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Somalia Ppt

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Senior Thesis: Exploring the tensions of unity and diversity in the UK with the integration of Somali refugees

Senior Thesis: Exploring the tensions of unity and diversity in the UK with the integration of Somali refugees

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  • Why is successful assimilation into UK culture so important in 2nd generation children?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Defining Unity in the UK: Proof in 2nd Generation Somali Immigrants By Brittany Brown
    • 2. Argument
      • By looking at the integration of 2nd generation Somali immigrants into UK society we can learn that for unity to be upheld, the government must:
        • allow a group to have a strong and stable local community
        • allow use of language
        • allow continuance of cultural customs
        • Be stable enough for the group to have some sort of allegiance to it.
        • allow religious practices
        • I argue the UK is an example of the implementation
        • of both individual and group rights.
    • 3. Pertinent History of Somalia
      • 1886: British Gain Control over Northern Somalia
      • Early 1900’s: rebellion of British rule by Mohamed Abdullah
      • 1920: British warplanes bomb Abdullah’s stronghold
      • Late 1920’s: Italian occupation extends
      • 1940: Italy declares war on The UK, fighting breaks out on Somali grounds
      • 1948: Britain turns over many of their territories to Ethiopia
    • 4. Freedom from Italian/British Rule
      • 1947 Peace Treaty: Italian Somaliland is under a ten year international trusteeship system with Italy as the authority. Britain sets up foundational institutions.
      • 1960: British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland gain independence and join to form the Somali Republic
    • 5.
      • 1961: first constitution
        • Capital in southern (former Italian) Somalia
        • Most government positions of southern Somalis
      • 1967: Mohamed Ibrahim Egal reconciles with Ethiopia (traditional enemy since 16th century)
      • 1969: bloodless coup installs Mohamed Siad Barre as president (ends party based constitutional democracy in Somalia)
    • 6.
      • 1977: Somalia invades Ethiopia to gain back Ogaden.
        • Ethiopia forms alliance with Soviet Union
        • Somalia is defeated and retreats
      • Late 1970’s: Somalia forms alliance with the US
      • 1982-1988: US viewed Somalia as a partner in defense in the Cold War
      • 1980’s: discontent with the Barre regime, Civil War breaks out
      • 1988: Barre bombs northern Somalia killing 10,000 civilians
      • 1991: Barre is out of power, central gov. collapses. US enters along with UN.
    • 7. Somalia left with...
      • Hundreds of thousands of refugees
      • Small factions fighting for control of the national territory
      • Insurgent forces controlling most of Somalia
        • Hampering the ability for the newly formed federal government to start with rebuilding and aid.
    • 8. The Switch: Somalia to the UK
    • 9. Somalia Today
      • Somali as an ethnic group is over 90% of population (others include Bantu and Arab)
      • 99% are Muslim
      • 37.8% of population can read and write
      • 85% are nomadic pastoralists or farmers, 15-20% urban.
      • National Language of Somali, but speak Arabic, English, and Italian extensively
    • 10. The UK Today
      • Major ethnic groups: British, Irish, West Indian, South Asian
      • Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Muslim
      • English Language (some Welsh and Irish/Scottish Gaelic)
      • 99% literacy rate--universal public education ages 5-16
      • Predominately urban and suburban
      • 75,000 Somali refugees living there today
    • 11. “ Collective rights will only work if a group has the freedom to have a bond with their own culture” --Will Kimlika
    • 12. Second Generation Identity
      • *1/3 of applicants for asylum in the UK are under 20 years old
      • Tug of war with parent’s idea of Somali identity and their identity as British citizens
      • More open to change in ideas than adults
      • If not integrated, they face social harms that can further contribute to process of marginalization (ie: crime and drugs)
    • 13. Stability in the UK
      • Britain is seen as a ‘place of freedom to be whoever you are’
      • Seen as a ‘safe’ place
      • With the Labour Party’s Election Victory of 1997, the UK has become more:
        • Cosmopolitan, Multi-cultural and tolerant
    • 14. The Local Community
      • Feel secure in their local community without necessarily self-identifying with the nation.
        • Able to reproduce a community of practice with shared values, networks, and practices
        • Sense of stake in the future of the UK
        • Lack of narrow prescriptions in ‘Britishness’
    • 15. Language and Education
      • Speaking Somali at home is an important way of ensuring the children retain their roots and develop Somali identity--Parents not sufficient in English
      • Many come to the UK uneducated
      • Taught to help one another (concept of the civil war)
      • Somali Community Homework Clubs:
        • English, math, science, and Quaranic education
    • 16. Religion as their Identity
      • Identities must be authorized by the owner
        • Lack of prescribed identities allows Somali integration into the UK, while keeping something of their own (Muslim tradition)
      • Emotional investments in Muslim tradition in the face of their displacement
    • 17. Denmark
      • ‘ Over’ integration of the Somali population
        • Schools designed to integrate refugees into Danish Culture
        • No strong Somali community, everyone dispersed into minority, poor ‘ethnic’ neighborhoods
        • Over emphasis of ‘difference’ as bad, feeling of discrimination as the ‘out group’
    • 18. Brazil
      • Brought in European immigrants to ‘whiten’ the country
      • Myth that everyone is mixed
        • State inaction and denial of informal discrimination
        • Group stratification was an individuals fault, not enough group representation
        • Ignoring of customs and traditions, embracing only the nationalistic norms