Public policy <ul><li>John Brissenden </li></ul><ul><li>02.02.10 </li></ul>
Reading Benkler, Y (2006) Chapter 11 http://tinyurl.com/yee73wa DeNardis, L (2009), Protocol Politics. London: MIT Press. Chapters 1 and 6 Zittrain, J (2008) The Future of the Internet - and How to Stop It. Chapter 2 http://tinyurl.com/ykkx7na http://www.eff.org /
This week’s key question Who gets to say what, to whom, and who decides?
Something else to think about The internet that we have today will not be here forever.
What we will cover today The shift from an industrial information economy to a networked information economy Governance, standards and public policy Problems
The industrial information economy Fewer in number More expensive Reaching more and more people Bigger High upfront costs Low marginal distribution costs Spread the costs over ever larger audiences
Concentrates Commercialises/commodifies Extends reach GEOGRAPHICALLY and SOCIALLY Industrialisation feeds on itself
“ Information and opinion that was widely known and formed the shared basis for political conversation and broad social relations flowed from ever more capital-intensive commercial and professional producers to passive, undifferentiated consumers.” Benkler (2006): 29
High upfront costs Low marginal distribution costs Spread the costs over ever larger audiences + +
How is a networked economy different from an industrial economy? “ The basic output that has become dominant in the most advanced economies is human meaning and communication...The basic physical capital necessary to express and communicate human meaning is the connected personal computer.” (Benkler, 2006: 32)
Consumers Telecom corporations Hardware and software mfrs Copyright industries National standards bodies International standards bodies Software developers National governments
Open Closed Proprietary Open-source Public Free
How public policy affects the internet (Benkler, 2006) Physical Logical Content
An internet governance framework (DeNardis, 2009: chapter 1) <ul><li>Critical internet resources </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name system (DNS) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol (IP) addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Communication rights </li></ul>
“ The emergence of the networked information economy...depends on the continued existence of an open transport network connecting general-purpose computers. It therefore also depends on the failure of the efforts to restructure the network on the model of proprietary networks connecting terminals with sufficiently controlled capabilities to be predictable and well behaved from the perspective of incumbent production models.” Benkler (2006): “ Proprietary handhelds, and even more so, game consoles and televisions, are platforms that choreograph their use. They structure their users’ capabilities according to design requirements set by their producers and distributors. A physical layer usable with general-purpose computers is one that is pliable and open for any number of uses by individuals, in a way that a physical layer used through more narrowly scripted devices is not.” Benkler (2006)