Образование в кино: вчера и сегодня


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Образование в кино: вчера и сегодня

  1. 1. Film Education: Yesterday and Today <ul><li>The Development of Teaching in Cinematography outside of the Traditional Film School route </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Definition: Cinematography - The art of making motion pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: To examine the evolution of teaching of the discipline of Cinematography; leading to the new MA Cinematography for Digital Film and Television programme; at The Media School, Bournemouth University: Contrasting this with the differing approach from traditional Film Schools. </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Personal Journey ... <ul><li>I arrived at the institution 25 years ago; with a background in photography, Super8 movie camera in hand, and the objective of becoming a cameraman/director ... </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sam Ardley - Two Soldiers <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kv6CD_C1fIY </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Traditional Film School <ul><li>The traditional way to learn Cinematography or Film Production, for many decades, was via a ‘Film School’. </li></ul><ul><li>These Film Schools came to replace the ‘apprenticeship’ approach of the ‘Studio Age’ of film production. </li></ul><ul><li>With a couple of specialised exceptions (London Film School, National Film and Television School), they have typically been part of Art Schools. </li></ul><ul><li>In the traditional Film School there has always been a strong emphasis on craft skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Film Schools would typically shoot with film: A mature, professional medium, with a wide range of creative possibilities. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Media School <ul><li>Part of Bournemouth University </li></ul><ul><li>Four Academic Groups: Media, Computer Animation, Journalism and Corporate & Marketing Communications </li></ul><ul><li>The main University campus adjoins the Arts University College Bournemouth, a separate institution, that incorporates a long established ‘Traditional Film School’. </li></ul><ul><li>The Media School, and the Arts University College Bournemouth, specifically the Film School, form a collaborative ‘umbrella’ organisation, the Skillset Bournemouth Media Academy. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hamish Anderson - Shadowed <ul><li>http://vimeo.com/12931927 </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Media School <ul><li>The Media Post-graduate Framework: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MA Post-Production Editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MA Directing for Digital Film and Television, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MA Producing for Film and Television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MA Cinematography for Digital Film and Television. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MA Scriptwriting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MA Screenwriting (p/t) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MA Radio Production </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Media School <ul><li>The Media Undergraduate Framework: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BA Television Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BA Interactive Media Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BA Screenwriting for Film and Television </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Jon Scorer - Doc <ul><li>http://vimeo.com/5768277 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Historically ... <ul><li>The purpose was to create Producer / Directors </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Craft Skills’ were necessary, but firmly in the service of authorship and production </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Technician’ was not seen as a Career path </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone made at least two films of which they were the author (there are currently 85 students on BA TV 1). </li></ul><ul><li>PG programmes - ‘Conversion’ - in that they were originated to take people from less specialised UG programmes, such as Writing and Art, and make them ‘specialists’ in Production. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Early Camerawork <ul><li>Right from the start the Media School was ‘anti-film’. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Film is Dead: The Future is Lo-band U-Matic video’ !! </li></ul><ul><li>Film - cost prohibitive given the core ethos of every student being an ‘author’ / Director. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, a desire to differentiate from the next door Film School ... </li></ul><ul><li>In comparison to film, video cameras very low quality. Simply getting a usable image to tape was demanding enough, never mind the creative flourishes of ‘Cinematography’. </li></ul><ul><li>Still not ‘Broadcast Quality’!! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Early Camerawork <ul><li>Camera systems were typically derived from those developed for TV news gathering, and as such had little of the creative facilities and accessories considered normal on a film production. </li></ul><ul><li>This meant that there was little tradition at the Media School for developing the creative aspects of the discipline of cinematography. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Effects Cinematography <ul><li>Effects Cinematography, or ‘Acquisition’ as it’s styled on the Programmes, is a specialism within the discipline of Cinematography. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Backplates’ are shot, which form the basis for Visual Effects shots. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Elements’ are created using ‘Greenscreen’, which allows performers or artefacts to be isolated from their backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Further Elements can be created through the use of CGI / Computer Animation </li></ul><ul><li>Through Digital Compositing, the Backplates and Elements are all seamlessly combined together to create a convincing Visual Effects shot. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Talli Peled - Pop Quiz <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/user/NCCADigitalFX#p/u/45/X-9dh-E9wuI </li></ul>
  16. 16. Effects Cinematography <ul><li>Technical requirements are very exacting. </li></ul><ul><li>Original image quality must be of the highest attainable. </li></ul><ul><li>Historically, Effects have been shot on 35mm (or larger) film gauges. </li></ul><ul><li>In the past, video was severely frowned upon due to issues with low resolution, poor colour reproduction, compression and ‘interlace’. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Recreation - Amir Bazazi - Erik Tvedt <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/user/NCCADigitalFX#p/u/34/vI2eo1JAAUQ </li></ul>
  18. 18. Effects Cinematography <ul><li>In the Computer Animation Academic Group (the National Centre for Computer Animation), MA Computer Visualisation and Animation started in 1989, and Digital Effects evolved as a discipline within that. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialised programmes, including Digital Effects were created in 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the discipline of Digital Compositing was hindered by very poor quality of effects elements. </li></ul><ul><li>MA Digital Effects started in 2002, which formally including the teaching and practice of Effects Cinematography as one of its core elements. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Connex <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/user/NCCADigitalFX#p/u/57/q4jtsfLh2ss </li></ul>
  20. 20. Effects Cinematography <ul><li>Technical Progression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video: Analogue Standard Definition (SD), adequate colour reproduction, interlace scan, zoom lenses, Beta SP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Film:Ironically, given the historical aversion of the Media School; Greenscreen elements shot on 35mm film (with a Russian Konvas 8M), and backplates on 16mm. These were telecined to video for loading into compositing software. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video: Digital SD, good colour reproduction, low compression, progressive scan, zoom lenses, DVCPRO50 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video: Digital SD, uncompressed, zoom lenses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Cinematography, High Definition, uncompressed, prime lenses. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Mary Strompouli - A Fairy’s Tale <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/user/NCCADigitalFX#p/u/139/f-9NjyQShP0 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Evolution of UG Media <ul><li>In the early days of the Media Undergraduate Programmes there was a rapid increase in specialisation. </li></ul><ul><li>The early Media Production programmes incorporated: Video, Radio, Computer Graphics and Communications Theory. </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid-90’s BA Television Production emerged as a ‘specialist’ programme, and is still an extremely popular programme, though relatively unchanged in fifteen years. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Harry Munday - The Confessional <ul><li>http://vimeo.com/23188414 </li></ul>
  24. 24. MA Television Production <ul><li>Through the 90’s to mid 00’s, the Post-graduate Media provision was MA Television Production. </li></ul><ul><li>A generalist course, that covered all aspects of TV. </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitly aimed at outputting Producer / Directors. </li></ul><ul><li>Low specialism, low emphasis on craft skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity steadily diminished as practical UG Production programmes grew in popularity, and there was an increasing demand for higher levels of specialism. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Collaboration <ul><li>The core ethos behind the development of MA Television Production into the current PG Media Framework, is increasing levels of specialism available to students, with shared theoretical elements, and strong elements of collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>This collaboration closely parallels industry practice. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes the form of formal elements, when collaboration is required by the assessments, but also strong encouragement for the students to build working partnerships which allow them to produce films of higher ambition and quality than they would be able to do on their own. </li></ul>
  26. 26. MA Cinematography <ul><li>Our objective on MA Cinematography is to develop four aspects in parallel: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic vision - developing their own artistic eye and critical judgement through personal practice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical proficiency - mastery of the tools, techniques and ‘craft skills’. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team working - effectively working together in different roles as camera crews. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration - building strong, mutually beneficial working relationships with Directors and Producers. Note: We strongly emphasis to the Cinematographers that they are not Directors, and that they provide a service to the productions originated by the Directors and Producers! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Technology catches up ... <ul><li>Film Production is now largely moving over to ‘video’ though it is typically characterised as ‘Digital Cinematography’ or ‘Digital Film’. </li></ul><ul><li>The video cameras that the Cinematography students now use are, in terms both of quality and range of creative accessories, equivalent to those used on a large number of feature films. </li></ul><ul><li>Now ‘technical correctness’ and ‘broadcast quality’ are no longer major points of discussion, and there has been a surge in interest in the artistic and creative qualities of Digital Cinematography, that is most significantly expressed through the start of MA Cinematography a scant month and a half ago. </li></ul>
  28. 28. A Personal Journey ... <ul><li>So, 25 years after I arrived, with the ambition to be a cameraman, I’m now the Programme Leader of the new MA Cinematography for Digital Film and Television programme. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Robert White - DOP Showreel <ul><li>http://vimeo.com/27018678 </li></ul>
  30. 30. Going Forward <ul><li>Myself and my colleagues at The Media School, most notably Mark Bond, who joined us from a career as a professional Cinematographer, are now finally pushing forward the artistic and creative discipline of Cinematography, in close parallel, and in close collaboration with, the well established programmes of Directing, Editing, Writing and Effects. </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Jump - Perry Yap & Karthik Ramasamy <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NfZUOIl05XE </li></ul>