A Complete Training & Development Manual - CDI Lucknow English Speaking Lucknow / www.cdilucknow.blogspot.com

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Dear Colleague, …

Dear Colleague,

It gives me a great pleasure to introduce the first branch of CDI (CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE) at Lucknow which has been a fantastic and rewarding experience for me.I have received a great response from the people including you.Your continued support and and suggestions have help me grow into a better Training & Development Institute.

Thank you so much! I look forward to continuing to work for you for years to come.

For all the updates of Institute and to be the part of the learning circle please read and follow the daily Newsletter send by CDI, you can also bookmark the following blog address if you miss any of the mails.

Career Development Institute Blog Address - http://cdilucknow.blogspot.com/

Regards,
Shop No 2,3 - 1st Floor
Near K.A.K.A Market Telibagh Bazar Lucknow
Career Development Institute ( CDI )
www.cdilucknow.blogspot.com

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  • 1. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Societal Objectives Functional Objectives Ethically and socially Department’s responsible to the needs contribution at various and challenges of the Level society OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Individual Objectives Organizational Objectives Help employees in achieving personal Bringing Individual Goals. Effectiveness IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 2. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. (Productivity, Team-Spirit, Organization Culture & Climate, Quality, Healthy work environment, Health and Safety, Morale, Image, Profitability, Decision making, problem solving, leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes) TRAINING SCENARIO IN INDIAN INDUSTRY With the world-wide expansion of companies and changing technologies, Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is considered as more of retention tool than a cost. Today, human resource is now a source of competitive advantage for all organizations. Therefore, the training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results. With increase in competition, every institution wants to optimize the utilization of its resources to yield the maximum possible results. Training is required in every field be it Sales, Marketing, Human Resource, Relationship building, Logistics, Production, Engineering, etc. It is now a business effective tool and is linked with the business outcome. According to NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Services Companies), the IT corporate training market is expected to reach Rs 600 Crore in 2010 from Rs 210 Crore in 2006. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 3. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! ROLE OF ORGANISATION IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT An organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the trainer because it is the first contact for both. The demand for the training in the organization increases when the organization wants: - To hire new people – training as a means of training new recruits - To Expand – When the company wants to increase its headcount - To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date - To enhance the performance of employees - Organization's name to be a part of training unit The organization goes through the following steps for the transfer of training to the field We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 4. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Identifying Training Needs Selecting Participants Defining Expectations from a Program Monitoring Trainees Progress Implementing the Training in Field IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING OBJECTIVES Training objectives are one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 5. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Trainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training. Designer Beneficiaries Trainer of Training Trainee Objectives Evaluator Trainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise. Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee’s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 6. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Designer – The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he’ll buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry. Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately. Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants. TRAINING AS CONSULTANCY Training consultancy provides industry professional to work with an organization in achieving its training and development objectives. Estimation of Training Outsourcing It has been estimated that 58% of the emerging market in training outsourcing is in customer education, while only 42 percent of the market is in employee education. Importance of Training Consultancies It helps in enhancing company’s image It helps in strengthening the team spirit It helps in applying knowledge, developing core competencies, and reducing work load It helps in improving the work relations It helps in developing focused and inspired staff It leads to greater chances of success We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 7. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Consultants can provide help on following areas: Management Development Team Building Leadership Health & Safety Training Interpersonal Skills Sales Training Initail Consultation Training Lasting Need Results Analysis Benefits of training as Consultancy Training Professional Evaluation Team Of the shelf Training Courses MODELS OF TRAINING We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 8. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). THE TRAINING SYSTEM A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating. There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’s requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below. Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies. The three model of training are: 1. System Model We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 9. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! 2. Instructional System Development Model 3. Transitional model 1. System Model - The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows: 1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. 2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. 3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 10. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! 4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. 5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. 2. Instructional System Development Model (ISD) Model - Instructional System Development model or ISD training model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 11. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages: 1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis. 2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 12. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! 3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. 4. EXECUTION - This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories. 5. EVALUATION - The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase. 3. Transitional Model – Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed. Vision – Focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role model, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 13. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Mission – Explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders. Values – Is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 14. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented. Methods of Training There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training. Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT 1. GAMES AND 1. COACHING 1. LECTURES SIMULATIONS 2. MENTORING 2. DEMONSTRATIONS 2. BEHAVIOR- 3. JOB ROTATION MODELING 4. JOB INSTRUCTION 3. DISCUSSIONS 3. BUSINESS TECHNIQUE GAMES 4. COMPUTER BASED 5. SENSTITVITY 4. CASE STUDIES TRAINING (CBT) 5. EQUIPMENT TRAINING STIMULATORS 6. TRANSACTIONAL 5. INTELLEGENT 6. IN-BASKET ANALYSIS TUTORIAL TECHNIQUE We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 15. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! SYSTEM(ITS) 7. ROLE PLAYS 7. SIMULATION EXERCISES 6. PROGRAMMED 8. STRAIGHT LECTURES INSTRUCTION (PI) 7. VIRTUAL REALITY Management Development Methods arethe more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes. Management development method is further divided into two parts: ON THE JOB TRAINING OFF THE JOB TRAINING 1. COACHING 1. SENSTITVITY TRAINING 2. MENTORING 2. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS 3. JOB ROTATION 3. SIMULATION EXERCISES 4. JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE 4. STRAIGHT LECTURES COGNITIVE METHOD OF TRAINING 1. LECTURES 2. DEMONSTRATIONS 3. DISCUSSIONS 4. COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT) 5. INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS) 6. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) 7. VIRTUAL REALITY 1. Lecture – A Method of Training – It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 16. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. There are some variations in Lecture method. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not. Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer’s intonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on the signals from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed. A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. Main Features of Lecture Method some of the main features of lecture method are: Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity 2. Demonstration Training Method We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 17. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As an example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. In order to be more effective, demonstration method should be should be accompanied by the discussion or lecture method. To carry out an effective demonstration, a trainer first prepares the lesson plan by breaking the task to be performed into smaller modules, easily learned parts. Then, the trainer sequentially organizes those modules and prepares an explanation for why that part is required. While performing the demonstration, trainer: Demonstrates the task by describing how to do, while doing Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects of the task Tells the trainees what you will be doing so they understand what you will be showing them Explains why it should be carried out in that way The difference between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level of involvement of the trainee. In the lecture method, the more the trainee is involved, the more learning will occur. The financial costs that occur in the demonstration method are as follows: Cost of training facility for the program Cost of materials that facilitate training Food, travel, lodging for the trainees and the trainers Compensation of time spent in training to trainers and trainees Cost related to creating content, material Cost related to the organization of the training After completing the demonstration the trainer provide feedback, both positive and or negative, give the trainee the opportunity to do the task and describe what he is doing and why. 3. Discussion Training Method We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 18. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported, elaborated, explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees and between the trainer and the trainees. The interaction and the communication between these two make it much more effective and powerful than the lecture method. If the Discussion method is used with proper sequence i.e. lectures, followed by discussion and questioning, can achieve higher level knowledge objectives, such as problem solving and principle learning. The Discussion method consists a two-way flow of communication i.e. knowledge in the form of lecture is communicated to trainees, and then understanding is conveyed back by trainees to trainer. Understanding is conveyed in the form of verbal and non-verbal feedback that enables the trainer to determine whether the material is understood. If yes, then definitely it would help out the trainees to implement it at their workplaces and if not, the trainer may need to spend more time on that particular area by presenting the information again in a different manner. Questioning can be done by both ways i.e. the trainees and the trainer. When the trainees ask questions, they explain their thinking about the content of the lecture. A trainer who asks questions stimulates thinking about the content of the lecture. Asking and responding questions are beneficial to trainees because it enhance understanding and keep the trainees focused on the content. Besides that, discussions, and interactions allow the trainee to be actively engaged in the material of the trainer. This activity helps in improving recall. 4. Computer Based Training (CBT) We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 19. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! With the worldwide expansion of companies and changing technologies, the demands for knowledge and skilled employees have increased more than ever, which in turn, is putting pressure on HR department to provide training at lower costs. Many organizations are now implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom based training to accomplish those goals. Some of the benefits of Computer Based Training are: According to a recent survey, about 75% of the organizations are providing training We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 20. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! to employees through Intranet or Internet. Internet is not the method of training, but has become the technique of delivering training. The growth of electronic technology has created alternative training delivery systems. CBT does not require face to face interaction with a human trainer. This method is so varied in its applications that it is difficult to describe in concise terms. 5. Intelligent Tutorial System (ITS) This Intelligent Tutorial system uses artificial intelligence to assist in training or tutoring the participants. This system learns through trainee responses. Features of Intelligent Tutorial Systems (ITS) It selects the appropriate level of instructions for the participants It guides the trainees It is a text-based system It also evaluates the training program It also improves the methodology for teaching the trainee based on the information It is an interactive system It determines the trainee’s level of understanding Intelligent Tutorial System (ITS) comprises of 5 components: A domain expert also called the expert knowledge base A trainee model – stores the information on how the trainee is performing during the training program A scenario generator A training session manager – Interprets trainees responses and responds either with tutoring, more content or information A user interface – allows the trainee to communicate with the intelligent tutorial System We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 21. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Considering an example, in the following table there are 3 students ABC, DEF, GHI. The Intelligent Tutorial System determines the problem with the three students, diagnose them, and provide them a different type if instruction to each student keeping the errors they make in mind. 6. Programmed Instruction (PI) Programmed instruction is a Computer-based training that comprises of graphics, multimedia, text that is connected to one another and is stored in memory. Programmed instruction is the procedure of guiding the participants strategically through the information in a way that facilitates the most effective and efficient learning. It provides the participant with content, information, asks questions, and based on the answer goes to the next level of information i.e. if the trainee gives the correct answer; one branch moves the trainee forward to the new information. And if the trainee gives the wrong answer then different branch is activated, taking the trainee back to the review relevant information in more elaborate manner. This method allows the trainees to go through the content according to the individual speed, and capability. Those trainees, who respond better, move through the content rapidly. Programmed Instruction also comes in Printed form i.e. books Tape Interactive Video Other formats We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 22. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! In programmed instruction, trainees receive information in substantial amount and then tested on their retention of information. If the trainees are not able to retain the information, they are referred back to the original information. If the trainees retain the information, they are referred to the next log of information that is to be learned. Features of Programmed Instruction some of the features of programmed instructions are: It provides immediate feedback to trainee response It frequently reviews the content It programs small learning steps that results in fewer response errors It allows trainees to move through the content at their own speed, or capability It requires frequent active responses by the trainees. 7. Virtual Reality (VR) Virtual Reality is a training method that puts the participant in 3-D environment. The three dimensional environment stimulates situations and events that are experienced in the job. The participant interacts with 3-D images to accomplish the training objectives. This type of environment is created to give trainee the impression of physical involvement in an environment. To experience virtual reality, the trainee wears devices, like headset, gloves, treadmills, etc. Virtual Reality provides trainees with an understanding of the consequences of their actions in the work environment by interpreting and responding to the trainees’ actions through its accessories: Headset – provides audio and visual information Gloves – provides tactile information Treadmills – is used for creating the sense of movement Sensory devices – transmits how the trainees are responding in the virtual workplace to the computer this allows the virtual reality (VR) system to respond by changing the environment appropriately. Features of Virtual Reality (VR) System some of the features of Virtual Reality System are: We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 23. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! It is poorly understood – requires technical understanding It is expensive It is time consuming It is flexible in nature It does not incur traveling, lodging, or food cost It requires excellent infrastructure BEHAVIORAL METHOD OF TRAINING 1. GAMES AND SIMULATIONS 2. BEHAVIOR-MODELING 3. BUSINESS GAMES 4. CASE STUDIES 5. EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS 6. IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE 7. ROLE PLAYS 1. Games and Simulations Games and Simulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually played for enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes as an educational tool. Training games and simulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events, circumstances, processes that take place in trainees’ job. A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with each other according to the defined set of rules. Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games. Simulation is about imitating or making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation. It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, or combinations. Training games and simulations are now seen as an effective tool for training because its key components are: We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 24. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Challenge Rules Interactivity These three components are quite essential when it comes to learning. Some of the examples of this technique are: Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting where they can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or can find out concepts that will improve their performance. 2. Behavior Modeling Behavior Modeling uses the innate inclination for people to observe others to discover how to do something new. It is more often used in combination with some other techniques. Procedure of Behavior Modeling Technique In this method, some kind of process or behavior is videotaped and then is watched by the trainees. Games and simulation section is also included because once the trainees see the videotape, they practice the behavior through role plays or other We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 25. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! kind of simulation techniques. The trainee first observes the behavior modeled in the video and then reproduces the behavior on the job. The skills that are required to build up are defined A brief overview of the theory is then provided to the trainers Then, trainees are given instructions that what specific learning points or critical behavior they have to watch Then the expert is used to model the suitable behaviors Then, the trainees are encouraged to practice the suitable behavior in a role play or through any other method of simulation Trainees are then provided with some opportunities to give reinforcement for appropriate imitation of the model’s behavior In the end, trainer ensures that trainees appropriately reinforces the behavior on the work place Behavior modeling focuses on developing behavioral and interpersonal skills. This type of method can be used for training in Sales training Interviewee training Interviewer training Safety training Interpersonal skills training 3. Business Games Training With the increase in globalization and changing technologies, many organizations are now moving from board games to computer based simulations, using interactive multimedia (IM) and virtual reality (VR). Business games are the type of simulators that try to present the way an industry, company, organization, consultancy, or subunit of a company functions. Basically, they are based on the set of rules, procedures, plans, relationships, principles derived from the research. In the business games, trainees are given some information that describes a particular situation and are then asked to make We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 26. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! decisions that will best suit in the favor of the company. And then the system provides the feedback about the impact of their decisions. Again, on the basis of the feedback they are asked to make the decisions again. This process continues until some meaningful results do not came out or some predefined state of the organization exists or a specified number of trails are completed. As an example, if the focus is on organization's financial state, the game may end when the organization reach at desirable or defined profitability level. Some of the benefits of the business games are: It develops leadership skills It improves application of total quality principles It develops skills in using quality tools It strengthen management skills It demonstrates principles and concepts It explores and solves complex problem We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 27. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Many games and simulations examine the total organization but only some focus on the functional responsibilities of specific positions in an organization. Business games simulate whole organization and provide much better perspective than any other training methods. They allow trainees to see how their decisions and actions impact on the related areas. 4. Case Study Training Method We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 28. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Case Studies try to simulate decision making situation that trainees may find at their work place. It reflects the situations and complex problems faced by managers, staff, HR, CEO, etc. The objective of the case study method is to get trainees to apply known concepts and ideologies and ascertain new ones. The case study method emphasize on approach to see a particular problem rather than a solution. Their solutions are not as important as the understanding of advantages and disadvantages. Procedure of the Case Study Method The trainee is given with some written material, and the some complex situations of a real or imaginary organization. A case study may range from 50 to 200 pages depending upon the problem of the organization. A series of questions usually appears at the end of the case study. The longer case studies provide enough of the information to be examined while the shorter ones require the trainee to explore and conduct research to gather appropriate amount of information. The trainee then makes certain judgment and opines about the case by identifying and giving possible solutions to the problem. In between trainees are given time to digest the information. If there is enough time left, they are also allowed to collect relevant information that supports their solution. Once the individuals reach the solution of a problem, they meet in small groups to discuss the options, solutions generated. Then, the trainee meets with the trainer, who further discusses the case. Case Study method focuses on: Building decision making skills Assessing and developing Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs) Developing communication and interpersonal skills Developing management skills Developing procedural and strategic knowledge 5. Equipment Simulators We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 29. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Equipment simulators are the mechanical devices that necessitate trainees to use some actions, plans, measures, trials, movements, or decision processes they would use with equipment back on the their respective work place. It is imperative that the simulators be designed to repeat, as closely as possible, the physical aspects of equipment and operational surroundings trainees will find at their work place. This is also called as physical fidelity of the simulation. Besides that, the mental conditions under which the equipment is operated such as, increasing demands, pressure of time, and relationship with colleagues, subordinates, etc must also be closely matched to what the trainees experience on the work place. The literature on socio-technical approaches to organizational development provides guidelines for the design or redesign of tools. Human Resource professionals involved in propose of simulators and their pre-testing should engage those who will be using the equipment and their supervisors. Their input can help in reducing the potential resistance, errors in the equipment and more importantly, it also increases the degree of reliability between the simulation and the work setting. Equipment simulators can be used in giving training to: Air Traffic Controllers Taxi Drivers Telephone Operators Ship Navigators Maintenance Workers Product Development Engineers Airline Pilots Military Officers 6. In Basket Technique In-Basket Technique – It provides trainees with a log of written text or information and requests, such as memos, messages, and reports, which would be handled by manger, engineer, reporting officer, or administrator. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 30. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Procedure of the in basket Technique In this technique, trainee is given some information about the role to be played such as, description, responsibilities, general context about the role. The trainee is then given the log of materials that make up the in-basket and asked to respond to materials within a particular time period. After all the trainees complete in-basket, a discussion with the trainer takes place. In this discussion the trainee describes the justification for the decisions. The trainer then provides feedback, reinforcing decisions made suitably or encouraging the trainee to increase alternatives for those made unsuitably. A variation on the technique is to run multiple, simultaneous in baskets in which each trainee receives a different but organized set of information. It is important that trainees must communicate with each other to accumulate the entire information required to make a suitable decision. This technique focuses on: Building decision making skills Assess and develops Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs) Develops of communication and interpersonal skills Develops procedural knowledge Develops strategic knowledge We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 31. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! 7. Role Play Training Method Role play is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play. Trainees are given with some information related to description of the role, concerns, objectives, responsibilities, emotions, etc. Then, a general description of the situation, and the problem that each one of them faces, is given. For instance, situation could be strike in factory, managing conflict, two parties in conflict, scheduling vacation days, etc. Once the participants read their role descriptions, they act out their roles by interacting with one another. Role Plays helps in We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 32. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Developing interpersonal skills and communication skills Conflict resolution Group decision making Developing insight into one’s own behavior and its impact on others There are various types of role plays, such as: Multiple Role Play – In this type of role play, all trainees are in groups, with each group acting out the role play simultaneously. After the role play, each group analyzes the interactions and identifies the learning points. Single Role Play – One group of participants plays the role for the rest, providing demonstrations of situation. Other participants observe the role play, analyze their interactions with one another and learn from the play. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 33. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Role Rotation – It starts as a single role play. After the interaction of participants, the trainer will stop the role play and discuss what happened so far. Then the participants are asked to exchange characters. This method allows a variety of ways to approach the roles. Spontaneous Role Play – In this kind of role play, one of the trainees plays herself while the other trainees play people with whom the first participant interacted before. Management Development Program (MDP) Management Development has become very important in today’s competitive environment. According to a survey, those companies that align their management development with tactical planning are more competitive than the companies who are not. It has also been indicated that 80% of the companies report MDP, compared with 90% that provide executive leadership training. For most of the companies 37% of the training budgets go to management development and learning programs. Therefore, it is important to consider management development as an important part of organizational competitiveness. Some of the reasons behind the management development programs are: It is managements’ responsibility of ensuring the success of the organization It is the management who deal with people of different background, culture, language, etc Mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, etc are all under management’s control It is managements’ responsibility to ensure that the employees obtain the required KSAs to perform the tasks It is managements’ responsibility to ensure that right people is hired for the right job, at the right time for the right place Manager’s job is complex i.e. for the managers understanding the training need is not easy because his training need is determined by how well his department is meeting its objective and goal. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 34. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! It is the management who makes decisions on the basis of judgment and intuition It is the manager who performs several routine duties as well as handling the exceptions in their own as well as subordinates’ routine Managers are engaged in varied, discontinues, and brief activities It is the management that understand the organization, its vision, mission, ethics, values, strategies, capabilities, and how his organization fits into the industry, and how his behavior will influence people outside the organization Therefore, managers must be able to get the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) to meet the challenges as soon as they arise. Overview of Managerial Jobs We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 35. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 36. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! ON THE JOB TRAINING OFF THE JOB TRAINING 1. COACHING 1. SENSTITVITY TRAINING 2. MENTORING 2. TRANSACTIONAL 3. JOB ROTATION ANALYSIS 4. JOB INSTRUCTION 3. SIMULATION EXERCISES TECHNIQUE 4. STRAIGHT LECTURES ON THE JOB TRAINING 1. COACHING Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants. A coach is the best training plan for the CEO’s because It is one to one interaction It can be done at the convenience of CEO It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement This method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It helps in finding out the executive’s specific developmental needs. The needs can be identified through 60 degree performance reviews. Procedure of the Coaching The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive’s convenience by the coach. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 37. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! 1. Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation 2. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved 3. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule 4. At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback 5. Repeat step 4 until performance improves For the people at middle level management, coaching is more likely done by the supervisor; however experts from outside the organization are at times used for up and coming managers. Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on definite needs and improvement. 2. Mentoring Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee. The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee’s, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background, culture, and language and personality types. Executives also have mentors. In cases where the executive is new to the organization, a senior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into his role. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future executives. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required to improve mentee’s performance. Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency. Some key points on Mentoring We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 38. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Mentoring focus on attitude development Conducted for management-level employees Mentoring is done by someone inside the company It is one-to-one interaction It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement 3. Job Rotation For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executive’s outlook on the process of the organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out. This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader’s achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries. An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization. Benefits of Job Rotation Some of the major benefits of job rotation are: We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 39. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required It determines the areas where improvement is required Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position 4. Job Instruction Technique (JIT) Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development. Procedure of Job Instruction Technique (JIT) JIT consists of four steps: Plan – This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the trainer and the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work. A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things and in the process might miss few things. Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the training program. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus on. Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the trainees’ i.e. proper orientation program, availing the resources, familiarizing trainee with the training program, etc. Present – In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and safety instructions. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 40. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Trial – This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure. Follow-up – In this step, the trainer checks the trainee’s job frequently after the training program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing. OFF THE JOB TRAINING There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are: 1. Sensitivity Training Sensitivity training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view. Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 41. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Procedure of Sensitivity Training Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps: Unfreezing the old values –It requires that the trainees become aware of the inadequacy of the old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The first step consists of a small procedure: An unstructured group of 10-15 people is formed. Unstructured group without any objective looks to the trainer for its guidance But the trainer refuses to provide guidance and assume leadership Soon, the trainees are motivated to resolve the uncertainty Then, they try to form some hierarchy. Some try assume leadership role which may not be liked by other trainees Then, they started realizing that what they desire to do and realize the alternative ways of dealing with the situation Development of new values – With the trainer’s support, trainees begin to examine their interpersonal behavior and giving each other feedback. The reasoning of the feedbacks are discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and values. This process constitutes the second step in the change process of the development of these values. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 42. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Refreezing the new ones – This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees get to practice their new behaviors and values at their work place. 2. Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction. Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual. An ego state is a system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors. There are basically three ego states: Child: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses which come to her naturally from her own understanding as a child. The characteristics of this ego are to be spontaneous, intense, unconfident, reliant, probing, anxious, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its child state are the use of words like "I guess", "I suppose", etc. and non verbal clues like, giggling, coyness, silent, attention seeking etc. Parent: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses imposed on her in her childhood from various sources such as, social, parents, friends, etc. The characteristics of this ego are to be overprotective, isolated, rigid, bossy, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its parent states are the use of words like, always, should, never, etc and non- verbal clues such as, raising eyebrows, pointing an accusing finger at somebody, etc. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 43. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Adult: It is a collection of reality testing, rational behavior, decision making, etc. A person in this ego state verifies, updates the data which she has received from the other two states. It is a shift from the taught and felt concepts to tested concepts. All of us evoke behavior from one ego state which is responded to by the other person from any of these three states. 3. Lecture – A Method of Training It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. There are some variations in Lecture method. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not. Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer’s intonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 44. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! script, based on the signals from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed. A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. Main Features of Lecture Method Some of the main features of lecture method are: Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity 4. Games and Simulations Discussed above. TRAINING DESIGN The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program. The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers. The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design. Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 45. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong. Trainees’ learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program. Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included. Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner: From simple to complex Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance From known to unknown From specific to general Dependent relationship Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors: Trainees’ background Time allocated Style preference of trainer Level of competence of trainer Availability of facilities and resources, etc Support facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc. Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are: We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 46. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Time Accommodation, facilities and their availability Furnishings and equipments Budget Design of the training, etc We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 47. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 48. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! TRAINING IMPLEMENTATION To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called training implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. Even the best training program will fail due to one wrong action. Training implementation can be segregated into: Practical administrative arrangements Carrying out of the training Implementing Training Once the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented. Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation phase requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the most important factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept in mind while implementing training program: The trainer – The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds before meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his approach. Physical set-up – Good physical set up is pre requisite for effective and successful training program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms should not be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to every participant. Establishing rapport with participants – There are various ways by which a trainer can establish good rapport with trainees by: Greeting participants simple way to ease those initial tense moments Encouraging informal conversation Remembering their first name We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 49. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another Listening carefully to trainees’ comments and opinions Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed Getting to class before the arrival of learners Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time Using familiar examples Varying his instructional techniques Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down Reviewing the agenda – At the beginning of the training program it is very important to review the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program, what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how the program will run. The following information needs to be included: Kinds of training activities Schedule Setting group norms Housekeeping arrangements Flow of the program Handling problematic situations TRAINING EVALUATION The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular work routines. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are: Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 50. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training. Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly. Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes. Process of Training Evaluation Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 51. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. Techniques of Evaluation the various methods of training evaluation are: We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 52. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Observation Questionnaire Interview Self diaries Self recording of specific incidents BENEFITS OF OUTSOURCING The prospective benefits of outsourcing training are well recognized. Organizations go for outsourcing to save training costs, gain access to practical and technical proficiency, concentrate on core competencies and offer an overall enhanced training to their employees. Also, outsourcing allows companies to deliver best training to their employees and get the clients the best of their abilities. The key to increase in customer turn over is customer satisfaction. With rapid globalization, increase in competition, technological innovation, increase in access to information, and improve in customer services, the customer loyalty programs have become an integral part of the organizations. Retaining existing customers is now much more important than acquiring new customers. There is number of benefits of outsourcing training as it directly linked to the benefits like: We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com
  • 53. CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE Confidence, Fluency & Personality! Some facts Recommendations from the existing customer is 107% greater than the fresh customer Loyal customer spend 33% more than fresh customer Selling to a prospect requires 6% more than selling to an existing customer But what if an organization lacks the resources, expertise, and finances, then there is a need to outsource. Outsourcing is a competent tool that ensures and offers convincing Return on Investment (ROI). Outsourcing subtracts the risk in setting up a complicated function that is not a core competency. If outsourced to competitive and right consultancy then the cost savings could be as high as 50%. In addition to that, outsourcing leads to customer retention, customer loyalty, customer satisfaction, and greater efficiencies on the part of employees. We train People to make their Lives! FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT – 0522-2442879 Website – www.cdi.co.in , www. cdilucknow.blogspot.com ST REGISTRED BRANCH – 1 FLOOR NEAR K.A.K.A MARKET, ANY QUERIES MAIL US – c.di@live.com