Mergenthaler mgm260 1101 b-02
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Mergenthaler mgm260 1101 b-02



managing change

managing change



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  • In this upcoming presentation, we will look at the process of decision making for managers. At all levels of management, decisions are being made that will ultimately affect the company on some scale. In some cases, the decisions made one day will alter the future for that company—in essence—changing the company. It is the responsibility of the managers to coordinate the processes to achieve successful changes. In making the right decisions, a manager can effectively steer a company’s goals in the right directions. To ensure the right decision is being made a manager will, or should, take certain steps before coming to a final decision on a matter. This eight-step process is called the Decision making process. We will look at the importance of the decision making process and its role in managing change, as well as how the ability to do so affects us all in life. As a company’s survival depends on its ability to manage change effectively, it has become increasingly important for companies to look at the techniques of the past as well as create innovative methods that fit their future needs. For this reason, it is said that no company lives in the present, they are working on the future. Vision is a necessity for any business to succeed. After completely addressing the aspects that contribute to effectively creating and completing a change, we will look at a real-life situation, and assess the effectiveness of the change.
  • Before changes can begin to occur, certain factors must be weighed in such a way that a company can predict a beneficial outcome. If a company fails to make sound decisions, it risks losing profits, reputation, employees, and more. Robbins and Coulter recognize the decision making process as a series of eight steps. Identifying the problem –A problem is marked as being any discrepancy between the existing and desired condition (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). Identification of decision criteria-The decision criteria are the factors that are pertinent to resolving the problem. Such factors may include speed, cost, efficiency, consistency, etc. Allocation of weight to criteria- Putting a measureable number to criteria to identify the characteristics that are more important than others.Develop alternatives- Compile a list of alternatives that may resolve the problem. It may be necessary to be creative at this stage.
  • In the first four steps, we have define a problem, and begun the sorting of solutions. By assigning a scale to the qualities of a solution, we have enabled ourselves to mathematically calculate the most successful solution. The next three steps involve this mathematical equation to select the course of action and put it into motion. In the final stage the decision will be assessed.Step 5- The Analysis of the alternatives takes the weight of the given components. In the initial step of this stage, only the components that are pivotal to the resolution are analyzed. Once analyzed, the decision maker can begin adding the weight of his or her criteria. With a quantity attached to each factor it simply comes down to selecting the option whose sum of the total weights is the greatest. In situations where the alternative carried the highest weight in all areas this step may be skipped, as the best solution has already been identified (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). Step 6-Once all the alternatives have been assessed, the decision maker should be able to select the key alternative that best fits the needs. Most likely, this is the option that resulted in the highest score in step five (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). Step 7- In this step, the course of action is set in motion. Depending on the problem and solution chosen, this step could involve training, building, sharing with others, etc. In most business situations, this is step where clear communication is a valuable tool. In effectively conveying your solutions, your team is more able to comply and follow through with the anticipated results. However, it is important to monitor this stage very closely for changes (Robbins & Coulter, 2009).Step 8 –Once the plan of action is implemented, the manager must evaluate the results. The first question a manager should ask themselves when reviewing the results is: did the decision solve the problem? If the answer is yes, the manager may be satisfied at that. However, if the answer is no, the manager must discern why the plan failed. There are a series of questions a manager must address to see where the plan failed (Robbins & Coulter, 2009).
  • Let’s take a look at the decision making process in real life. For this example, the problem is that the dogs are getting into the garden and destroying the plant life. My husband and I have come to the decision that we need to place some sort of barrier between the dogs and the garden. Some of the factors we will consider while we are shopping are: The height of the barrierThe efficiency of the barrier (can light pass through? Can I get in while the dogs are kept out? What is the access to the garden? Etc.)The ease of installationThe Appearance of the barrier (does it add appeal or ugly to the garden?)Cost When we took these considerations to our local hardware store, we decided it was necessary to figure out what components were most important to us. We concluded that the most important factors to us were the Appearance, first. At a close second was the cost. We did not want to spend a ridiculous amount of money for this project. However, it was important that the barrier do what we needed it to do—that is: keep the dogs out. Other considerations of lesser importance were the height, which in most cases was able to be adjusted; and the ease of installation. Considering that my husband was a handy-man, this was a very loose interpretation of “ease of installation.” In fact, it mostly suggests that it can and will be installed in no more than a day. Some of the alternatives we had available included: chain link fencing, lattice, wood, other metallic forms of fencing, and pre-made picket fences in four foot sections. After carefully considering these options, we concluded that chain-link fencing was not only hideous in appearance, but that it lacked appropriate height accommodations; involved considerable amount of tools for installing; and though it was very efficient in keeping the dogs out, the requirement of a swing gate contributed to the low efficiency score. Lattice was an option that we found quite appealing in appearance. Due to a landscaping project my husband did some years back, we even had some lattice hanging in our garage, which brought down the cost tremendously, making this a more affordable approach than it normally would have been. It’s design allows plenty of light to come in through the openings and from the top, and the height can be adjusted appropriately to allow me to step over, while keeping the dogs out, without the need of gates. While there are many tools involved, they were all readily available, and the only hard labor involved was the digging of the holes for the posts. In conclusion lattice was the alternative we chose. To implement our decision, I put my husband quick to work at cutting the lattice to the right height, while I began digging the holes in the marked locations. Working together, we built our lattice barrier to three feet tall. We planted vine plants at the base which enjoy climbing up the lattice-work. We placed platforms on the posts in order to hold flower pots on them, making the most efficient use of our barrier. The dogs have remained out of the garden since the installation, and the plants have all bloomed. I would consider this decision to be a success.
  • In that example, you can see how my decision as the manager of the garden project proved pivotal to the survival of my flowers and plants. The same techniques and abilities are valued in the business world, who rely on managers to carry out changes on a regular basis. Because companies are forever changing due to internal and external factors and the need to be competitive, managers must be able to manage changes effectively (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). When problems arise for managers they can be structured (regularly occurring or having a programmed response) or unstructured problems (those which are new or different in some way and require non-programmed responses)(Robbins & Coulter, 2009). In the event of unstructured problems, the manager must go through the decision process. However, this process may be influenced by the type of thinker the manager may be. For instance, a manager may make decisions based on certainty, risks, ethics, uncertainties, rationality, convenience, and so on. Depending on these variables, the decisions made may ultimately affect the company. Changes in this category can be grouped into the following types:Structure- work specialization, chain of command, job design, or structural deign.Technology- computers or other equipment, processes, methods of operation.People- can be individuals or groups of people, behaviors, work ethics, abilities, expectations. In all cases, a managers ability to manage change must also include a plan for those resistant to change. As many see change as dangerous or threatening, they may become resistant to the changes or cause delays to hinder the process. In recognizing this, a managers duty is to appropriately reduce the resistance (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). Managers must also take steps to ensure the best delivery of the changes; employing techniques that fit not only the situation, but the environment of the company as well. In all we look at the role of managing change as the process by which managers coordinate, implement, and monitor alterations and how they affect their employees (Managing Change, 2006).
  • In knowing how the decision process works, and how to manage change in your life, you can effectively use these tools to build your career and climb the corporate ladder. Establish the lack of career or you current career to be the problem. Identify what aspects of the job you are not happy with. As you build upon what you are looking for in a job, you may gain some clarity in the type of career that best suits your needs and desires. Your alternatives become your industry interests. You can give the qualities a point value to make calculating which industry is in line with your components. However, that is all just the start. Once you’ve identified the job interest, you must begin identifying what companies within that industry are perfect matches. Your plan of action should be simple. Apply to those companies, interview with those companies, and review. If you get the job, great! If not, find out why. Ask the employer if there was anything you could improve upon, and think heavily on the tips. With each interview, remember, you are only gaining that much more knowledge and experience in creating a plan, following it through, and altering it until it works.
  • In general, managers may be responsible for making three different types of changes: Structural Changes- or changes that deal with the chain of command, empowerment or other organizational structures and functions within a company (Robbins & Coulter, 2009).Changing Technology-changes that introduce new tools or equipment, or make adjustments to operational methods (Robbins & Coulter, 2009).Changing people- anything that involves altering an individual’s or a group’s behavior, attitude, ethics, or other work oriented relationships (Robbins & Coulter, 2009). While some changes may occur out of necessity, and the majority may be on board, other changes do not go over so smoothly. Managers have employed several techniques to meet these challenges and produce successful changes.The first step to meeting these challenges is to understand the followers perspective. Knowing how the change will affect others will aid in a managers ability to promote the changes in a non-offensive and non-threatening manner. Other techniques to promote a successful change include:Educating and communicating with the team in groups and in one on one meetings.Offering employees an opportunity to participate in the decisions, and changes.Offering employees support in training, counseling or other therapeutic ways.Manipulating without necessarily creating rumors or false information.Focusing on those who are willing to accept and promote change.And using threats or force to coerce members to change. Though some methods or techniques may border unethical, these make up the techniques employed over the years by companies to ensure their survival.
  • When we think about the goals of a company, it is important to reflect on the actions that took place prior to the company’s clarity on its’ goals. In carrying out any change, it is often said to “keep your eye on the prize.” All visions of a company’s future should include this aspect. The vision should clearly identify what the company’s mission is, and how the company will go about successfully achieving that mission. Visions should be realistic and have workable time frames. If employees feel that the goals of the company are unrealistic, resistance is sure to follow. Knowing where the company sees itself in one to ten years can be incorporated into training and other motivational practices. It is with the vision that all changes begin, because vision is the understanding of the company’s goals and it is the point where all change begins (Rubenstein, D.N.K.).
  • In order to create and communicate a vision to your company managers must be creative. Some of the aspects that can aid in a company’s ability to change include:Telling good stories: By telling a good story, you bringyour vision to life. A good storyteller can create trust, and captivate the hearts and minds of employees while serving as a constant reminder of the vision. People also find it easier to reiterate stories than to recite mission statements.Talk about your vision: Leaders must be able to communicate the vision in a clear, brief way anywhere. Be ready to discuss your vision in lines, when you visit the customer service department, and even walking through the parking lot.Use multimedia: The more varietyof communication you use, the better the chance of your organization becoming familiar with yourvision. Use the newest technologies, but don't forget the classics: coffee mugs, t-shirts, luggage tags and whatever else you can think of that will keep the message in circulation. Have one-on-one conversations: Engage others. Connections provide leaders the opportunities to transmit information receive feedback build support, andcreate energy around the vision.Identify key players:communicators,and supporters within your organization who will motivate others and promote the vision.Seek assistance outside the company: Surveyclients, partners and vendors and provide them with brochures, advertising and public relations campaigns, catalogs, and announcements. This will extend your vision beyond the walls of your company and into the surrounding environment. Effectively making the community a contributing factor to the company’s change.Create lasting impressions of your company that exemplify your vision: Design metaphors, figures of speech, slogans, and other terms that are fun and creative for your employees to use. For instance, write a theme song or a memorable motto.Direct the progress: Provide updatesto keep employees aware of the progress the company is making toward your vision. Create a map of your vision, but travel beside, lead, offer guidance and point out obstacles.Be what you say: Show what you believe in your behavior. If people see one thing and hear another, you will lose your credibility and your vision will fail (Communicating, 2010).
  • In taken a real life looks at how businesses offer up changes, let’s look at McDonalds. Once a global leader in the world’s worst fast food options, McDonalds has successfully turned its image around. Having introduced a new healthier menu, McDonalds lessened the amount of attacks it received from various groups seeking the termination of the McDonald’s menu. McDonalds invested 20 percent of it’s marketing budget on a healthy eating campaign. The commercials stemming from this campaign were infused with visions of healthy eating and lifestyle choices. Greater use of their figure, Ronald McDonald, appeared in advertising that promoted exercise and McDonalds eating as a treat, rather than a common occurrence. McDonalds also leads “the food industry in an effort to voluntarily restrict the advertising of food to children under the age of 12 via TV, print, out-of-home and on the internet unless that food meets certain dietary guidelines agreed upon by a panel of food execs and nutritionists (Kiley, 2005)”. McDonalds also introduced new choices for children’s meals and white meat in chicken nuggets. Shortly after introduction of the healthier choices menu, McDonald’s sales increased by 18% in 2004 (Perth, 2004). The benefits did not stop there, though. The steady increase of sales ultimately lead to the forge of a new design in many McDonald’s across the country, and continues to contribute to a growing number of alterations in people’s everyday eating habits. McDonalds has continuously been a leader in the movement against obesity in the fast food industry. Huzzah goes to McDonald’s.
  • In ending, it important to understand that decisions occur everyday in the business world. These decisions may affect one or many. Whether making a decision falls on one individual or a group of people, the factors that contribute to the decision are the factors that will establish a chain-reaction of change. In order for a company to survive, it must constantly live in the future and be prepared to change at a moments notice. In incorporating the right technique and motivation, a company can successfully achieve the changes it seeks to accomplish goals and missions. By understanding and adapting accordingly a company can ensure its strength well into the future. In being adaptable, the employees of a company can be a part of the company’s future, or resist change and be left behind. However, the first step is simply recognizing the need to change.

Mergenthaler mgm260 1101 b-02 Mergenthaler mgm260 1101 b-02 Presentation Transcript

  • Decision Making &Managing Change A presentation by Sabrina Mergenthaler A student atColorado Technical University In the classroom of Professor Meisha Brown MGM260-1101B-02 March 21, 2011
  • VISIONS AND TARGETS •The Decision Making Process 2015 •Managing Change •The Techniques to Managing Change •Vision and its Role in Change •The Aspects--from Concept to Completion •An IRL Moment Introduction
  • The Decision Making Process 2015Step 1:Identify theProblem. Step 4: Develop a list of alternatives. Step2: Indentify the Step 3: decision criteria. Allocate the wight of the criteria.
  • The Decision Making Process (cont.) Step 8: Evaluate the Decision Effectiveness • Was the problem correctly identified? •Were alternatives calculated properly? •Was the right option select or did implementation fail? 2015 Selection of an Alternative Step 6:
  • The DecisionMaking Process (Cont.) The Problem: Dogs are getting into the Evaluating the Decision Effectiveness garden and destroying the landscaping. We have decided there needs to be •Were the results successful?Allocating Weight: barriers. •Why or Why not?(in order of the most importantconsiderable factor)1.Appearance2.Cost 4. Height3. Efficiency 5. Ease of Installation Developing Alternatives Implementing the Alternative 1. Chain-link 2. Lattice 3. Wood Selecting an Alternative 4. Other Metallic 5. White Picket Analyzing Alternatives Appearance Cost Efficiency Height Installation1. Chain-link 0 8 10 3 22. Lattice 10 7 10 10 63. Wood 5 9 4 8 44. Other Metallic 6 7 5 3 95. White Picket 10 4 7 6 6
  • Managing Change Structured Unstructured Programmed Responses Non-Programmed Response Managing Change: process by which managers coordinate, implement, and monitor alterations and how they affect their employees (Managing Change, 2006) Manager
  • Managing Change (cont.)A valuable life tool• Establish the job interest • Implement the plan Do you have a job? Are you looking Apply, interview, review for a new job? What are you interested in doing?• Lay out the plan of action • Assess the outcome How will you go about selecting Did you get the job? Why or why the new job? What documents not? Reflect. Adjust will you need? Education?
  • TECHNIQUES TO MANAGING CHANGE Key Components •Strategy •Motivation •Innovation •Remain positive •Patience •Understanding •Provide Constructive criticism •Reward Changing Structure Changing People Changing Technology
  • VISIONS AND ITS ROLE IN CHANGE “Keeping your eye on the prize” What is Vision? An understanding of the organizations goals and how the change will advance this. (Rubenstein, D.N.K.). 2015 •Clear vision of desired goal for entire organization. •The vision should be integrated into the change taking place. •Vision should be realistic and achievable •Visions should change with the company as it grows (Bryant, 2009) •Visions should be strategic
  • CREATING AND COMMUNICATING CLEAR VISIONS “Vision can provide both a corporate sense of being and a sense of enduring purpose. While incorporating a measure of todays success, vision transcends day-to- day issues. And, by providing meaning in both the present and the future, vision can empower and encourage leaders and followers to implement change” (Sullivan & 2015 Harper 1996). 1. Tell a story 2. Talk about your vision 3. Use multimedia 4. Have one-on-one conversations 5. Identify and utilize key players to motivate others 6. Seek assistance outside of the company 7. Create lasting impressions that exemplify your vision 8. Direct the progress 9. Be what you say
  • IN REAL LIFE The Introduction of healthier options(Eating Healthier, 2010) Item Calories Fat (g) Trans Fat (g) Sodium (mg) Fiber (g) Hamburger 250 9 0.5 520 2 Small French Fries 230 11 0 160 3 Chicken McNuggets (4 piece) 190 12 0 400 0 Barbecue Sauce (1 pkg) 50 0 0 260 0 Sweet N Sour Sauce (1 pkg) 50 0 0 150 0 Tangy Honey Mustard Sauce 60 2 0 210 1 Premium Southwest Salad (without chicken) 140 4.5 0 150 6 Premium Bacon Ranch Salad (without chicken) 140 7 0 300 3 Premium Caesar Salad (without chicken) 90 4 0 180 3 Snack Size Fruit & Walnut Salad 210 8 0 60 2 Newmans Own Creamy Southwest Dressing 100 6 0 340 0 English Muffin 160 3 0 280 2 Hotcakes (w/o Syrup & Margarine) 350 9 0 590 3 Scrambled Eggs (2) 170 11 0 180 0 Hash Brown 150 9 0 310 2 Grape Jam 35 0 0 0 0 Strawberry Preserves 35 0 0 0 0
  • ConclusionEffective change Management
  • References Bryant, Hattie. (2009). How to Communicate Your Vision to Employees. Retrieved from Employees- 84269768 Communicating the Vision. (2010). Center for Creative Leadership. Retrieved from Healthier at Fast Food Restaurants: McDonalds. (2010). Dr. Gourmet. Retrieved from, David. (2005).McDonalds New Campaign Is The Appearance of a Good Start. Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved from paign_is_the_appearance_of_a_good_start.htmlManaging Change. (2006). In Dictionary of Human Resources and Personnel Management. Retrieved from, Ruth. (2004). McDonalds Health Kick Turns Result Around. The Age. Retrieved from, Shelly. (D.N.K.). Change Management. Retrieved from change.htm