The Media


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The Englisch media

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The Media

  1. 1. Presentation of Samantha Adriaensen and Britt Galle Media
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The importance of the national press </li></ul><ul><li>The two types of national newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>The characteristics of the national press </li></ul><ul><li>=> politics </li></ul><ul><li>The characteristics of the national press: </li></ul><ul><li>=> sex and scandal </li></ul><ul><li>The BBC </li></ul><ul><li>Television: organization </li></ul><ul><li>Television style </li></ul>
  3. 3. The importance of national press <ul><li>Newspaper publication is dominated by the national press </li></ul><ul><li>- nearly 80 % of all househoulds buy a copy </li></ul><ul><li>< then eighty local & regional daily papers </li></ul><ul><li>National papers => morning </li></ul><ul><li>Non- national papers => evening </li></ul><ul><li> do not compete with national papers </li></ul><ul><li>Morning newspaper : British household institution => very important one </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>- until 1990: newsagents only shops allowed to open on Sundays </li></ul><ul><li>- Problem? No newspaper => people weren’t happy </li></ul><ul><li>Sunday papers => only day that they appear </li></ul><ul><li> sister of a daily: same company, employing separate editors and journalists </li></ul><ul><li>Sunday papers sell more copies than national dailies </li></ul><ul><li>Morning ‘paper round’: newspaper delivered by a teenager that wants to earn pocket money </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sunday newspaper
  6. 6. The two types of national newspaper <ul><li>Tabloids = ‘ popular papers’ </li></ul><ul><li>Sell to a much lager readership </li></ul><ul><li>The Star </li></ul><ul><li>The Daily Mirror </li></ul><ul><li>The Daily Mail </li></ul><ul><li>The Daily Express </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Broadsheets = ‘quality papers’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cater for the better educated readers </li></ul><ul><li>The Daily Telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>The Guardian </li></ul><ul><li>The Independent </li></ul><ul><li>The Times </li></ul><ul><li>The Financial Times </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tabloids & broadsheets
  8. 8. Differences <ul><li>TABLOIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Contain less print and far more pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses larger headlines </li></ul><ul><li>Write in a simpler style of English </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on ‘human interest’ stories </li></ul><ul><li>SEX AND SCANDAL </li></ul><ul><li>Equal amounts of attention to sport </li></ul><ul><li>Different approaches and subjects </li></ul><ul><li>BROADSHEETS </li></ul><ul><li>Contain more print and less pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Uses normal headlines </li></ul><ul><li>Write in a much higher level of English </li></ul><ul><li>Devote much space to politics and other serious news </li></ul><ul><li>Equal amount of attention to sport </li></ul><ul><li>Different approaches and subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Twice as large </li></ul>
  9. 9. The characteristics of the national press: Politics <ul><li>Presented in newspapers => British political parties: parliamentary organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Different papers => different political outlooks </li></ul><ul><li> no organ of a political party </li></ul><ul><li>Business: only thing that counts for publishers </li></ul><ul><li>=> make money </li></ul><ul><li>Primary concern: sell as many copies, attract advertising </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>British press => controlled by multinational companies </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from interference from government issue = virtual absolute </li></ul><ul><li>Press: powerful => referred to as the ‘fourth’ estate’ </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom ensured => ‘freedom of speech’ </li></ul><ul><li> constitutional right </li></ul>
  11. 11. The characteristics of the national press: Sex and scandal <ul><li>Result of the commercial interests: shallowness </li></ul><ul><li>Tabloids: given up pretence ‘dealing serious matters’ </li></ul><ul><li>Stories: private lives of famous people </li></ul><ul><li> lots of pictures </li></ul><ul><li> sometimes naked woman </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to attract more readers </li></ul><ul><li>=> even the broadsheets = still serious </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>http:// =YsFrgz6_va8&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Emphasis: revealing details => led to discussion </li></ul><ul><li> need to restrict the freedom of the press </li></ul><ul><li>Press in conflict with => ‘ the right to privacy’ </li></ul><ul><li> British principle </li></ul><ul><li>PPC = Press Complaints Commission </li></ul><ul><li> complaints : invasions of privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of newspaper editors and journalists </li></ul><ul><li>Press => regulate it selfs </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Code of Practice => sets limits on the extent </li></ul><ul><li> not publish details of people’s private lives </li></ul><ul><li>Press oppose: ‘ right to privacy’  ‘right to know’ </li></ul><ul><li>British press more frivolous? </li></ul><ul><li> function of the press for its readers </li></ul><ul><li>British adults: never read comic books </li></ul><ul><li>Very simple reading with pictures => only in national press </li></ul><ul><li>People: don’t use national papers for ‘serious news’ </li></ul>
  15. 15. The BBC <ul><li>Mother of information services </li></ul><ul><li>Its reputation is largely justified </li></ul><ul><li>Complaints are evenly balanced </li></ul><ul><li>(The BBC is proud to get complaints) </li></ul><ul><li>Independence = result of habbit and common agreement = the result of its legal status. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Doesn’t depend on advertising nor government </li></ul><ul><li>From the licence fee </li></ul><ul><li>Government: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decides how much this fee is going to be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoints the BBC’s board of governors and its director general </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the right to veto any BBC programme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the right to take away the BBC licence to broadcast </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The history of BBC <ul><li>Began to establish effective independence and reputation for impartiality </li></ul><ul><li>In 1932  set up BBC World Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(with licence to broadcast first to the empire, then to other parts of the world.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During WWII  identified with principles of democracy and free speech </li></ul><ul><li>=> BBC’s fame  international </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Today: World Service  around the globe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In English and several other languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1986 => Prime Minister of India </li></ul><ul><li> assasinated </li></ul><ul><li>Her son  turned to the BBC World Service </li></ul><ul><li>BBC  5 national radio stations inside Britain + several local ones. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Television: organization <ul><li>Long since take over from radio </li></ul><ul><li>Independence  largely a matter of tacit agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Occasions  BBC persuaded not to show something </li></ul><ul><li>Many occasions  BBC refused to bow to government pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Recent cases involved Northern Ireland. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Late 1980s  government: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>broke with the convention of non-interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banned the transmission of interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BBC’s response  a mockery of this law </li></ul><ul><li>No advertising on the BBC </li></ul><ul><li>=> ITV (1954) gets its money from this </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Commercial television </li></ul><ul><li>ITV new programmes  not made my individual television companies. </li></ul><ul><li>ITN  owned by all of them </li></ul><ul><li>For this and other reasons  protected from commercial influence. </li></ul><ul><li>No significant difference between ITV and BBC </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Same fears expressed with the start of ITV </li></ul><ul><li>Fears are justified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies that run sattelite and cable television  in a similar commercial and legal position to those which own the big newspapers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1/3 of households  sattelite and/ or cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not significantly reduced the viewing figures. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Television: style <ul><li>Change in style and content </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of money  depends on expected number of viewers </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore: pressure on ITV  to make its output popular </li></ul><ul><li>Early years: ITV captured ¾ of the BBC’s audience </li></ul><ul><li>BBC’s response: own programmes to a mass audience </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Since then: small difference between BBC and commercial television </li></ul><ul><li>BBC1 and ITV: wide variety of programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Constant competition </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t try to show a more popular type of programme than the other </li></ul><ul><li>=> the same type of programme: better </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>2 most popular and long-running of soap operas: not glamorous American productions showing rich and powerful people </li></ul><ul><li>ITV’s Coronation Street  working-class area near Manchester </li></ul><ul><li>BBC1’s East Enders  working-class area near London </li></ul><ul><li> not an idealized picture of life </li></ul><ul><li> not very sensational or dramatic </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Popular? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewers see themselves and other people they know </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The British prefer this kind of </li></ul><ul><li>pseudo-realism </li></ul><ul><li>1990s: BBC spent a lot of money  filming a new soap: Eldorado ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>=> complete failure! </li></ul><ul><li>- Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too complicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Spanish accents were too difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No situations where people could see themselves in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too glamourous </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>1960s: popularity of soap operas and light entertainment shows </li></ul><ul><li>=> less room for the original educational programmes </li></ul><ul><li>1982: 2 channels: BBC2 and Channel 4 </li></ul><ul><li>(main promotors of learning and ‘culture’) </li></ul><ul><li>Both have been succesful </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>BBC2: famous for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly acclaimed dramatizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain documentary series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(the art history series Civilisation and the natural history series Life On Earth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Channel 4: wide variety of programmes catering to minority interests </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Thank you for your attention! </li></ul>
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