Mergenthaler mgm260 1101b-02
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Leadership

Leadership

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  • Learning objectives:Clearly define leadershipIdentify common leadership traitsExplain models of leadershipDemonstrate effective leadership Discussions:How could you use this information to improve 1995 Auto Sales, Inc.?How would you be an effective leader?
  • What is a leader? How is a leader different from leadership? While some consider the role of a leader to be an individual who fulfills many qualities, being a leader is defined as being someone who can influence others to achieve a specific goal (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). How we go about influencing others to achieve these goals is leadership (Leadership, 2006). As leaders our expectations are limitless. Many consider the qualities of a leader to include:Drive- showing initiative, ambition, a desire to achieve, tirelessDesire to lead- seek leadership roles, aspire to teach others, take responsibilityHonesty and Integrity- establish trusting relationships, show consistency from word to actionSelf-confidence- leaders must demonstrate a strong sense of self-worth and value in order to convey a message and worth and value to a team.Intelligence- required to make educated, creative, and situational decisionsJob relevant knowledge- an in-depth knowledge of the industry and company for which you workExtraversion-sociable, outgoing, never silent about ideas (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). As you can see, there are clearly many traits that make up good leaders. Some others that come to mind include charisma, and determination. However, the most beneficial leader is one that is adaptive to changes and has a productive style. In leadership, style is important. Leaders can be autocratic ,or dictators that make all the decisions and leave little room for employee involvement. Leaders can also be democratic- making decisions based on feedback, and incorporating team involvement. The laissez-faire (pronounced Lah-zay fair) style of leadership reflects lazy leadership. This style focuses on group processes and decision making, however it employs very little overseeing of the employees work habits.
  • Early theories of leadership in the modern world encompassed four major groups of theories. They include:Trait theories- Leadership is based on the leader’s traits or qualities.Behavioral theories- behaviors identify effective or ineffective leadershipContingency theories- leadership is based on situations, capable of changing as neededTransformational theories- the leader is viewed as someone who can create changes. In our discussion we will focus in on the contingency theories influenced by Fred Fiedler, Paul Hersey, and Ken Blanchard, and Robert House. Their contributions included the Fiedler Contingency model, The Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership theory, and the path-goal model for leadership developed by Robert House.
  • Fred Fiedler, born in 1922, made significant contributions to the study of leadership. He designed the contingency model for leadership. His was the first most extensively studied model for leadership. This model is based on the idea that people have stable personalities that drive them closer to a leadership style. To measure a persons style of leadership, Fiedler introduce the Least-preferred co-worker questionnaire. In this survey, Fiedler identifies leaders who possess high LPC scores, or those that show a greater concern for maintaining social skills than those with low scores, which represent a greater concern for the task at hand. Inherently, the scores are even further reliant on the key factors of effective leadership, which Fiedler suggests are as follows:leader-group member relations task structureleader's power position (Fielder, 2002). This results in eight possible combinations or situations as seen in the chart. These situations lead Fiedler to the conclusion that task oriented individuals performed better in all situations while relationship-oriented individuals performed well only in situations that were favorable. From his work, he was further able to conclude that in order to have success in a situation, one of two factors would need to be adjusted: the leader, or the situation (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). Fiedler stresses the importance of the leader’s role. He indicates that the leader must be an individual who has a balance for being task-driven, and likeable. In his theory, we address the need to adjust situations to fit the style of the leader. In cases where the leader may be the company’s owner, and self change is not immediately possible, it may be necessary to take Fiedler’s approach into action and alter the situation. This could mean new employees, locations, cultural identity, etc.
  • Using Fiedler’s theories, 1995 Auto Sales, Inc would first have to identify what type of leaders were employed. Once the style of leadership was identified as being task-oriented or relationship-oriented, teams may be arranged to fit the leadership style of the manager to employees that corresponded. In the same design, you might identify individuals seeking promotion or willing to introduce new styles of leadership. When those situations present themselves, it is up to the leaders to acknowledge and respond. Leaders should be motivating, while being responsible for dealing out proper disciplinary action. Discipline should also correspond appropriately to the infraction. By being a motivating leader, individuals will want to naturally follow your example. Install policies that recognize favorable behavior, great sales, and other superior job actions to make employees more aware of their importance. It also lets them know that you are watching. By encouraging employees to speak up with new ideas, you may also open the doors to building stronger relations with your employees. Taking an active role in their growth is also an excellent way to build upon a trusting relationship with your followers.
  • In Hersey & Blanchard’s situational Leadership Theory, effectiveness of leadership recognizes the role of the follower as being of equal contribution. Identifying the readiness of the follower as the extent to which people are able and willing to do what is expected of them. The saying “you can lead a horse to water, but you can’t force him to drink,” comes to mind. In this model of leadership, just as with Fiedler’s theory, the dimensions for interpretation include task and relationship. Recognizing task and relationship as a high or low factor in the situation led to the labeling of four styles of leadership:Telling (high task, low relationship)- in which the leader designates the roles and responsibilities of the individualSelling (high task, high relationship)- the leader is directive and supportiveParticipating (low task, high relationship)-leaders share the decision making responsibilities with followersDelegating (Low task, low relationship)- the leader provides little directive or support In promoting the theory that followers are a pivotal aspect of leadership, the following stages represent follower readiness:R1- The follower lacks confidence and/or competence, thus is unable and unwilling.R2- The follower may lack the appropriate skills to perform, but demonstrates motivation to perform. In this case, the follower is willing, but unable to comply.R3-The follower has the capability to perform, but is unwilling to do what is expected.R4-The follower has both the confidence and competency to perform, thus is both willing and able (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). By recognizing this leader-follower relationship and pointing out the responsibility on the follower to comply or not comply with expectations, Hersey and Blanchard have shared the success of any leadership style among the leader and the follower. Their model efficiently depicts that there are situations in which followers will or will not behave accordingly regardless of the leaders abilities to lead. In these cases, it is important for misappropriate behaviors to be identified and handled in accordance with company policies.
  • In Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory, the first step is to determine the leadership style and the follower readiness. In the same surveying opportunity, you should identify leaders and employees who fill the expectations of their respective positions. If the leaders do not represent 1995 Auto Sales, Inc according to the pre-defined standards, there is no way to begin sending this image to lower ranking employees. Once the right leadership is in place and incorporating the values and goals of the company into everyday motivational tactics, we can more accurately identify the readiness of our employees. Ideal R4 employees should be recognized for their high achievements while R2 individuals be encouraged to blossom. While there are suggestions related to altering leadership styles with R1 and R3 employees, it is advisable that these individuals should be handled according to company policies. After the behavior has been thoroughly reviewed, the leader should determine the appropriate action. The leader’s decision should further establish trust and security in the employees that everyone is treated fairly. As more satisfaction is met and trust established between leaders and their followers, 1995 Auto Sales, Inc will continue to grow as a family-owned, friendly, no-pressure-sales leader in automotive sales!
  • In his approach, Robert House corresponds to a more logical approach to leadership. His path-goal model takes Elements from the Expectancy Theory. This model has a planted belief in leaders to be effective by fulfilling the expectations of the employee. In fact, this theory puts a huge amount of importance on the perception of the employee. Robbins and Coulter explain the belief of this theory focuses on the leader’s ability to clear the way for their followers, and while guiding them, make the path to achievement easier (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). House correlates leadership behaviors to styles. He identifies the following:Directive Leader- provides expectations up front, detailed guidance and instructionSupportive Leader- friendly and genuinely concerned for followersParticipative Leader- gathers feedback from followers and makes decisions with followersAchievement Oriented Leader- sets goals and expects achievement.House further emphasized that a leader could be all of these styles depending on the need of the situation. His theory also exemplified an understanding for the contingency variables, which he identifies as being the external environmental factors and the controllable follower factors. Environmental factors are those which are outside of the followers control, e.g.- policies, authorizations, co-worker participation, etc. However, the follower factors are those which encompass the personality of the follower, their experience and other characteristics that are in the realm of their control. House’s idea supports logic that ultimately indicates how employees want to be treated. It indirectly suggests the relationship between leader and follower as give and take. Each sides feeds off of the behaviors of the other to correspond appropriately. However, it allows the leader to adjust in accordance with the factors of the individual. For instance, a leader will have to take on a supportive and directive behavior to effective train new employees. On the other hand, employees of experience prefer and respect having the ability to work without a repetitive sequence of direction (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). While this approach seems to take a very logical approach, its effectiveness lies in the ability to adapt the leader. It exemplifies why a leader truly is a leader. The role of the employee is more defined in determining the role a leader will play.
  • One of the main logics behind Robert House’s model is that employees wish to be treated in a dignified way. It is necessary for a leader to know the individuals on his or her team for this reason. By identifying what each individual on your team is expecting, you can begin to alter your leadership approach to better fit their needs. In reshaping the leader to be directive when the follower is seeking guidance; to be supportive when the employee is onto something; to participate with a team when a challenge arises; and to set goals for your team to keep them abreast of new innovations. To become this leader, capable of being all these things, it may be necessary to seek additional training in:SensitivityCoaching skillsDelegating without impugning, etc. Set goals for your team, that demonstrate a new learning or understanding of the company or its culture. Hone your directive skills on new employees, while encouraging the more experienced employees to take that initiative in training new employees as well. This will establish a role as supportive to the inexperienced, while respecting the knowledge and desire to grow for your seasoned employees.
  • While each theory has its contributions to the study of leadership, I find that neither seem to encompass the main idea behind leaders and leadership. The Path-goal model came close, but it lacked addressing what to do with employees that truly hinder the work environment. None of the theories say outright that a type R3 individual should be terminated. However, the truth is there are so many people in the world looking for work, that if someone on the team does not want to do the job expected of them, they can easily be replaced. I think all three of these theories have their place, but much like other theories revolving around business, I don’t find it necessary to define any of these as theories. I would say these are more recognitions of systems that have been employed on the way to absolute business understanding. They are results of tried and tested techniques employers have used to get the most out of their employee. However, there are times, when a leader needs to adjust his situation by terminating a few individuals and starting with a fresh approach. Equally, there are times when a willingness to learn meets an inability to comply. These people who show the motivation should be encourage appropriately. I think the path-goal model approaches that, but it leaves things too open to perception. It entails that a leader know too much about his employee. Sometimes this is possible, but sometimes it is not. At the times where a leader doesn’t realize that he is talking to someone with a complete understanding for the task at hand, unless the employee says that they understand, this may be viewed as insulting. However, it’s not intentional. Communication is a big factor in that theory that could be misconstrued.
  • My leadership style is a reflection of old views and new. I believe that a leader must show determination and drive. The leader must have a will to succeed in everything they do. They must show great energy and creativity. The leader should possess innovative ideas that encourage the team to follow despite all obstacles. A leader should not encourage weakness, and should not stand for weakness. However, the leader should be capable of leading by example. That which a leader cannot do for themselves cannot be asked of their followers. As a leader, appearance and mannerisms are important. I would demonstrate a clean, sophisticated and well-groomed appearance. At all times, I shall maintain a professional and well-mannered demeanor, however, never allowing for emotion to stand between myself and a goal. I expect others to have the same drive or desire to achieve. Thus, it is important that my team feel adequately challenged. I am a leader that supports the growth of individuals, but most of all, I am a leader of adaptability. In knowing how to adapt to any situation, I can be sure that my judgments and decisions will always be guided and influenced by the right means.

Mergenthaler mgm260 1101b-02 Mergenthaler mgm260 1101b-02 Presentation Transcript

  • MGM260-1101b-02 Fundamentals of Management Sabrina Mergenthaler Phase 3 Individual Project Professor Meisha Brown March 11,2011
  • What is Leadership? Leadership the process of influencing others to achieve certain goals (Leadership, 2006) QUALITIES OF A LEADER Someone who can influence others Styles of Leadership •Drive •Desire to Lead •Honesty and Integrity•Autocratic •Self-confidence •Dictator •Intelligence •Sole decision maker •Job relevant knowledge •Limited employee involvement •Extraversion•Democratic- •Requests employee participation (Robbins & Coulter 2009) •Accepts and utilizes feedback Be Adaptive! •Delegates work•Laissez-faire- •Focuses on group processes and decision making •Allows employees to work at their own pace with little intervention (Robbins & Coulter 2009)
  • Early Theories of LeadershipWho were the early theorists? Generations of TheoriesWarren Bennis, Peter Wright, John Gardner,  Trait theories Fred Fiedler, Paul Hersey, Ken Blanchard, Meredith Belbin, James Kouzes, Barry Posner (Doyle & Smith,  Behavioral theories 2009) and Robert House (Robbins & Coulter, 2009)  Contingency theories  Transformational theories
  • The Fiedler model for leadership – The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership » Leadership style and situation go hand-in-hand factors of effective leadership » Development of the least-preferred co-worker questionnaire » Identifies three key factors to effective leadership and eight variable •trust and liking of the leader situations •how well leader defines goals and performance criteria •the extent to which the leader controls reward and consequence (Fiedler, 2002) Category I II III IV V VI VII VIIILeader-Group Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor PoorRelationsTask Structure High High Low Low High High Low LowPower position Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak
  • Fiedler’s Contingency Model In use at 1995 Auto Sales, Inc • Introduce new managers • Replace staff • Restructure responsibility • Limit to leader power• Establish relationships with employees
  • Followers Styles of Leadership – Effectiveness relies on the followers 1. Telling (high task, low relationship) 2. Selling (high task, high relationship) 3. Participating (low task, high relationship)Readiness 4. Delegating (low task, low relationship) – Extent to which people have the ability (Robbins & Coulter, 2009) and willingness to complete a task Stages of Follower ReadinessLeadership Dimensions R1-unable and unwilling, lack confidence or -Task competence. -Relationship R2-unable but willing, motivated, but lack skill R3-able but unwilling, competent, but do not want to do something R4-able and willing, competent, and confident (Robbins & Coulter, 2009)
  • Initiating the theory Following througho Define the leadership style o Enact and enforce policy -Telling -Participating o Reward exceptional demonstrations of -Selling -Delegating company values, goals, and othero Define expectations of the leaders: culturally significant endeavors • Incorporate the culture of 1995 Auto o Promote from within, encourage team Sales, Inc growth • Demonstrate the goals of the company o Recognize R3 behavior, review and • Gain the confidence and trust of the react. To review, answer questions like: team, etc. • What infractions has the employee presented?o Identify the follower readiness • Will the employee comply? • R1, R2, R3, R4 • Is this repetitive behavior? • How severe should the consequences be?o Set follower expectations: • Maintain high moral • Work towards the common goal • Encompass and promote the culture of the company • Uphold the values of the company • Portray a clean appearance, etc.
  • Path-Goal Model of LeadershipObjectives of Path-goal modelElements taken from the Expectancy theoryA belief that effective leaders • clear the way for their followers • Guide their followers • Make the path to achievement easier by reducing roadblocks and pitfalls (Robbins & Coulter, 2009)Leadership Behaviors – Directive Leader – Supportive Leader – Participative Leader – Achievement Oriented LeaderContingency variables • Environmental Factors • Follower factorsTheory supports logic
  • Path-Goal Model of Leadership For 1995 Auto Sales, Inc Current Leaders • Training • Develop coaching skills • Reflect opportunity for growth • Understand the follower you are working with • Be supportive • Challenge your teams to achieve a goal
  • Fiedler’s Model Hersey & Blanchard SLT Path-Goal Model• One of the oldest studies of• Defines a need for • Takes a logical approach to leadership employees to participate for leadership effective leadership to occur. •• Focuses on changing Focuses on adaptability of environment and situation to• Demonstrates that leaders leader fit the needs of leader can be substituted to adjust • Requires insight on the types for the varying readiness• Proposes that effective and desires of the individuals levels of employees to fully be effective leadership occurs through the balance of leadership style, structure of the task, and control of power
  • My Leadership StyleThe traits The Style The Ideals• Determined • Well groomed • Treat others with respect• Strong willed • Finely dressed • Make clear expectations • Well-mannered head-on• Energetic • Professional • Encourage growth and• Innovative achievements• Encouraging • Goal-oriented • Support • BE ADAPTIVE
  • References• Doyle, Michele and Smith, Mark. (2009). Infed.org. Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/leadership/traditional_leadership.htm• Fiedler, Fred E.. (2002). In Biographical Dictionary of Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/routbiopsy/fiedler_fred_e• leadership. (2006). In Collins Dictionary of Business. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/collinsbus/leadership• Robbins, S. P., & Coulter, M. (2007). Management (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.