Social Cognitive Theory and the Effects of Gender and Exposure on Liking/Disliking Sexual Contented Music Videos STUDY DONE BY: BRITTANY PHILIP PRESTON NEWLIN MEGHAN GILLING
INTRODUCTION How many of you watch MTV? How many of you watch music videos? How many of you realize when videos have sexual content in them? Sexual content and music videos…tied together since MTV aired over 2 decades ago. “Video Killed the Radio Star” by the Buggles The 24-hour pop and rock music video format spurred a flurry of research on the medium, primarily regarding sexual, violent, moral, and religious content, with some attention to adolescent viewers’ interpretations.
“Video Killed the Radio Star” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iwuy4hHO3YQ “Innuendo through clothing, suggestiveness, and light physical contact rather than more overt behaviors.” Cummins, 2007
Introduction Cont’d “MTV, “the world’s most widely distributedtelevision network, reaches more than 394 million subscribers in 166 countries and territories”. Thetarget audience of MTV is 12- to 34-year-olds, who comprise 33% of the United States population” -Smith, 2005
Introduction Cont’d Music videos are being watched – their effect? Sexual content and music videos…tied together since MTV aired over 2 decades ago. Most research (Music Videos effect on Sexual Actions)
Purpose To study why a person may dislike or like a video that has sexual content material within it. To study how exposure and gender are related to music video viewing. To study perceived gender roles in these music videos. To gain knowledge through research and aid other researchers in the future.
FIRST: Social Learning Theory Our Theory…Derived from an area of the Social Learning Theory ( Miller & Dollard, 1941) Social Learning Theory: People learn from watching other people. “(Growing up, children learn to do activities byobserving their parents. After the observation, we then decide whether or not we agree with the action and then make our decision based on that).”
Social Cognitive Bandura and Walters, 1963 – Broadened SLT “Explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavior patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies” (Bandura, 1997).
SCT and Our Research Use SCT to study how the amount of sexual content in music videos may affect the liking or disliking of those videos based on gender and exposure to the videos. Most research = sexual behavior due to MVids Ours = sexual content effecting liking and disliking of videos which effects viewing behavior as well.
Literature Review: Overview What Types of Videos Exposure Gender Portrayals Gender Preferences Gender Habits
Literature Review “Impact of Music, Music Lyrics, and Music Videos on Children and Youth” Policy Statement, 2009 “A concept video is defined as “[telling] the viewer a story that may or may not evolve from the song. This story may sometimes add content to the lyrics and provide a particular interpretation that is reinforced every time the viewer hears the song” (Policy Statement, 2009). The basis of a performance video is “an artist or a group is filmed during a performance, usually a concert” Concept is more influential…(When survey was given…these are the videos that were implied)
Literature Review “Impact of Music, Music Lyrics, and Music Videos on Children and Youth” Policy Statement, 2009 “100 fourth to sixth graders in the United States and in Europe revealed that “75% of them watched music videos” “Such high consumption of highly sexualized videos at such a young age, can only contribute to a consistent consumption of explicit music videos as these adolescents become young adults, as well as “changes in behaviors and attitudes of young viewers”
Literature Review “Controversial Rap Themes, Gender Portrayals and Skin Tone Distortion: A Content Analysis of Rap Music Videos.” Conrad, K., Dixon, T. L., & Zhang, Y. (2009). “The pressuring idea has been that the accepted look of beauty is “is represented by Eurocentric features such as white skin, blond hair, blue eyes, as well as youth, and low body weight” “Males are often associated with darker skin tone and strong Afrocentric features which infers a connection with criminality and fear. As a result, there is a huge divide between the portrayal of gender in these music videos.”
Literature Review “Gender and family as moderators of the relationship between music video exposure and Adolescence” Strouse, J. S., Buerkel-Rothfuss, N., & Al, e. (1995) “Females prefer soft, romantic, danceable music whereas males prefer hard rock, macho music.” “Females tend to listen to more music.” “Woman also, ascribe greater personal importance to music, pay more attention to the lyrics and report more personal involvement and participation in music imagery, and are more influenced by music videos to purchase albums” “On average, girls watch more music video than boys.”
Literature Review “Gender and family as moderators of the relationship between music video exposure and Adolescence” Strouse, J. S., Buerkel-Rothfuss, N., & Al, e. (1995) “Females are generally reared in a more conservative sexual manner than males.” “Females also learn that they are socially expected to set limits on sexual involvements.” “Within sexual limitations, there should be a difference in if males or women would stop watching a video due to sexual content being over the top.”
Literature Review “Gender and family as moderators of the relationship between music video exposure and Adolescence” Strouse, J. S., Buerkel-Rothfuss, N., & Al, e. (1995) “There is a stronger association between the amount of exposure to MTV and PSP for females than for males.” “Suggest that the implicit assumption that sexual content can be used to increase the enjoyment of music videos is at least partially valid.”
H 1: Gender (IV) is associated to how much exposure (DV) a person has to music videos. IV: GENDER DV: EXPOSURE (Nominal) (Ratio) Constitutive Definition Constitutive Definition Male/Female Exposure is growing as many teenager begin to “watch videos Measurability younger, and more often” The answer to the (Strouse, et. Al, 1995) questionnaire question: “Are you male or female?” on the survey Measurability The answer to “how often they watch music videos?” on surveyCorrelation
H 2: Females (IV) have more personal interactions(DV) with music than men. IV: FEMALES DV: PERSONAL (Nominal) INTERACTIONS (Nominal) Operational Definition Operational Definition female “greater personal importance to music, pay[s] more attention to the lyrics and report more Measurability personal involvement and participation in music imagery” Answer to survey (Strouse, et. al, 1995). question, “are you male of female?” Measurability Answer to questions, “would you rather watch a video with high sexual content, moderate sexual content, low sexual content or none at all?” Chart femalesX2 test to be used
RQ 1: If someone has been exposed to music videos for a longer period of time (years)(IV), will there be a relationship between whether they prefer music videos with sexual content (DV)? IV: YEARS (Exposure) DV: PREFERENCE (Ratio) (Nominal) Constitutive Definition Constitutive Definition Exposure is growing as “Watch/Do not watch” many teenager begin to “watch videos younger, and more often” Measurability (Strouse, et. Al, 1995) Answer to question, “I Measurability would rather watch a music video with.” The answer to “when did you begin to watch music videos?” on surveyCorrelation
RQ 2: Do males and females (IV) believe the appearance of gender(DV) to be bad or good in music videos? IV: GENDER DV: APPEARANCE (Nominal) (Nominal) Constitutive Definition Constitutive Definition “The dissimilarity between Male/Female the portrayals of men and women”. Kate Conrad, Travis Measurability Dixon, and Yuanyuan The answer to the Zhang, 2009. questionnaire question: Measurability “Are you male or female?” Answer to a question on the survey about how they feel men and woman are portrayed in music videos.X2 test to be used
Methodology Survey Face to Face Survey 13 Questions All females and males answered every question
Methodology Cont’d Sample 85 Queens Students 44 Women/ 41 Men
Data CollectionPassed out around campus at different times of the day and evening to try to hit all dynamics of Queens’ students.
Respondents We had 75, but to make the gender demographic more equal, we did 10 more. 85 Total Respondents
Demographic Gender Gender Males Females
Pilot Study 3 Girls, 1 Male Queens is more populated by females than males.(During study we made a point to try for a very similar number because we studied gender) The pilot study mirrors the population’s numbers. Questions were altered slightly in the questionnaire due to confusion and many questions back from respondents.
Sample Typeo Randomo Purposive (b/c the characteristic of gender playing a role)o Available/convenience sampling (b/c the researchers are also students who had friends on campus who filled out the survey with little hesitation).
H 1: Gender (IV) is associated to how much exposure (DV) a person has to music videos.SUPPORTED! MALES FEMALES 73.17% of males watch music videos 1-4 times a week 81.81% of females watch music videos 1-4 times a 14.63% of males watch music videos 5-9 times a week. week. 9.09% of females watch music videos 5-9 times a 7.31% of males watch music videos 10-14 times a week. week. 2.27% of females watch music videos 10-14 times a 7.31% of males watch music videos more than 15 week. times a week. 2.27% of females watch music videos 15+ times a week. 4.87% of males watched music videos under 8 years 22.72& of females were ages 8-11 of age 54.54% of females were ages 12-15 36.58% of males watched music videos 8-11 22.72% of females were ages 16-19 53.65% of males watched music videos 12-15 7.31% of males watched music videos 16-19 2.43% of males watched music videos over 23 years Males begin watching music videos at a younger age of age than females. Males watch music videos more often. X2 T-test ? Support? Does not support Strouse, et.al, when they say “on average, girls watch more music videos than boys”
H1 TableHow many times a week do you watch music videos? 82 80 78 P 76 74 72 70 e 68 66 64 r 62 60 58 56 c 54 52 50 48 e 46 44 Males 42 n 40 38 36 Females 34 t 32 30 28 26 a 24 22 20 g 18 16 14 12 e 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15+ Number of Times Watched a Week
H 2: Females (IV) have more personal interactions(DV) with music than men.SUPPORTED!MALES FEMALES 17.07% of males listen to lyrics 20.45% of females listen to very often lyrics very often 60.97% of males listen to lyrics 52.27% of females listen to often. lyrics often 21.95% of males listen to lyrics 25% of females listen to lyrics sometimes. sometimes 2.43% of males listen to lyrics 2.27% of females listen to lyrics rarely. rarely Overall Conclusion: 3% more females pay attention to lyrics, which contributes personal interaction with the song.
RQ 1: If someone has been exposed to music videos for a longer period of time (years)(IV), will there be a relationship between whether they prefer music videos with sexual content (DV)? Under 8 years old 16-19What you prefer? What you prefer? Stdis ….33.33% Stdis…0% Dis…0% Dis …7.14 Neutral …66.66% Neutral …64.28% Like…0% Like …14.28% St like…0% St like …14.28%More likely to watch? More likely to watch? High…0% High …14.28% Msc…0% Msc …42.85% Lsc ….66.66% Lsc …7.14% None …33.33% None …21.42%The group that began watching music videos earlier, did not like music videoswith sexual content and they were more likely to watch one with either low or nosexual content in them.The group that began watching music videos later, had more percentage withinthe neutral and strongly like categories of sexual content, and the majority of thegroup were more likely to watch a music video with moderate sexual content.
RQ 1 TableOn the scale below, please choose how much you like/dislike music videos with sexual content Strongly dislike Dislike Neutral Like Strongly like 70P 60e 50rc 40 Under 8e 16-19n 30t 20ag 10e 0 St. Disagree Disagree Neutral Like St. Like
RQ 2: Do males and females (IV) believe the appearance of gender(DV) to be bad or good in music videos? MALES FEMALES 73.17% of males agree that there 72.72% of females believe that is gender stereotypes in music gender stereotypes exist in music videos videos. 12.19% of males do not think that 18.18% of females do not believe there are gender stereotypes in that gender stereotypes exist in music videos. music videos. 6.81% of females believe that 17.07% of males think that gender roles sometimes exist in gender stereotypes are music videos. sometimes in music videos.It is not supported because the percentages are too close.
Interesting…MALES FEMALESFemale Portrayal Female Portrayal 9.75% of males think female portrayal is very 20.45% of women are neutral to the good. portrayal of women in music videos. 17.07% of males think female portrayal is 70.45% of females believe that women good. are portrayed badly in music videos. 36.58% of males are neutral 24.39% of males think female portrayal is 9.09% of females believe that women bad. are portrayed very badly in music 2.43% of males think female portrayal is very videos. bad. Male PortrayalMale Portrayal 27.27% of female believe that men are 4.87% of males think male portrayal is very portrayed well/as “good” in music good. videos. 19.51% of males think male portrayal is good. 50% of females are neutral/believe the 60.97% of males think that male portrayal is neutral. portrayal of males? is neutral 12.19% of males think that male portrayal is 22.72% of females believe that men are bad. portrayed badly in music videos. 4.87% of males think that male portrayal is very bad. Higher percentage of females believe females to be portrayed badly. More females than males believe male portrayal is good in music videos.
Discussion Social Cognitive “Explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavior patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies” (Bandura, 1997). Earlier exposure does have an effect on how a person behaves towards music videos (likes/dislikes). Gender does affect (slightly) how much a person watches music videos (behavior). Gender affects behavior of listening to lyrics…implies personal experience with Mvids
Implications When watching music videos, pay attention to why you are watching it (sexual content, words etc.) Pay attention to gender roles and how it affects your liking/disliking of it.
Limitations Not a Large Enough Sample (85) Not Completely Random Limited to Queens Students Research Was very Limited Hesitance answering for gender reasons
Recommendations for Future Researchers Larger and More Diverse Sample Study Demographics or Liking/Disliking Stick to One Age group to rule out confounding variable…what if someone who went to school here watched music videos at a different time period. Have women give survey to women, and male give it to males