Somalia Ppt


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Senior Thesis: Exploring the tensions of unity and diversity in the UK with the integration of Somali refugees

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  • Why is successful assimilation into UK culture so important in 2nd generation children?
  • Somalia Ppt

    1. 1. Defining Unity in the UK: Proof in 2nd Generation Somali Immigrants By Brittany Brown
    2. 2. Argument <ul><li>By looking at the integration of 2nd generation Somali immigrants into UK society we can learn that for unity to be upheld, the government must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allow a group to have a strong and stable local community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow use of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow continuance of cultural customs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be stable enough for the group to have some sort of allegiance to it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow religious practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I argue the UK is an example of the implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of both individual and group rights. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Pertinent History of Somalia <ul><li>1886: British Gain Control over Northern Somalia </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1900’s: rebellion of British rule by Mohamed Abdullah </li></ul><ul><li>1920: British warplanes bomb Abdullah’s stronghold </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1920’s: Italian occupation extends </li></ul><ul><li>1940: Italy declares war on The UK, fighting breaks out on Somali grounds </li></ul><ul><li>1948: Britain turns over many of their territories to Ethiopia </li></ul>
    4. 4. Freedom from Italian/British Rule <ul><li>1947 Peace Treaty: Italian Somaliland is under a ten year international trusteeship system with Italy as the authority. Britain sets up foundational institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>1960: British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland gain independence and join to form the Somali Republic </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>1961: first constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital in southern (former Italian) Somalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most government positions of southern Somalis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1967: Mohamed Ibrahim Egal reconciles with Ethiopia (traditional enemy since 16th century) </li></ul><ul><li>1969: bloodless coup installs Mohamed Siad Barre as president (ends party based constitutional democracy in Somalia) </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>1977: Somalia invades Ethiopia to gain back Ogaden. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethiopia forms alliance with Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somalia is defeated and retreats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late 1970’s: Somalia forms alliance with the US </li></ul><ul><li>1982-1988: US viewed Somalia as a partner in defense in the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>1980’s: discontent with the Barre regime, Civil War breaks out </li></ul><ul><li>1988: Barre bombs northern Somalia killing 10,000 civilians </li></ul><ul><li>1991: Barre is out of power, central gov. collapses. US enters along with UN. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Somalia left with... <ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of refugees </li></ul><ul><li>Small factions fighting for control of the national territory </li></ul><ul><li>Insurgent forces controlling most of Somalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hampering the ability for the newly formed federal government to start with rebuilding and aid. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Switch: Somalia to the UK
    9. 9. Somalia Today <ul><li>Somali as an ethnic group is over 90% of population (others include Bantu and Arab) </li></ul><ul><li>99% are Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>37.8% of population can read and write </li></ul><ul><li>85% are nomadic pastoralists or farmers, 15-20% urban. </li></ul><ul><li>National Language of Somali, but speak Arabic, English, and Italian extensively </li></ul>
    10. 10. The UK Today <ul><li>Major ethnic groups: British, Irish, West Indian, South Asian </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>English Language (some Welsh and Irish/Scottish Gaelic) </li></ul><ul><li>99% literacy rate--universal public education ages 5-16 </li></ul><ul><li>Predominately urban and suburban </li></ul><ul><li>75,000 Somali refugees living there today </li></ul>
    11. 11. “ Collective rights will only work if a group has the freedom to have a bond with their own culture” --Will Kimlika
    12. 12. Second Generation Identity <ul><li>*1/3 of applicants for asylum in the UK are under 20 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Tug of war with parent’s idea of Somali identity and their identity as British citizens </li></ul><ul><li>More open to change in ideas than adults </li></ul><ul><li>If not integrated, they face social harms that can further contribute to process of marginalization (ie: crime and drugs) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Stability in the UK <ul><li>Britain is seen as a ‘place of freedom to be whoever you are’ </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as a ‘safe’ place </li></ul><ul><li>With the Labour Party’s Election Victory of 1997, the UK has become more: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cosmopolitan, Multi-cultural and tolerant </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The Local Community <ul><li>Feel secure in their local community without necessarily self-identifying with the nation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to reproduce a community of practice with shared values, networks, and practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of stake in the future of the UK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of narrow prescriptions in ‘Britishness’ </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Language and Education <ul><li>Speaking Somali at home is an important way of ensuring the children retain their roots and develop Somali identity--Parents not sufficient in English </li></ul><ul><li>Many come to the UK uneducated </li></ul><ul><li>Taught to help one another (concept of the civil war) </li></ul><ul><li>Somali Community Homework Clubs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English, math, science, and Quaranic education </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Religion as their Identity <ul><li>Identities must be authorized by the owner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of prescribed identities allows Somali integration into the UK, while keeping something of their own (Muslim tradition) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional investments in Muslim tradition in the face of their displacement </li></ul>
    17. 17. Denmark <ul><li>‘ Over’ integration of the Somali population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools designed to integrate refugees into Danish Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No strong Somali community, everyone dispersed into minority, poor ‘ethnic’ neighborhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over emphasis of ‘difference’ as bad, feeling of discrimination as the ‘out group’ </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Brazil <ul><li>Brought in European immigrants to ‘whiten’ the country </li></ul><ul><li>Myth that everyone is mixed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State inaction and denial of informal discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group stratification was an individuals fault, not enough group representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignoring of customs and traditions, embracing only the nationalistic norms </li></ul></ul>