Unit 11: Scotland: Overview and History


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Unit 11: Scotland: Overview and History

  1. 1. Scotland Overview and history Madis Krinal
  2. 2. Scotland <ul><li>Part of the United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Lies on the northern part of Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Capital of Scotland is Edinburgh </li></ul><ul><li>About 790 islands </li></ul><ul><li>Its own systems of law and education, money, traditions and festivals </li></ul>
  3. 3. Language <ul><li>Gaelic is an ancient language of Scotland. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the Gaelic-speaking people live in the north-west and the Hebrides. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people speak the Scottish dialect of English. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Industries <ul><li>Coal mining, steel production and shipbuilding have today been replaced by other areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Offshore oil and gas </li></ul><ul><li>Financial services </li></ul><ul><li>High technology </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Whisky </li></ul>
  5. 5. History <ul><li>The Picts populated Scotland in prehistoric times. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans also reached northern parts of Scotland. </li></ul><ul><li>By 120 AD they had withdrawn their forces to the Hadrian wall. </li></ul><ul><li>The Picts and the Scots were united in 843 by Kenneth MacAlpine, King of Scotland. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Norman kings regarded Scotland as part of their territory. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1296 William Wallace started a war of independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward I took the sacred Scottish Stone of Destiny from Scone to Westminster Abbey. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1314 Robert the Bruce defeated the English at Bannockburn. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1503 James IV of Scotland married Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII. </li></ul><ul><li>When Henry VIII came to throne, James IV hoped to gain independence, but he was defeated. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mary Queen of Scots <ul><li>Claimed the English throne of Elizabeth I </li></ul><ul><li>She wanted to see an end to Protestantism. </li></ul><ul><li>She lost her Scottish throne and after 20 years of imprisonment, she was executed for treason. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary's son suceeded to the English throne and became James I, King of both countries. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Bonnie Prince Charlie <ul><li>Descendant of the Stuart kings </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to seize the throne </li></ul><ul><li>He amassed an army of supporters and marched into England. </li></ul><ul><li>He was finally driven back and defeated at Culloden. </li></ul><ul><li>This event marked the end of dreams of freedom for the Scots. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Changes of the late 18 th and 19 th centuries <ul><li>Technological progress transformed Scotland into an industrial country. </li></ul><ul><li>Local farmers were deprived of their land, which was filled with livestock. </li></ul><ul><li>Coal mining, steel production and shipbuilding were developing fast. </li></ul>
  10. 12. The Stone of Scone <ul><li>In 1950 it was stolen by the Nationalists. </li></ul><ul><li>A copy was made of it while it remained missing. </li></ul><ul><li>The stone has been part of every coronation since the 13 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Today it is in Edinburgh castle on loan. </li></ul><ul><li>It will remain on loan until it is needed to crown a new British King or Queen. </li></ul><ul><li>After the coronation it will be returned to the Scots. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Scotland's parliament <ul><li>In 1979 Scotland was allowed to establish a separate assembly, but it was not established. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999 Scotland voted for its own separate parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>It is unicameral and has 129 members elected for a four-year term. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest parties are the Labour Party, the Scottish National Party and the Conservative Party. </li></ul>