Unit 10: Arts and Architecture


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Unit 10: Arts and Architecture

  1. 1. ART, ARCHITECTURE AND DESING Laura Koort Kristine Truija 11c
  2. 2. Architecture & Art
  3. 3. Early architecture <ul><li>Stonehenge in Wiltshire </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early architecture <ul><li>Roman ruins scattered across the country </li></ul><ul><li>Hadrian’s Wall </li></ul>
  5. 5. Early architecture <ul><li>A few Saxon churces </li></ul>
  6. 6. Middle Ages to the Reformation <ul><li>Medieval churces – richly decorated with colourful statues, murals and paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Thick-walled stone castles </li></ul><ul><li>Massive cathedrals with long naves and carved round arches </li></ul>
  7. 7. Middle Ages to the Reformation <ul><li>White Dover </li></ul>
  8. 8. Middle Ages to the Reformation <ul><li>The English Gothic Style - round arches became pointed, more and larger windows were made, roof vaults became more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into three periods: </li></ul>
  9. 9. Middle Ages to the Reformation <ul><li>Early architecture – pointed arches and flying buttresses </li></ul><ul><li>Salisbury Cathedral </li></ul>
  10. 10. Middle Ages to the Reformation <ul><li>2. Decorated - windows with delicate stonework patterns, elaborate stone carvings (usually of leaves and flowers) </li></ul><ul><li>Exeter Cathedral </li></ul>
  11. 11. Middle Ages to the Reformation <ul><li>3. Perpendicular - greatly enlarged windows, flatter arches and fan vaults in the roof </li></ul><ul><li>King’s College </li></ul><ul><li>Chapel </li></ul><ul><li>in Cambridge </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Reneissance <ul><li>Religious art was banned </li></ul><ul><li>Miniature portraits became popular </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholas Hilliard – </li></ul><ul><li>most accomplished </li></ul><ul><li>painter of this genre. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Reneissance <ul><li>Sculpture was limited to the decoration of the tombs </li></ul><ul><li>England’s nobility was prosperous and could afford country houses surrounded by elegant gardens </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Reneissance <ul><li>Longleat House in Wiltshire </li></ul>
  15. 15. The 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>Inigo Jones – </li></ul><ul><li>designed many </li></ul><ul><li>important buildings, </li></ul><ul><li>the first to introduce </li></ul><ul><li>the Italian Palladian </li></ul><ul><li>style of building. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture as a </li></ul><ul><li>profession became </li></ul><ul><li>popular with his work. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>The Palladian style - followed the principles of classical architecture, correct proportions of height and width. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>In the 17 th century Jones’ work was often considered strange. </li></ul><ul><li>The Banqueting House </li></ul><ul><li>in Whitehall London </li></ul>
  18. 18. The 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>English Baroque appeared after the Great Fire of London in 1666 </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Wren (1632-1723) was commissioned to design the new St. Paul’s Cathedral that was destroyed in the fire. His style was essentially Baroque, but with English touch. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The 17 th and 18 th centuries
  20. 20. The 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>In the early 18 th century some architects succeeded in replacing the Baroque style with a simpler one based on classical principles. The latter remained dominant throughout the century. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>The most famous painters working in England in the 17 th century were all foreign-born: Rubens, Van Dyck, Lely. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>William Hogarth – </li></ul><ul><li>a great English painter </li></ul><ul><li>of the early 18 th century, </li></ul><ul><li>developed his own </li></ul><ul><li>satirical style, very </li></ul><ul><li>detailed pictures showing </li></ul><ul><li>the immoral pleasures </li></ul><ul><li>of his time </li></ul>
  23. 23. The 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>Marriage a la </li></ul><ul><li>Mode </li></ul>
  24. 24. The 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>Joshua Reynolds – </li></ul><ul><li>painted mostly portraits </li></ul>
  25. 25. The 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>Thomas Gainsborough – </li></ul><ul><li>mostly known for his </li></ul><ul><li>portraits, </li></ul><ul><li>also painted landscapes. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>George Stubbs – </li></ul><ul><li>studied anatomy then </li></ul><ul><li>specialised in sports </li></ul><ul><li>pictures, </li></ul><ul><li>mostly of horses. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The 19 th century <ul><li>Landscape painting was the focus of the century </li></ul><ul><li>John Constable – </li></ul><ul><li>concentrated on the </li></ul><ul><li>English countryside </li></ul><ul><li>mainly Suffolk </li></ul>
  28. 28. The 19 th century <ul><li>The Haywain – </li></ul><ul><li>one of the most </li></ul><ul><li>famous English </li></ul><ul><li>paintings </li></ul>
  29. 29. The 19 th century <ul><li>JMV Turner – </li></ul><ul><li>many of his paintings </li></ul><ul><li>are today on permanent </li></ul><ul><li>display in a special </li></ul><ul><li>part of the </li></ul><ul><li>Tate Britain, London. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The 19 th century <ul><li>The Pre-Raphaelites – the foremost group in English art during the 19 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>The aim was to return to the style of the painting of the Middle Ages- bright colours, small details typical of Italian painting before the artist Raphael. </li></ul>
  31. 31. The 19 th century <ul><li>Regency architecture- neo-classical in style influenced by the Orient. </li></ul><ul><li>Revival of traditional styles, especially Gothic, with traditional building material such as brick. </li></ul>
  32. 32. The 19 th century <ul><li>Augustus Pugin – </li></ul><ul><li>an architect and interior </li></ul><ul><li>designer, stated that </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic architecture </li></ul><ul><li>was not a style but principle </li></ul>
  33. 33. The 19 th century <ul><li>The interior of </li></ul><ul><li>The Houses of </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The 19 th century <ul><li>‘Battle of the Styles’- rivalry between architecture styles in the mid-19 th century, Liberal politicians supported the classical style, but the Conservatives favoured the Gothic revival. The outcome was a compromise </li></ul>
  35. 35. The 19 th century <ul><li>The Victoria </li></ul><ul><li>and Albert Hall </li></ul>
  36. 36. The early 20 th century <ul><li>Sir Edwin Lutyens – </li></ul><ul><li>one of the most </li></ul><ul><li>outstanding architects </li></ul><ul><li>of the period, most of </li></ul><ul><li>his work was domestic </li></ul><ul><li>and he used local material. </li></ul>
  37. 37. The early 20 th century <ul><li>The modernism that flourished in Europe during the first 30 years of the 20 th century did not have a strong influence on English art and architecture. </li></ul>
  38. 38. The early 20 th century <ul><li>Jacob Epstein – </li></ul><ul><li>a sculpture, caused a </li></ul><ul><li>public outcry with his </li></ul><ul><li>nude figures in the </li></ul><ul><li>Strand, London, in 1908. </li></ul>
  39. 39. The second WW to the present day <ul><li>Francis Bacon – </li></ul><ul><li>considered one of the </li></ul><ul><li>world’s greatest artists, </li></ul><ul><li>his style was Expressionist </li></ul><ul><li>and his figures often </li></ul><ul><li>distorted. </li></ul>
  40. 40. The second WW to the present day <ul><li>Damien Hirst – one of the best-known contemporary artists, his work and that of his fellow students tends to be regarded as the beginning of ‘BritArt’ </li></ul><ul><li>BritArt – a group of Young British Artists who put on their shows and promote themselves through the media. </li></ul>
  41. 41. The second WW to the present day <ul><li>Modern architecture arrived in England with the Modern Movement, which used contemporary materials. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of concrete led to a style known as ‘New Brutalism’. </li></ul><ul><li>The architects of the late 20 th century used modern material to achieve dramatic effects. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Domestic architecture <ul><li>The oldest houses are timber framed. Thatch was widely used for groups but went out of fashion because it was associated by the homes of the poorest people. </li></ul><ul><li>All over England a large variety of different types of stone is used for building purposes. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Decorative arts <ul><li>Developed in actively in England during the last two or three hundred years. </li></ul><ul><li>The 19 th century saw progress in ceramic art. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Decorative arts <ul><li>Three great cabinet-makers: Sheraton, Hepplewhite, Chippendale. </li></ul>
  45. 45. DESING
  46. 46. Design <ul><li>British designers use new technologies, processes and materials to create market advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Current British design is really ‘the design workshop of the world’ ready for future challenges, but also aware of traditions. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Design <ul><li>The Design Museum at Butlers Wharf </li></ul><ul><li>in London, established </li></ul><ul><li>in 1989, is the world’s </li></ul><ul><li>first museum dedicated </li></ul><ul><li>solely to the artefacts </li></ul><ul><li>of industrial production. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Fashion design <ul><li>The best-known British designers of the 20 th century included Hardy Avis and Norman Hartnel - worked in Paris, later appointed dressmakers to the British Royal Family, as they were known for their conservative style of clothing. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Fashion design <ul><li>Mary Quant and Zandra Rhodes – top designers, opened shops where people could buy the latest fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Quant introduced the </li></ul><ul><li>mini-skirt. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Fashion design <ul><li>Vivienne Westwood – very influential designer, widely known for </li></ul><ul><li>her eccentric style and use </li></ul><ul><li>of historical sources, </li></ul><ul><li>started out by selling </li></ul><ul><li>punk gear. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Fashion design <ul><li>Katharine Hamnett – specialised in ready-to-wear fashions often based on work clothes, example T-shirts printed with slogans. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Fashion design
  53. 53. Fashion design <ul><li>British Fashion Week – designers show their latest styles and receive orders. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g1R5c77fbzo </li></ul>
  54. 54. Fashion design <ul><li>Sir Terence Conran – </li></ul><ul><li>probably the greatest name </li></ul><ul><li>in English design achieved </li></ul><ul><li>overnight success by </li></ul><ul><li>selling well-designed </li></ul><ul><li>domestic products in simple </li></ul><ul><li>styles and attractive colours </li></ul><ul><li>at reasonable prices </li></ul>
  55. 55. Thank you for bearing with us!