The Media
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  • 1. Presentation of Samantha Adriaensen and Britt Galle Media
  • 2. Introduction
    • The importance of the national press
    • The two types of national newspaper
    • The characteristics of the national press
    • => politics
    • The characteristics of the national press:
    • => sex and scandal
    • The BBC
    • Television: organization
    • Television style
  • 3. The importance of national press
    • Newspaper publication is dominated by the national press
    • - nearly 80 % of all househoulds buy a copy
    • < then eighty local & regional daily papers
    • National papers => morning
    • Non- national papers => evening
    •  do not compete with national papers
    • Morning newspaper : British household institution => very important one
  • 4.
    • - until 1990: newsagents only shops allowed to open on Sundays
    • - Problem? No newspaper => people weren’t happy
    • Sunday papers => only day that they appear
    •  sister of a daily: same company, employing separate editors and journalists
    • Sunday papers sell more copies than national dailies
    • Morning ‘paper round’: newspaper delivered by a teenager that wants to earn pocket money
  • 5. Sunday newspaper
  • 6. The two types of national newspaper
    • Tabloids = ‘ popular papers’
    • Sell to a much lager readership
    • The Star
    • The Daily Mirror
    • The Daily Mail
    • The Daily Express
    • The Sun
    • Broadsheets = ‘quality papers’
    • Cater for the better educated readers
    • The Daily Telegraph
    • The Guardian
    • The Independent
    • The Times
    • The Financial Times
  • 7. Tabloids & broadsheets
  • 8. Differences
    • TABLOIDS
    • Contain less print and far more pictures.
    • Uses larger headlines
    • Write in a simpler style of English
    • Concentrate on ‘human interest’ stories
    • SEX AND SCANDAL
    • Equal amounts of attention to sport
    • Different approaches and subjects
    • BROADSHEETS
    • Contain more print and less pictures
    • Uses normal headlines
    • Write in a much higher level of English
    • Devote much space to politics and other serious news
    • Equal amount of attention to sport
    • Different approaches and subjects
    • Twice as large
  • 9. The characteristics of the national press: Politics
    • Presented in newspapers => British political parties: parliamentary organizations
    • Different papers => different political outlooks
    •  no organ of a political party
    • Business: only thing that counts for publishers
    • => make money
    • Primary concern: sell as many copies, attract advertising
  • 10.
    • British press => controlled by multinational companies
    • Freedom from interference from government issue = virtual absolute
    • Press: powerful => referred to as the ‘fourth’ estate’
    • Freedom ensured => ‘freedom of speech’
    •  constitutional right
  • 11. The characteristics of the national press: Sex and scandal
    • Result of the commercial interests: shallowness
    • Tabloids: given up pretence ‘dealing serious matters’
    • Stories: private lives of famous people
    •  lots of pictures
    •  sometimes naked woman
    • Desire to attract more readers
    • => even the broadsheets = still serious
  • 12.
    • http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =YsFrgz6_va8&feature=related
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HwlxcWleWzk&feature=related
  • 13.
    • Emphasis: revealing details => led to discussion
    •  need to restrict the freedom of the press
    • Press in conflict with => ‘ the right to privacy’
    •  British principle
    • PPC = Press Complaints Commission
    •  complaints : invasions of privacy
    • Organization of newspaper editors and journalists
    • Press => regulate it selfs
  • 14.
    • Code of Practice => sets limits on the extent
    •  not publish details of people’s private lives
    • Press oppose: ‘ right to privacy’  ‘right to know’
    • British press more frivolous?
    •  function of the press for its readers
    • British adults: never read comic books
    • Very simple reading with pictures => only in national press
    • People: don’t use national papers for ‘serious news’
  • 15. The BBC
    • Mother of information services
    • Its reputation is largely justified
    • Complaints are evenly balanced
    • (The BBC is proud to get complaints)
    • Independence = result of habbit and common agreement = the result of its legal status.
  • 16.
    • Doesn’t depend on advertising nor government
    • From the licence fee
    • Government:
      • decides how much this fee is going to be
      • Appoints the BBC’s board of governors and its director general
      • Has the right to veto any BBC programme
      • Has the right to take away the BBC licence to broadcast
  • 17. The history of BBC
    • Began to establish effective independence and reputation for impartiality
    • In 1932  set up BBC World Service
      • (with licence to broadcast first to the empire, then to other parts of the world.)
    • During WWII  identified with principles of democracy and free speech
    • => BBC’s fame  international
  • 18.
    • Today: World Service  around the globe
      • In English and several other languages
    • In 1986 => Prime Minister of India
    •  assasinated
    • Her son  turned to the BBC World Service
    • BBC  5 national radio stations inside Britain + several local ones.
  • 19. Television: organization
    • Long since take over from radio
    • Independence  largely a matter of tacit agreement
    • Occasions  BBC persuaded not to show something
    • Many occasions  BBC refused to bow to government pressure
    • Recent cases involved Northern Ireland.
  • 20.
    • Late 1980s  government:
      • broke with the convention of non-interference
      • Banned the transmission of interviews
    • BBC’s response  a mockery of this law
    • No advertising on the BBC
    • => ITV (1954) gets its money from this
  • 21.
    • Commercial television
    • ITV new programmes  not made my individual television companies.
    • ITN  owned by all of them
    • For this and other reasons  protected from commercial influence.
    • No significant difference between ITV and BBC
  • 22.
    • Same fears expressed with the start of ITV
    • Fears are justified:
      • Companies that run sattelite and cable television  in a similar commercial and legal position to those which own the big newspapers.
    • 1/3 of households  sattelite and/ or cable
      • Not significantly reduced the viewing figures.
  • 23. Television: style
    • Change in style and content
    • The amount of money  depends on expected number of viewers
    • Therefore: pressure on ITV  to make its output popular
    • Early years: ITV captured ¾ of the BBC’s audience
    • BBC’s response: own programmes to a mass audience
  • 24.
    • Since then: small difference between BBC and commercial television
    • BBC1 and ITV: wide variety of programmes
    • Constant competition
    • They don’t try to show a more popular type of programme than the other
    • => the same type of programme: better
  • 25.
    • 2 most popular and long-running of soap operas: not glamorous American productions showing rich and powerful people
    • ITV’s Coronation Street  working-class area near Manchester
    • BBC1’s East Enders  working-class area near London
    •  not an idealized picture of life
    •  not very sensational or dramatic
  • 26.
    • Popular?
      • Viewers see themselves and other people they know
    • The British prefer this kind of
    • pseudo-realism
    • 1990s: BBC spent a lot of money  filming a new soap: Eldorado ( http://youtube.com/watch?v=kecgnKHjy1U )
    • => complete failure!
    • - Why?
      • Too complicated
      • The Spanish accents were too difficult
      • No situations where people could see themselves in.
      • Too glamourous
  • 27.
    • 1960s: popularity of soap operas and light entertainment shows
    • => less room for the original educational programmes
    • 1982: 2 channels: BBC2 and Channel 4
    • (main promotors of learning and ‘culture’)
    • Both have been succesful
  • 28.
    • BBC2: famous for:
      • Highly acclaimed dramatizations
      • Certain documentary series
      • (the art history series Civilisation and the natural history series Life On Earth)
      • http://youtube.com/watch?v=r9lmepH9STs
    • Channel 4: wide variety of programmes catering to minority interests
  • 29.
    • Thank you for your attention!