MGM260-1101b-02 Fundamentals of Management Sabrina Mergenthaler Phase 3 Individual Project Professor Meisha Brown March 11,2011
What is Leadership? Leadership the process of influencing others to achieve certain goals (Leadership, 2006) QUALITIES OF A LEADER Someone who can influence others Styles of Leadership •Drive •Desire to Lead •Honesty and Integrity•Autocratic •Self-confidence •Dictator •Intelligence •Sole decision maker •Job relevant knowledge •Limited employee involvement •Extraversion•Democratic- •Requests employee participation (Robbins & Coulter 2009) •Accepts and utilizes feedback Be Adaptive! •Delegates work•Laissez-faire- •Focuses on group processes and decision making •Allows employees to work at their own pace with little intervention (Robbins & Coulter 2009)
Early Theories of LeadershipWho were the early theorists? Generations of TheoriesWarren Bennis, Peter Wright, John Gardner, Trait theories Fred Fiedler, Paul Hersey, Ken Blanchard, Meredith Belbin, James Kouzes, Barry Posner (Doyle & Smith, Behavioral theories 2009) and Robert House (Robbins & Coulter, 2009) Contingency theories Transformational theories
The Fiedler model for leadership – The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership » Leadership style and situation go hand-in-hand factors of effective leadership » Development of the least-preferred co-worker questionnaire » Identifies three key factors to effective leadership and eight variable •trust and liking of the leader situations •how well leader defines goals and performance criteria •the extent to which the leader controls reward and consequence (Fiedler, 2002) Category I II III IV V VI VII VIIILeader-Group Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor PoorRelationsTask Structure High High Low Low High High Low LowPower position Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak
Fiedler’s Contingency Model In use at 1995 Auto Sales, Inc • Introduce new managers • Replace staff • Restructure responsibility • Limit to leader power• Establish relationships with employees
Followers Styles of Leadership – Effectiveness relies on the followers 1. Telling (high task, low relationship) 2. Selling (high task, high relationship) 3. Participating (low task, high relationship)Readiness 4. Delegating (low task, low relationship) – Extent to which people have the ability (Robbins & Coulter, 2009) and willingness to complete a task Stages of Follower ReadinessLeadership Dimensions R1-unable and unwilling, lack confidence or -Task competence. -Relationship R2-unable but willing, motivated, but lack skill R3-able but unwilling, competent, but do not want to do something R4-able and willing, competent, and confident (Robbins & Coulter, 2009)
Initiating the theory Following througho Define the leadership style o Enact and enforce policy -Telling -Participating o Reward exceptional demonstrations of -Selling -Delegating company values, goals, and othero Define expectations of the leaders: culturally significant endeavors • Incorporate the culture of 1995 Auto o Promote from within, encourage team Sales, Inc growth • Demonstrate the goals of the company o Recognize R3 behavior, review and • Gain the confidence and trust of the react. To review, answer questions like: team, etc. • What infractions has the employee presented?o Identify the follower readiness • Will the employee comply? • R1, R2, R3, R4 • Is this repetitive behavior? • How severe should the consequences be?o Set follower expectations: • Maintain high moral • Work towards the common goal • Encompass and promote the culture of the company • Uphold the values of the company • Portray a clean appearance, etc.
Path-Goal Model of LeadershipObjectives of Path-goal modelElements taken from the Expectancy theoryA belief that effective leaders • clear the way for their followers • Guide their followers • Make the path to achievement easier by reducing roadblocks and pitfalls (Robbins & Coulter, 2009)Leadership Behaviors – Directive Leader – Supportive Leader – Participative Leader – Achievement Oriented LeaderContingency variables • Environmental Factors • Follower factorsTheory supports logic
Path-Goal Model of Leadership For 1995 Auto Sales, Inc Current Leaders • Training • Develop coaching skills • Reflect opportunity for growth • Understand the follower you are working with • Be supportive • Challenge your teams to achieve a goal
Fiedler’s Model Hersey & Blanchard SLT Path-Goal Model• One of the oldest studies of• Defines a need for • Takes a logical approach to leadership employees to participate for leadership effective leadership to occur. •• Focuses on changing Focuses on adaptability of environment and situation to• Demonstrates that leaders leader fit the needs of leader can be substituted to adjust • Requires insight on the types for the varying readiness• Proposes that effective and desires of the individuals levels of employees to fully be effective leadership occurs through the balance of leadership style, structure of the task, and control of power
My Leadership StyleThe traits The Style The Ideals• Determined • Well groomed • Treat others with respect• Strong willed • Finely dressed • Make clear expectations • Well-mannered head-on• Energetic • Professional • Encourage growth and• Innovative achievements• Encouraging • Goal-oriented • Support • BE ADAPTIVE
References• Doyle, Michele and Smith, Mark. (2009). Infed.org. Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/leadership/traditional_leadership.htm• Fiedler, Fred E.. (2002). In Biographical Dictionary of Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/routbiopsy/fiedler_fred_e• leadership. (2006). In Collins Dictionary of Business. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/collinsbus/leadership• Robbins, S. P., & Coulter, M. (2007). Management (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.