Social communication unit guide


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Social communication unit guide

  1. 1. this out ou stuffo n social marketingBournemouth UniversityMedia SchoolBA Marketing, BA Public relations,BA Advertising and MarketingcommunicationsUnit: Social CommunicationsTutor Richard Scullion 1
  2. 2. Tel 01022 W428 2
  3. 3. Unit title Social CommunicationLevel HCredit value 20(ECTS equivalent credit value)PRE-REQUISITES AND CO-REQUISITESNone beyond completing levels C and I successfullyRationaleAt its core social communications in this unit is defined as the use of communicationthat has some form of social action as its primary purpose. In essence the unit focuseson organizations, groups and individuals who might be considered at the margins orfringes of mainstream society – particularly in relation to commercial marketing andcommunication activity. It is designed to help students gain understanding of thepertinent issues they face, to then reflect on these in order to gain empathy and so bein a better position to develop communication strategies and campaigns for, or to,such groups. As way of illustration the kinds of groups/organizations and issues weare talking about range from promoting the arts through to defending human rights,from governmental public information campaigns (i.e. healthy lifestyles) to tradeunions. Societal groups may include; travellers and Gypsies, the disabled, prisonerfamilies, gay lesbian and transsexuals, the poor, communities who are resistingdisplacement, those with mental illness, sex workers, unemployed, immigrants, lowpaid/ exploited workers, homeless........and others you may have a particular interestin.Linkages with other unitsThe links will be implicit – in most cases you will be able to use your understandingof advertising, Public Relations and marketing promotion gained from other units –but crucially only when appropriately adapted to the unique circumstances of anessentially non commercial environment. 3
  4. 4. AIMS 1. Develop a critical understanding of the qualities and characteristics of what might broadly be called ‘not-for-profit’ organizations that makes their communications unique. Specifically communication practices that shape social issues and influence social and group identity 2. Gain an appreciation of the major perspectives and theoretical paradigms in the social communication not for profit literature and be able to relate this to communication issues 3. Evaluate the role of marketing communications in the current practice of not for profit organizationsINTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMESHaving completed this unit the student is expected to: 1. Engage critically with the major intellectual perspectives in the area of not for profit communications 2. Assess a range of current practices that not for profit organizations employ to get their message(s) to their stakeholders 3. Develop the skills and empathy required to be able to offer appropriate communication strategies to the not for profit sectorLEARNING AND TEACHING METHODSLectures and seminars will draw on best practice and case studies. Current practicewill be integrated into this unit through monitoring of, and contact with, various partsof the not for profit industry. This association ensures that our students get theoptimum balance between practical skills and a solid academic foundation. In this unitstudents will be expected to make a valuable contribution to the seminars throughleading discussion topics via prepared reading of both academic work and relevantmaterial produced by organizations that practice (or could/should practice) socialcommunications.ASSESSMENT 4
  5. 5. Summative AssessmentThis unit will be assessed by 100% coursework, up to an equivalent of 5,000 words,which will address all learning outcomes.Indicative Assessment InformationTypically students will be assessed by their formal contribution in seminarpresentation and leading discussions and in a written piece of work, each accountingfor 50% of the total assessment in this unit.AssignmentsThis unit is assessed by two pieces of work (each contributing 50% of the total unitmark).Assignment one: Responding to a real brief given to you from an organisation whodeals with a marginal group who have very little voice in society. The first assignmentis to be completed in small teams (probably 4’s – you are free to get into teams fromwithin your seminar group).In week 2 (week of October 11th) a full briefing will take place – YOU MUSTATTEND THIS. Exact time place and day ASAP.Social communication unit – assessment 1 processIn response to the brief your team have to develop a communication campaign thatdelivers on the brief and helps achieve the stated objectives. Each team to completethe following:1. Make efforts to understand the situation that the organisation you are responding toface - their goals and problems, how they operate and organise, what matters most tothem, how they currently communicate internally and – if at all – externally. Alsoconsider how they could benefit more from their relationship with the umbrellaorganisation they are a member of (A for PF)2. Carry out a piece of appropriate and justified research to help uncover insights thatwill help you develop your communications campaign 5
  6. 6. 3. Select (and justify) a clear focus for your suggested communications campaign forthe group.4. Develop an outline communications campaign plan that you would recommend thisorganisation uses - which address the issue(S) you have selected to focus on (in point3 above). It should include the campaigns objectives and strategy, the audience(s) andany priority if you have more than one audience, the message(s) you intend it toconvey and how all of this is borne out of the core insight(s) you uncovered in yourearlier analysis. It should finish with an explanation of how you suggest A f PF andthe organisation you are responding to should measure the outcome of the campaign.5. Prepare a presentation (as if you were speaking to the organisation itself) with theaim of convincing them that they should implement your communication campaignplan. Include in this at least THREE actual designed and mocked-up pieces ofcommunication to illustrate the aesthetics, creative and tone of the campaign you arerecommending. You have a maximum of 30 minutes to present this in week 9 (exactday and time to be confirmed – it may not be as per seminar slot on timetable)6. Write up a brief leave-behind document that brings together all of the stagesoutlined above – explaining justifying and reflecting on your work. This should be nomore than 3,000 words and is to be given in at the end of your team’s presentation inweek 9. Your team gets a single team mark for this assignment. There should be clearevidence in the report that some of the theoretical and conceptual work covered in theunit was used to help you develop your communications campaign.It is hoped that a senior representative of the organisation you are ‘working for’ willwatch your presentation and help me assess you.Hand-in: Presentations will take place in the week of November 29th (week 9)Marking Criteria - for assignment one (50%)Each of the 4 criteria is weighted equally. • Professionalism: Enthusiasm and supportive group dynamics of team members. A Demonstration of your determination to convince the client organization that you want to work with them and have appropriate empathy with their aims and members. Attention to detail and the way the document is put together. Thoughtful and consistent response to client questions. 6
  7. 7. • Structure: A Logical and comprehensive structure. Sensible linkages made between each presenter, appropriate pace of delivery. Document flows and is overtly linked to your presentation. • Analysis: Depth of understanding the organization, its problems, opportunities and priorities. Clarity of insight(s) gained from your research and justification for the research you decided to carry out. An ability to link this analysis to communication outputs. Focus on the most important points in the presentation itself so that a clear sense of what the communication campaign platform is and why you believe it is the best solution. • Plan: How well your communication campaign plan of action is linked to / addresses the important issues that arose in your analysis. Clear sense that you understand the appropriateness of your recommendations with regards to the nature of your chosen organization. How on brief, creative and innovative the one actual designed and mocked-up piece of communication is.Assignment two: Select one of the following titles and write a scholarly informedessay in response. This is to be completed individually.Choose ONEMarketing communication contributes to large sections of the UK population havinglittle or no voice. Assess this statements merit. Draw from relevant theory and usecontemporary examples to illustrate your arguments. You may wish to focus on onespecific aspect of marketing communication and once specific group with little/novoice if you wish – please make this clear in your introduction.We live in a communicative culture yet the voice of many groups is rarely heard andmany individuals feel mute. In what ways might social communications best addressthis situation? Draw from relevant theory and use contemporary examples toillustrate your arguments. You may wish to focus on one specific aspect of socialcommunication and one specific group with little/no voice if you wish – please makethis clear in your introduction.Commercial communication campaigns may be full of style but it is socialcommunication campaigns that are full of substance. . Assess this statements meritDraw from relevant theory and use contemporary examples to illustrate yourarguments. You should ensure the type(s) of social communication campaignsreferred to are ones that are about giving voice to a marginalised or almost silentgroup(s). 7
  8. 8. You must not choose an organisation working in the same sector as your assignment 1project – if in doubt ask.Hand-in Friday December 17th at noon (last day of term)Marking Criteria - for assignment two (50%)• Deep reading on and around the subject & effective use of relevant literature (20%)• Integration of theory into your body of work (20%)• Use of contemporary examples that illustrate points you are making (15%)• Evidence of critical analysis over mere description, quality and coherence of your central argument(s) (35%)• Logical structure, professional presentation, appropriates referencing and standard of English (10%)INDICATIVE CONTENTThe notion of empathy in communicationsPrinciples of social communicationSocial engineering and the role of communications in itSocial and cultural capitalKey ethical challenges facing those undertaking social communicationAdvocacy campaigns, NGO diplomacy, pressure groups and Justice IssuesThe idea of gaining voice and being voicelessCommunity and radical Media -voices from the ‘grassroots’The Right to Know: Access to InformationRhetoric, language and paralanguageAdvertising and public relations in the context of not for profit & governmentcommunications campaignsGreen Marketing vs. Green WashingTerm 1 – October 4th – December 17 (11 weeks) 8
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  10. 10. Indicative ProgrammeThere will be a 2 hour lecture session every week where the tutor (and occasionalguest speaker) will use it to introduce topics and concepts that should help you thinkabout the subject of social communication and marginalised groups. There will alsobe a 2 hour seminar/workshop each week where a combination of mini tasks, casestudy, discussion and - later in the term - student led assessed presentations/discussions will take place. There is a total of 4 hours formal contact in this unit perweek.Overview of the programmeThere is 1x2 hour lecture and 1x2 hour seminar session per week.Week Topic Topic1 Introduction to unit Social engineering debate The voiceless and marginality2 Guest talk: Alternative view of the Fans voice in sport: gone? Olympics3 Communication theory Seeking the ‘invisible’ in Commercial communications4 Social & Cultural Capital Building & losing social Capital5 Guest Talk: Traveller & Gypsy The traveller & Gypsy voice + Communities language & paralanguage6 Community and radical media Case study of St Michaels Estate7 Transformative marketing + Marketing & consumption Guest talk on marketing & the poor creating problems8 Market non-conforming Groups that reject the market9 Feminism/Queer theory Assignment 1: presentations Public communication campaigns10 NGO’s pressure groups and Unions Assignment 1 feedback11 Assignment tutorials ..................................................... 10
  11. 11. Week 1- What is social communication and why is it interesting/useful to studyAn introduction to the unit and some of the key theories that underpin it +starting to think about those with little or no voice + outlining the term aheadKey Concepts: Social communication, social marketing, Human rights and equality,empathy, voice and voicelessness.Key reading: Synopsis of spiral of silence theory, A. (1997) Communication problems in the intensive care unit, in Reflexivityand Voice, (Ed) Hertz, R. (1997) SageSeminar: The social engineering debate (with reference to some famous or infamoussocio-psychological experiments) + the role of empathy in developingcommunications + experiencing voicelessness + introduction to the assignments &getting into small teams for assignment one.Two of the many examples of socio-psychological experiments we will discuss to appreciate ‘voicelessness’Short film about homeless voice less victims and voice without a voice ..... 11
  12. 12. Week 2 – Guest speaker: Another view of the London Olympics: Mark Saundersfrom ‘Spectacle’An organisation who has been documenting the effects of the London Olympics onEast London since before the bid was successful. Mark will talk about the project (on-going) and some of the issues that come out of considering the Olympics in a newway (i.e. mega-events overriding the democratic process, so-called ‘regeneration’,right to stay, media bias, protest).Key concepts: Urban development and land grab, Notions of ‘Right to stay’,recording & documenting events as a form of protest, sport being over-commercialised by marketing activityKey readings: About spectacle’s project + +Academic article about the ‘invisible’ aspects of the Olympics Issues arising from the guest talk + What legacy will the Olympics leaveand can we influence it via communications? + C4 coverage of the Paralympics:going for rating points or trying to change attitudes about disability? + Where’s thefans voice in sport?Olympic legacy =?Yes........…….. …… 4 and the Paralympics and Liverpool to ground share or not: the supports voice? 12
  13. 13. Voiceless are heard – mainly as the butt of jokes!!!! 3 - Mass communication theory and practice: applied to socialcommunications.A number of theories about how humans communicate will be explained and explored+ you will be asked to consider how these might apply to the practices of socialcommunication and to marginal groups and individuals who have little voice.Key Concepts: Accommodation theory, Spiral of Silence, Expectancy (violation)theory, social pressure theory, Uncertainty reduction, attribution, cognitivedissonance, altercaasting (role-playing),relevance theory, compliance gaining.Key reading: McQuail, D. Mass Communication theory, Chapters 16,18,19Also a useful starting place is this site – A synopsis of many pertinent theories Applying a model of attitudinal change to see how communication can beused for social engineering.Seeking those who are ‘invisible’ in commercial communication practices and outputs(can we find old, gay, poor black and Asian people?)+ A case study on the internal culture of the promotional industries and itsconsequencesGrowing old invisibly: older viewers talk television Identity and Impressions in an Advertising Agency Creatives: Still Male, Still White 13
  14. 14. Week 4 – Social and cultural capitalThe notions of both social and cultural capital will be explained and illustrated +Trends in social capital (decline?) and its implications for social cohesion andconnectedness will be exploredKey Concepts: Social Capital, Cultural Capital, Habitus, Bonding and Bridgingsocial relationships,Key reading: Putman, R. Bowling Alone: The collapse and revival of Americancommunity, chapters 6, 10 and 16Social capital – more valuable than money! habitus and young children: a case study of Northern Ireland Considering ways in which social capital has been lost and how it can beacquired by individuals and groups+ How does your own social capital influence your ability to communicate and beheard?+ Our perceptions of ‘travellers and gypsies’ (in anticipation of the guest talk nextweek).Habitus: A Sense of Place’s a wonderful life – Hollywood film plot ...all about social capital then so is The Godfather ..the dark side of social capital on connected communities press story about travellers and gypsy’s? 14
  15. 15. Week 5- Guest talk: Theo Langdon a member of the Dorset new age travellersgroup will be visiting today and talking about the communities he is part of.Key Concepts: Marginality, interpersonal distance, advocacy, alternativeconsumption lifestyles, local exchange trading systems or schemesKey reading: A Voice for Dorset Gypsies and Travellers difficult and marginal groupshttp:// Discussion about the issues raised in Theo’s talk linked to your earlierperceptions of such groups (from seminar 4)+ Language as power.......+ How rhetoric, language and paralanguage creates inclusion/exclusion+ Discussion about researching marginal groups: any different to other research?My gypsy life, family and travellers New Agents Personal transfiguration and radical privatization in New Age self-help example of a limited vocabulary!!! change accent to get ahead’ game Language: How good are you interpreting it? difficult to reach groups 15
  16. 16. 6 – Community, alternative and radical mediaIn this session we will look at media forms and outlets that are used to bring voice tomarginalised groups. From community radio to websites with dubious legal status:what does this proliferation of alternative media signal?Key Concepts: Media literacy, propaganda model, hegemony of mass mediaownership, Citizen Journalism, democratic communication, Indymedia, localism,authenticity and trustKey reading: Herman, E and Chomsky, N (1988) Manufacturing consent The PoliticalEconomy of the Mass Media, Brodley Head. - Read these excerpts of the book at least …..A case study about St Michael’s estate regeneration campaign – (role of mediarelations?)Seminar: What are the critical media skills required to help organisations gain avoice? Does acquiring them distort that voice?Case study of St Michaels Estate Regeneration team - Saint Michaels Estate is one ofthe DCC flats complexes deliberately run down over years on the grounds that it wasto be redeveloped, and the tenants would get good flats to live in. The people were letdown again and again, and now there is no definite plan at all for regeneration. Thesocial workers and remaining tenants are left struggling to keep life going amid thedevastation brought about by the developers and the Dublin City Council.The group’s website local politicians involved work of protest 16
  17. 17. Voice without saying a word in the Dark (3 part story of the residents voice emerging through struggle) Examining features of radical media – what it claims not to haveThe classic Canadian documentary Manufacturing Consent based on the NoamChomsky/Edward Herman book by the same name. Explores the the propagandamodel of the media Media coverage of the miners strike in Britain (DVD)Example of a radical magazine radio here at BU –radical in anyway? What’s good or not about citizen journalism?Journalists view of citizen journalism Oxymoronic Citizen Journalism 17
  18. 18. Week 7 – Transformative marketing & consumer research+ A talk about ‘marketing doing good’ Micro-credit and those at the bottom ofthe pyramid (JD-K)A recent movement in marketing and consumer research focuses on studying (andenacting) research and practice that benefits consumer welfare and quality of life. It’salso interested in how the quality of life of individuals and groups are affected byconsumption.Key Concepts: Consumer vulnerability and welfare, victimhood, marketing as asolution to social problems, addiction and compulsive consumption, ‘entropy’ and theso-called ‘good’ consumer. Ideology, freedom, democratic communication,governmental social engineering,Key reading:, Csikszentmihalyi, M .(2000) The Costs and Benefits of consuming,Journal of Consumer Research, Vol 27: September – access it with this link, D. Meaning and Mattering Through Transformative Consumer Research about what transformative marketing and consumer research is to the poorhttp://www.bankertothepoor.comWhat is micro-credit? Should we make efforts to persuade people to want to be involved in so-called ‘good’ consumption and to reject wasteful & potentially harmful consumption?What makes us vulnerable consumers and what can be done to reduce such situations– are there downsides of avoiding vulnerability as a consumer?The role of public (and Government) information Messages.How corporate branding has taken over America – (and so why marketing needstransforming) the marketing of ethics (so is the transformational?) 18
  19. 19. Do you know any shopaholics – is it fun or a serious problem?On-line support group for over-spenders Anonymous! video case study going shopping as... a visually impaired person, disabled, poor, old or even black!Video of a black person shopping................. emerging............????+ Should government ever spend money telling us what to do? 19
  20. 20. Week 8 - Anti-capitalist and other market non-conformists: A trend or escape?A look at various ways in which individuals and groups resist and reject thedominance of the market: from voluntary simplifiers and ‘Freegans’ to ‘Adbusters’and anti-capitalist protest groups. A threat or friend to the marketing industry and howhas it responded?Key Concepts: ‘having and being’, Voluntary simplifiers, sustainable and greenconsumption, green-washing, downsizing, neo-liberal hegemony, escaping the market,alternative ‘consumer’ lifestyles, ‘situationalists. ’Key reading:, Cohen and Taylor Escape Attempts the theory and practice ofresistance to everyday, chapter 1 or Shankar, A. and Fitchett , J Having, Being and Consumption, Journal ofMarketing Management, Vol 18, Issue 5/6Or McDonald, S. et al (2006) Towards sustainable consumption: ResearchingVoluntary Simplifiers. Psychology and Marketing, vol 23 (6)Seminar: You must try to attend this seminar without wearing or having anybrands on your person! I will.......What motivates people to reject aspects of the marketplace, to look to downsize, toescape from consumption? The idea of a spectrum of resistance – where are you onthis? What do anti-capitalist want to replace the market with? The ethics and efforts ofFreeganism?.Some interesting anti-capitalist/ non-conformist sitesCulture jamming: Parts 1 and 2 + capitalist theory stance on the BIG SOCIETY 20
  21. 21. Week 9 – Feminism and Queer theory + Public & Government communicationcampaignsHow do feminist and queer perspectives impact on our understanding of promotionalcommunications and its practices?The Government, through the Central Office of Information (COI), has consistentlybeen the biggest advertiser in the UK for many years. The relationship betweengovernment and the PR industry is intimate –many top lobbyist and political advisorshaving started their careers in PR (including David Cameron). In this session weinvestigate the uses of public information campaigns asking about their efficacy,ethics, purpose (and possible hidden agenda).Key Concepts: Gender, subjectivity, social roles including, androcentrism, sexuality -socially constructed or? , reflectivity and reflexivity, gender roles and power,stereotyping + Ideology and social engineeringKey reading: Queer visibility in commodity culture Here, Were Queer, and Were Going Shopping! A Critical Perspective on theAccommodation of Gays and Lesbians in the U.S. Marketplace hand ring campaign: case study campaigns Assignment 1: This session is dedicated to the presentation of each team’scommunication campaign for assignment one (above for full details).Note: The presentations may take place on different day/time to normal seminar slotsas the audience will include a member of the organisation you have been working for 21
  22. 22. Week 10 - NGO’s, Pressure groups and Trade UnionsThere are literally thousands of such organisations operating in the U.K. all withsocial and often political agendas. This session looks at their typical intensions andhow they often become the voice for others. It also explores the way that the externalenvironment both reports them and often limits how they can communicate to abroader public. Film: Bread and RosesKey Concepts: Campaigning, activism, workers rights, immigrant workers, inside-outside groups, minimum wage.Key reading: Film about workers rights, immigration and voice Bread and Roses dispute in Britain, B. (2003) An introduction to Political Communication, Routledge. Chapter 8Useful directory of UK pressure groups set of lecture notes will also be placed on mybuSeminar: This session is dedicated to offering feedback on each team’s assignmentone (probably not the mark by this stage) and discussing any final issues forassignment two (see assignment details above for more details)_________________________________________________________________Week 11 – No lecture session this week – time dedicated to assignmentSeminar: Session replaced by assignment tutorial sessions – see note for details ofprecise time of these 22
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  24. 24. INDICATIVE KEY LEARNING RESOURCESAcademic journals provide the scholarly underpinning for the unit. Contemporaryexamples can be found in professional publications. Students will therefore beexpected to consult a wide range of literature including: Journal of Marketing Communications; European Journal of Communication;Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics; Journal of Political Marketing; Journalof Public Affairs; Journalism Studies; Journalism and Mass CommunicationQuarterly, Journal of Public Relations, Journal of Public Relations research,Consumer, Cultures and Markets, Journal of Consumer Research.Students should also take a keen interest in current affairs that touch one or are aboutthe kinds of individuals and groups normally associated with being on the margins ofthe mainstream (protest groups etc).Reading listThere s no core text given the nature of the unit. However the following touch onmany aspects we cover, albeit at times in a subtle mannerCohen, S. and Taylor, L. (1992) Escape Attempts the theory and practice of resistanceto everyday, Routledge.Fielder, K (2007) Social Communication, Psychology PressGoffman, E. (1990) The presentation of Self in Everyday life. Penguin; New EdeditionLeiss, W. Kline, S. Botterill, K.(2005) Social communication in advertising:consumption in the mediated marketplace, Routledge.McQuail, D. (2005) McQuail’s Mass Communication theory. Sage.Rice, R. and Atkin, C (2001) Public Communication Campaigns. SageOther textsAndreason, A. (1994) Social marketing: Its definitions and domain. Journal of PublicPolicy and Marketing, Vol 13 24
  25. 25. Alwist, L. and Donley, T. (1996) The low income consumer. Adjusting the balance ofexchange. Sage.Andrews, C., and Holst, C. B., “The real meaning of “inwardly rich”, Journal ofVoluntary Simplicity, 1998, May 28Arnold, E. (2007) Should consumer citizens escape the market? The annals ofAmerican academy of political and social science, Vol 611 No 1Armstrong, Ketra L (1999) Nike´s Communication with Black Audiences. Journal ofSport and Social Issues, 23, pp. 266-286.Atton, C. (2001) Alternative Media. London, Sage.Bohner, G. and Wanke, M. (2007) Attitudes and Attitude Change, Hove, PsychologyPress.Burton, D (2000) Ethnicity, Identity and Marketing: A Critical Review. Journal ofMarketing Management 16, pp. 853-877. Available at:, K., & Munshi, D. (2007). Diverse voices and alternative rationalities:Imagining forms of postcolonial organizational communication. ManagementCommunication Quarterly, 21, 249-267Bruning, S. Langenhop, A. and Green, K. (2004) Examining city–residentrelationships: linking community relations, relationship building activities, andsatisfaction evaluations. Public Relations Review, Vol 30 No 3Clough, P. and Barton, L. (1999) Articulating with Difficulty: Research voices ininclusive education. SageCherrier, H, and Murray, J., “Drifting away from excessive consumption: a new socialmovement based on identity construction”, Advances in Consumer Research,2002, Vol. 29, p.245-247Coleman, S. (1997) Stilled Tongues: From soapbox to sounbite, Porcupine PressCox, R. (2006) Environmental Communication and the Public Sphere. London: SageCraig-Lees, M., and Hill, C., “Understanding voluntary simplifiers”, Psychology &Marketing, 2002 Vol. 19(2), p. 187–210Csikszentmihalyi, M. ( 2000) The Costs and Benefits of consuming, Journal ofConsumer Research, Vol 27: September 25
  26. 26. Csikszentmihalyi, M. ( 1999). If We Are So Rich, Why Aren’t We Happy? AmericanPsychologist, 54(10), 821-82Dahlgren, P. (1996) Media logis on cyberspace; Repositioning journalism and itspublics. Javnost/The public, Vol 3 No 3Downing, J. Ford, T. and Gill, G. (2001) Radical Media: Rebellious Communicationand Social Movements, SageDutta, M. and Basu, A. (2008) The Past, Present, and Future of Health DevelopmentCampaigns: Reflexivity and the Critical-Cultural Approach. Health Communication,Vol 23 No 4Dutta-Bergman, M (2005) Civil Society and Public Relations: Not So Civil After All.Journal of Public Relations Research, Vol 17 No 3Edwards, L. (2008) Pr Practitioners’ Cultural Capital: An Initial Study andImplications for Research and Practice, Public Relations Review, 34, pp. 367-372.Ehninger, D. Gronbexk, B. McKerow, R. Monroe, A. (1982) Principles and Types ofSpeech Communication. Foresman and CompanyElias, N. (1978) The civilising process. The history of manners. Oxford, BlackwellFukuyama, F. (1995) Trust. New York, The free press.Gabriel, Y. and Lang, T. (2006) The Unmanageable Consumer: Chapter 7 Consumeras Victim and chapter 9 Consumer as activistGilg, A. Barr, S and Ford, N. (2005) Green consumption or sustainable lifestyles?Identifying the sustainable consumer. Futures, Vol 37 No 6Gamucio Dragon, A. (2001) Making waves: Stories of participatory communicationfor social change, New York, Rockefeller FoundationHastings, Gerard (2007) Social Marketing: Why Should the Devil have all the BestTunes? Oxford: Butterworth – Heinemann.Herman, E and Chomsky, N (1988) Manufacturing consent The Political Economy ofthe Mass Media, Brodley Head.Hertz, R. (1997) Reflexivity and Voice, (ed) SageHirschman, Elizabeth C. (1992), "The Consciousness of Addiction: Toward a GeneralTheory of Compulsive Consumption," Journal of Consumer Research, 19(September), 155-179. 26
  27. 27. Hodges, C. E.M. and McGrath, N. (2010) Communication for social transformation.In: Edwards, L. and Hodges, C. E.M., eds. Public Relations, Society and Culture:Empirical and theoretical explorations. London: Routledge.Holt, D. (2002) Why Do Brands Cause Trouble? A Dialectical Theory of ConsumerCulture and Branding. Journal of Consumer Research, Vo 29 No 1 lMcDonald, S. et al (2006) Towards sustainable consumption: Researching VoluntarySimplifiers. Psychology and Marketing, vol 23 (6)McRobbie, A. (2007) Top Girls? Young women and the post-feminist social contract.Cultural Studies, Vol 21 p 718-737 Ng, Sik Hung (2007) Language-Based Discrimination: Blatant and Subtle Forms.Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 26 (2) pp. 106-122.Noelle-Neumann, E. (1984). The Spiral of Silence. University of Chicago, ChicagoOShaughnessy, OShaughnessy J. and Jackson N. (2007) Reply to criticisms ofmarketing, the consumer society and hedonism. European Journal of Marketing, Vol41 No 1 / 2Planalp, S. (1999) Communicating Emotion. Social, Moral, and Cultural Processes.Cambridge University PressRobillard, A. (1997) Communication problems in the intensive care unit, inReflexivity and Voice, (Ed) Hertz, R. (1997) SageSandlin, J. andCallahan, J. (2009) Deviance, dissonance, and development, Journal ofConsumer Culture, Vol 9 No 1Semin, G. And Fiedler, K. (1996) Applied Social Psychology. Sage.Servaes, Jan (Ed.,) (2008) Communication for Development and Social Change.London: Sage.Sheath, j. Sisodia, R. (2005) A dangerous divergence: Marketing and society. Journalof public policy and marketing, Vol 24. 27
  28. 28. Spring, J. (2002) Educating the consumer-citizen; Ahistory of the marriage of schoolsand advertising and media. Lawrence Erlbaum.Thompson, E. P. 1991. Customs in Common. London: Merlin Press.Thurlow, C. (2004) Naming the “Outsider Within”. Homophobic Perjoratives and theVerbal Abuse of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual High-School Pupils” Journal ofAdolescence, 24 pp.25-38.Valentine, Gill. 2001. Social Geographies: Space and Society. Harlow: Prentice Hall.Weisbrod, B. (1998) To Profit or Not to Profit. The Commercial Transformation of theNon-profit Sector. RoutledgeWichroski, M. Breaking Silence in Reflexivity and Voice, (Ed) Hertz, R. (1997) SageZavestoski, S., “The Social–psychological bases of Anticonsumption attitudes”,Psychology & Marketing, 2002, Vol. 19(2) p. 149–165. 28
  29. 29. Links to other reading on the internet (live at the time of putting theunit together)Week 1Link to lots of books on social communications use of social communications:Social communications and advertising site about commercial social communications and Social Class as we know it: Media portrayals of the poor superhero Echo fights stereotypes of deaf people 29
  30. 30.­‐superhero-­‐echo-­‐stereotypes-­‐deafWeek 2Changing attitudes to disability via sports coverage the commercialization of sport: The need for critical analysis fans – losing or gaining power? 3Synopsis of many pertinent theories (as a starting point) of risk theory (may explain limited contact with some groups) 4A comprehensive resource on social capital research up Social Capital: An Analysis of Social Voice. from Guardian about connected communities people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks andsocial capital 30
  31. 31. hor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1454764185& negative attitudes towards persons with physical disabilities: anexperimental intervention 5New age traveller IN A GYPSYS LIFE economic trading schemes and their implications for marketing assumptions,concepts and practices Your Distance: Group Membership, Personal Space, and Requests for SmallFavors – relating to how we communicate 31
  32. 32. - i.e. personal space understanding as the “Ultimate Weapon” in Nineteen Eighty-Four Discrimination Blatant and Subtle Forms, Power, and Intergroup Relations and power 6MUTE – alternative takes on contemporary culture and society Cultures and New Social Movements: radical journalism and the mainstreammedia on Radical journalism 32
  33. 33. Journalism: A Radical Way of Making, Selecting and Sharing News? site radio tool kit the Studio: A Case Study of Community Radio and Social Capital passion, public neglect: The culturall status of radio. media association professional participatory storytelling in journalism and advertising Advertising and Journalism: Hybrid Promotional News Discourse the Beast of Advertising 7Video about what transformative marketing and consumer research is 33
  34. 34. Critical Consumer Education: Empowering the Low-Literate Consumer Enlargement of the Notion of Consumer Vulnerability case for transformative marketing Means and Ends for a Sustainable Society: A Welfare Agenda forTransformative Change Understanding of the Domain of Consumer Vulnerability Experiences of Consumers with Visual Impairments: Beyond theAmericans with Disabilities Act in a Material World: Evidence from Ethnographic Consumer Research onPeople in Poverty Culture and the Culture of poverty: Implications for Marketing theory andPractice the Poor Pay More for Food? An Analysis of Grocery Store Availability andFood Price Disparities 34
  35. 35. Consumer vulnerability to scams, swindles, and fraud: A new theory of visceralinfluences on persuasion;jsessionid=FD157F00827A812280F00B3AC8BB7D67.d01t01Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1992), "The Consciousness of Addiction: Toward a GeneralTheory of Compulsive Consumption," Journal of Consumer Research, 19(September), 155-179. buying: An examination of the consumption motive;2-F/abstractExploring Addictive Consumption of Mobile Phone Technology Lived Experiences of Women as Addictive Consumers 8Understanding individual decision-making for sustainable consumption (aboutvoluntary simplifiers) responsibility versus collective action: An examination of the impact ofenvironmental advertising MILLENIUM LIFESTYLES: VOLUNTARY SIMPLIFIERS 35
  36. 36. Jam: The Uncooling of America movements Panics and anti-capitalist activists Newer Social Movements? Anti-Corporate Protests, Capitalist Crises and theRemoralization of Society and resistance resource impact year – a project by a family living in Manhattan Jamming: The revolutionary Impulse 36
  37. 37. Week 9Were Here, Were Queer, and Were Going Shopping!A Critical Perspective on the Accommodation of Gays and Lesbians in the U.S.Marketplace Meanings of Lesbian and Gay Pride Day: Resistance through Consumption andResistance to Consumption visibility in commodity culture Gay Family in the Ad: Consumer Responses to Non-traditional Families inMarketing Communications Theory 9 =- part 2Government Public Relations: A reader and social communications government public relations and the local press 37
  38. 38. The Central Office of Information 10Charity comms – an organisation advising the sector communications: the future and the Role of UK Third Sector Organizations in the Policy Process Unions Union reputation Union communication awards protest in Canary Wharf Wharf’s bankers don denim, brace for protests 38
  39. 39. Other Websites that may be of interestWatching lobbyist activities history of mental illness Rowntree Foundation – researching and assisting the poor (events they organise) on homelessness 39
  40. 40. Websites of organisation representing some of the marginal/ fringe groups we areconcerned withYou may find an organisation to focus on here for assignment 2Travelers and Gypsies rights & Immigrant fair treatment about workers rights what people said of the film)Homeless disability into work action groups direct action group on facebook 40
  41. 41. heath violence workers union to stay/ anti-gentrification movements project Brixton market local council housing protests group local housing protest group in Chicago about developers/ community We shall not be moved –east endProtest about the London Olympics 41
  42. 42. the Olympic myth project that has mapped the effects of the Olympics site since Londonwon the bid against corporate world Groups our grounds!.html 42
  43. 43. Online resources connected to social-psychology experiments & the ideas ofsocial engineering of videos on the prison experiment on it by the participants test - updated Stamford experiment experiment about hierarchy 43
  44. 44. Asch experiment bystander effect filled room effect - Black person shopping blindness experiment to tackle poverty – this is long power of language 44
  45. 45. Simple sign order experiment learned helplessness or straight experiment!!! gender sign study ad tests 45