Unit 7: People and Places You Should Know


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Unit 7: People and Places You Should Know

  1. 1. Unit 7: People and Places You Should Know Liis Vaino 11c
  2. 2. Famous People <ul><li>Sir Winston Churchill (1874- 1965)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>an English statesman and one of the greatest politicians in the 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>led Britain successfully through WWII, described it as his `walk with destiny`- he had been preparing for it his whole life </li></ul><ul><li>born in Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, entered politics as a Conservative MP in 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>in 1906 became a member of the Liberal party, later rejoined the Conservatives </li></ul><ul><li>occupied many high positions: 1919 to 1921-Secretary of State and War and Air, 1924- Chancellor of the Exchequer </li></ul><ul><li>political career peaked in the 1940s </li></ul><ul><li>was Prime Minister twice: during WWII and from 1951 to 1955 </li></ul><ul><li>gave world the V- sign, which showed his belief in victory </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806- 1859)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>an English engineer, became famous for his railway engines, bridges and ships </li></ul><ul><li>son of a French engineer, born in Portsmouth, educated in England and France </li></ul><ul><li>first achievement: planning (together with his father) the Thames Tunnel from Rotherhithe to Wapping, completed in 1843 </li></ul><ul><li>other work: the Clifton Suspension Bridge over the River Avon; constructed a network of tunnels, bridges and viaducts for the Great Western Railway; the Bridge over the Tamar at Saltash near Plymouth </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Diana, Princess of Wales (1961- 1997)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Diana Spencer, born in 1961, the youngest daughter of the Viscount of Althorp, had 2 elder sisters and a younger brother </li></ul><ul><li>after her parents divorced, the children stayed with their father at Park House, Sandringham, attended school in Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>worked in London as a nanny, governess and kindergarten teacher </li></ul><ul><li>in 1981, at the age of 20, married Charles, Prince of Wales </li></ul><ul><li>they had two sons William and Henry (or Harry)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>separated in 1992, divorced in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>admitted to having suffered bulimia and committed adultery </li></ul><ul><li>best remembered for her charitable work with children, the homeless and the disabled </li></ul><ul><li>died in a car crash in Paris in August 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>'Queen of Hearts' </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Charles Darwin (1809- 1882)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>a British scientist who developed the theory of evolution, known as Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>explained these ideas in his book ' On the Origin of Species', published in 1859 </li></ul><ul><li>wanted to take up medicine, but had to drop it, because he didn't stand blood </li></ul><ul><li>studied divinity in Cambridge </li></ul><ul><li>in 1831, joined a scientific expedition to travel the world on a ship called the Beagle </li></ul><ul><li>worked on hie theory for 20 years, publish it as 'On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection' </li></ul><ul><li>the religious powers at the time strongly opposed to his views </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>William Shakespeare (1564- 1616)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>he was born in Stratford- upon- Avon, probably educated in the town's free grammar school </li></ul><ul><li>his acting career started in Warwickshire, served as a resident player under the stagename 'Shakeshaft ' </li></ul><ul><li>shortly after marrying Anne Hathaway he left for London to pursue his career </li></ul><ul><li>wrote his first plays in the mid- 1580s </li></ul><ul><li>from 1594- worked with the Lord Chamberlain's Company, later renamed the King's Company in 1603, when James I succeeded to the throne </li></ul><ul><li>the group was connected to 2 theaters: the Globe and the Blackfriar's </li></ul><ul><li>his plays fall into the categories: history, tragedy, comedy and tragi-comedy </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>a British scientist and mathematician who made many important scientific discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>started to develop theories about optics, mechanics and celestial dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>in mathematics he applied himself to the drawing of tangents beneath curves (differentiation) and to the calculating of areas under curves (integration)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>discovered a method to find the area under virtually every algebraic curve </li></ul><ul><li>made the link between Galileo's and Kepler's ideas, ´The Law of the Universal Gravitation` </li></ul><ul><li>1686- published his ´Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy` </li></ul><ul><li>1669- became a professor of mathematics at Cambridge, 1703- was elected President of the Royal Society </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Elizabeth I (1533- 1603)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>was 2 years old when her mother, Anne Boleyn, was beheaded, grew up as a Protestant at Hatfield House </li></ul><ul><li>her sister wanted to establish Catholicism and even kept her briefly in the Tower as a prisoner </li></ul><ul><li>1538- ascended to the throne, one of her priorities was to introduce the Protestant faith in her Country </li></ul><ul><li>had to deal with number of plots designed to overthrow her </li></ul><ul><li>biggest problem was Mary Queen of Scots, who was a Catholic and claimed her throne </li></ul><ul><li>was a popular monarch and a brilliant public speaker, remained single all her life </li></ul><ul><li>died in 1603, greatest legacy was to establish the Protestant faith firmly </li></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>John Lennon (1940- 1980)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>one of the 4 Beatles </li></ul><ul><li>born in Liverpool, brought up by his aunt and uncle </li></ul><ul><li>at school he did not do well, but later enrolled at Liverpool Art College </li></ul><ul><li>1955- his first band Quarrymen, produced cover versions of popular songs </li></ul><ul><li>1957- the Beatles came together, started to play at the Cavern, Brian Epstein- their manager </li></ul><ul><li>1962- married, left his wife for Yoko Ono, has sons by both of his wives </li></ul><ul><li>1960s became disillusioned with the Beatles, campaigned against the war in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>1970- released a solo album with the Plastic Ono Band </li></ul><ul><li>1980- was shot dead outside his home in NYC </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>Viscount Horatio Nelson (1758- 1805)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>a British admiral and Britain's most famous naval leader </li></ul><ul><li>born in Norfolk, joined the Navy at 12, became a captain at 20, serving in the West Indies, the Baltics and Canada </li></ul><ul><li>lost his arm and the sight in one eye during the wars against Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>was known for bold actions and sometimes ignoring orders from his seniors </li></ul><ul><li>fell in love with Lady Emma Hamilton, but they both were married, they considered each other soulmates, had a child Horatio (Junior)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>October 1805- his most famous battle took place at Cape Trafalgar, saved Britain from the threat of invasion of Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>´England expects that every man will do his duty` </li></ul><ul><li>died on the first day of the battle, struck by a French sniper's bullet </li></ul>
  11. 16. <ul><li>Oliver Cromwell (1599- 1658)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>was the hero of the Civil War in the 17 th century </li></ul><ul><li>born into gentleman's family, studied in Cambridge, later became an MP </li></ul><ul><li>1642- when the Civil War broke out he was the leader of the parlamentarians </li></ul><ul><li>defeated the royalist forces several times </li></ul><ul><li>established a republic called Commonwealth, ruled as a Lordprotector </li></ul><ul><li>1649- ordered the subjugation of Ireland and invaded Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>did not succeed in his vision </li></ul><ul><li>1658- after his death, his son Richard was named his successor, but the Commonwealth did not last </li></ul><ul><li>the monarchy was restored in 1660 </li></ul>
  12. 17. Famous Places <ul><li>INSCRIBED 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Ironbridge Gorge - in Shropshire: a symbol of the Industrial Revolution of the 18 th century; eponymous bridge; world's first to be constructed of iron. </li></ul><ul><li>Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey - in North Yorkshire: around the ruins is a striking 18 th -19 th -century landscape of gardens, a canal, plantations, and the neo- Gothic castle of Studley Royal Park. </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Stonehenge, Avebury and associated sites - in Wiltshire: dating from prehistoric times; consists of circles of stone arranged in complex patterns; probably associated with sun- worship. </li></ul><ul><li>Castles and town walls of King Edward - in Gwynedd, North Wales: examples of colonisation and defence works carried out during the reign of Edward I (1272- 1307); Caernarfon is also known as the investiture place of the prince of Wales. </li></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>INSCRIBED 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>The city of Bath - in Dorset: a town dating back to Roman times; in the Middle Ages, a centre of the wool industry; neoclassical Palladian buildings coexist in harmony with its Roman structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Hadrian' s Wall - in the counties of Cumbria, Northumbria, Tyne, Wear: 118 km long, from sea to sea; built in AD 122, marked the northern border of the Roman province of Britannia; protected against the attacks by the warlike Scots. </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church- in the City of Westminster, London: the Palace of Westminster was rebuilt in neo- Gothic style in the 19 th century; Westminster Abbey, a very large Gothic church, first built in the 11 th century; medieval Saint Margaret's Church is small and built in Perpendicular Gothic style. </li></ul><ul><li>INSCRIBED 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>The Tower of London - a sprawling complex layered in history; its centrepiece the massive White Tower; typical example of Norman military architecture. </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Cantebury Cathedral, Saint Augustine' s Abbey and Saint Martin' s Church - in Cantebury, County of Kent: religious centre of the country, the seat of the spiritual head of the Church of England; St. Martin is the oldest church in England. </li></ul><ul><li>INSCRIBED 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>The Old and New Towns of Edinburgh, Scotland - the Old Town, with its medieval fortress, the neoclassical New Town, which began to develop in the 18 th century. </li></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>Gough Island Wildlife Reserve - Tristan da Cunha Island Group, St. Helena Dependency: lies in the South Atlantic; one of the least- disrupted island and marine ecosystems in the cool temperate zone. </li></ul><ul><li>INSCRIBED 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Maritime Greenwich, London - a district in the south- east of London, best known for its 0- meridian; the ensemble of buildings symbolise English artistic and scientific endeavours in the 17 th and 18 th centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>INSCRIBED 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>The Heart of Neolithic Orkney - Mainland Orkney, Scotland: the monuments of Orkney bear- 3000- 2000 BC, include a large chambered tomb, 2 ceremonial stone circles and a settlement. </li></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>INSCRIBED 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>The Historic Town of St. George and related fortifications - Bermuda: a remarkable example of a fortified colonial town, dating back to 17 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>INSCRIBED 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Dorset and East Devon Coast - England: exposed cliffs; continuous rock formations spanning the Mesozoic Era. </li></ul><ul><li>INSCRIBED 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew - London: the UK's largest and most important botanical garden open to the public; created in 1759. </li></ul>
  19. 24. Thank you for listening!