/native-plants-and-animals/threatened- species-and-communities/flora-and-fauna- guarantee-act
    5. 5. Conservation Status in VictoriaExtinct (EX)A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the lastindividual has died. A taxon is presumed Extinct when exhaustivesurveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times(diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failedto record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frameappropriate to the taxon’s life cycle and life form.Regionally Extinct (RX)As for Extinct but within a defined region (in this case the State ofVictoria) that does not encompass the entire geographic range ofthe taxon. A taxon is presumed Regionally Extinct when exhaustivesurveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times(diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout the region have failed torecord an individual. Surveys should be over a time frameappropriate to the taxon’s life cycle and life form.
    6. 6. Extinct in the Wild (WX)A taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive incultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (orpopulations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumedExtinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/orexpected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual),throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual.Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon’s lifecycle and life form.Critically Endangered (CR)A taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidenceindicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for CriticallyEndangered (see Species Survival Commission 2001), and it istherefore mconsidered to be facing an extremely high risk ofextinction in the wild.
    7. 7. Endangered (EN)A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that itmeets any of the criteria A to E for Endangered (see Species SurvivalCommission 2001), and it is therefore considered to be facing a veryhigh risk of extinction in the wild.Vulnerable (VU)A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that itmeets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable (see Species SurvivalCommission 2001), and it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk ofextinction in the wild.Near Threatened (NT)A taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteriabut does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerablenow, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatenedcategory in the near future.
    8. 8. Data Deficient (DD)A taxon is Data Deficient when there isinadequate information to make a direct, orindirect, assessment of its risk of extinction basedon its distribution and/or population status. Ataxon in this category may be well studied, and itsbiology well known, but appropriate data onabundance and/or distribution arelacking. DataDeficient is therefore not a category of threat.Listing of taxa in this category indicates that moreinformation is required and acknowledges thepossibility that future research will show thatthreatened classification is appropriate.
    9. 9. http://www.bspcn.com/2009/04/03/11-extinct-animals-that-have-been-photographed-alive/
    10. 10. Extinct• The last Tasmanian Tiger or Thylacine, known to have existed died in the Hobart Zoo, in Tasmania, Australia, on September 7th, 1936. Despite being the last of its kind, the animal (named “Benjamin”) likely died due to neglect after being locked out of its sheltered quarters during extreme weather.• Although commonly referred to as ‘tigers’, and despite having the look of a canid, the Thylacine isn’t remotely related to cats or dogs. Rather, it was the largest carnivorous marsupial of modern times, meaning it carried its young in a pouch. Its closest living relative is the Tasmanian Devil.• The biggest cause of their extinction in the wild was a massive hunting campaign instituted by the Tasmanian government from 1888 to 1909, justified because the Thylacines were believed to be a threat to sheep and hens. The last known wild Tasmanian Tiger was killed by a farmer named Wilf Batty in 1930, after spotting the animal around his hen house.
    11. 11. ExtinctThe first recorded account of the Golden Toad was byherpetologist Jay Savage in 1966, and the last sighting of thespecies was made in 1989. The toad, showcased by its brilliantgolden orange colorization, was native to the tropical cloudforests which surround Monteverde, Costa Rica.Their extinction symbolizes a large scale decline in amphibiannumbers worldwide over the last several decades, which haslikely been caused by global warming and climate change. Infact, famed Australian biologist Tim Flannery has described theextinction of the Golden Toad to be the first demise of a speciesdue primarily to global warming
    12. 12. EXTINCT (EX) “A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon is presumed extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon’s life cycles and life form.”
    13. 13. EXTINCT IN THE WILD (EW)“A taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is knownonly to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as anaturalised population (or populations) welloutside the past range. A taxon is presumedExtinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys inknown and/or expected habitat, at appropriatetimes (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout itshistoric range have failed to record an individual.Surveys should be over a time frame appropriateto the taxons life cycle and life form.”
    14. 14. The Black-footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes) from North America is no longer Extinct in the Wild after a massive effort to reintroduce captive animals back to parts of its range. The species is highly dependent on prairie dogs as its food- source; the widespread extermination of prairie dogs throughout the 20th century, and the spread of disease, caused massive declines in the Black-footed Ferret population.In 1985, the species was on the verge of extinction when its last free-ranging population collapsed from an outbreak of canine distemper. Oncewidespread in central North America, it now exists only in reintroducedpopulations and is currently listed as Endangered. From 1991 to 2008, acaptive breeding programme by the United States Fish and Wildlife Servicebrought the Black-footed Ferret back to Mexico and eight western states inthe US. At present, it is considered self-sustaining at only three locations;two in South Dakota and one in Wyoming.
    15. 15. CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR)“A taxon is Critically Endangered when thebest available evidence indicates that it meetsany of the criteria A to E for CriticallyEndangered, and it is therefore considered tobe facing an extremely high risk of extinctionin the wild.”
    16. 16. Orange Bellied Parrot
    17. 17. ENDANGERED (EN)“A taxon is Endangered when the bestavailable evidence indicates that it meets anyof the criteria A to E for Endangered, and it istherefore considered to be facing a very highrisk of extinction in the wild.”
    18. 18. The Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is now a threatened species, moving from Least Concern to Endangered. The size of a small dog and found only on the Australian island state of Tasmania, the Devil is the largest carnivorous marsupial in the world.The global population of this species has declined by more than 60 percentover the last 10 years due to a fatal infectious cancer. Devil Facial TumourDisease (DFTD), is spread amongst Tasmanian Devils through biting andfrom sharing the same food. Once infected, the animal develops tumoursaround the mouth, which interferes with feeding and eventually leads todeath by starvation.
    19. 19. VULNERABLE (VU)“A taxon is Vulnerable when the best availableevidence indicates that it meets any of thecriteria A to E for Vulnerable, and it istherefore considered to be facing a high risk ofextinction in the wild.”
    20. 20. NEAR THREATENED (NT)“A taxon is Near Threatened when it has beenevaluated against the criteria but does notqualify for Critically Endangered, Endangeredor Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifyingfor or is likely to qualify for a threatenedcategory in the near future.”
    21. 21. LEAST CONCERN (LC)“A taxon is Least Concern when it has beenevaluated against the criteria and does notqualify for CriticallyEndangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or NearThreatened. Widespread and abundant taxaare included in this category.”NOT EVALUATED (NE)“A taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has notyet been evaluated against the criteria.”
    22. 22. DATA DEFICIENT (DD)“A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate informationto make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinctionbased on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in thiscategory may be well studied, and its biology well known, butappropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking.Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing oftaxa in this category indicates that more information is requiredand acknowledges the possibility that future research will showthat threatened classification is appropriate. It is important tomake positive use of whatever data are available. In many casesgreat care should be exercised in choosing between DD and athreatened status. If the range of a taxon is suspected to berelatively circumscribed, if a considerable period of time haselapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened status maywell be justified.”
    23. 23. The five criteria are:A. Declining population (past, present and/or projected)B. Geographic range size, and fragmentation, decline or fluctuationsC. Small population size and fragmentation, decline, or fluctuationsD. Very small population or very restricted distributionE. Quantitative analysis of extinction risk (e.g., Population Viability Analysis)
    24. 24. Invertebrates BirdsGolden Sun Moth Helmeted HoneyeaterAlpine Stone Fly Orange-bellied parrot BrolgaMammals White-bellied Sea eagleBrush-tailed Rock Wallaby Red-tailed Black CockatooBrush-tailed PhascogaleSpot-tailed Quoll FishSouthern Right Whale GalaxidLong-nosed Potoroo Trout CodEastern Barred BandicootSouthern Brown Bandicoot Reptiles Striped Legless LizardAmphibians Corangamite water skinkGrowling Grass frog Grassland Earless Dragon
    25. 25. References• http://www.iucnredlist.org/• http://www.ecosensorium.org/2010/12/mass -extinction-of-species-through-ages.html• http://www.bspcn.com/2009/04/03/11- extinct-animals-that-have-been- photographed-alive/• http://evolutionid.wordpress.com/tag/evoluti on/

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