Development issues facing India


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Development issues facing India

  1. 1. INDIA<br />Issues of Development<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Despite being the 4th largest economy in the world, India is still classed as a developing country <br />Development in terms of the following topics:<br />Economic strategies<br />Structure of the economy<br />Caste system<br />The environment<br />However as the country is so large and diverse some of the problems will not apply to all of the states <br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Background Facts<br />Officially gained independence from British Colonial rule on 15th August 1947<br />Population of 1,166,079,217<br />The World’s largest electoral democracy<br />Eligible voters: 714 million<br />Overall turnout of<br /> 59.7% (2009)<br />
  5. 5. Current situation<br />Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output, still significant problems of poverty<br />UN-Human Development Index<br />2009 HDI, Medium Human Development<br />Life Expectancy of 69.89 years<br />Population below poverty line of 25%<br />47% of all children are malnourished and classified as underweight<br />Literacy rates:<br />total population: 61% (147th)<br />male: 73.4%<br />female: 47.8% (2001 census)<br />
  6. 6. The economic policies<br />After independence in 1947 India’s economic development was dominated by socialist-influenced polices<br />Large state-owned sectors<br />Red tape & extensive regulations (“License Raj”)<br />Country become a state isolated from the world economy <br />India slowly began to open up its market through economic liberalisation (1991 economic reform<br />
  7. 7. Economic Reform<br />Exports tripled between 1992-1997 <br />Basic food prices rapidly increased<br />Reliant loans for growth, W.B.’s biggest borrower<br />GDP growth between 2007-2008 = 9.0%<br />
  8. 8. Where is this wealth?<br />
  9. 9. Inequality between states<br />Great differences between the development of Indian states<br />Bihar/West Bengal<br />Bihar has a legacy of a feudal system and a political structure riddled with corruption<br />Literacy rate of 53%<br />W. Bengal has implemented land reform to empower small farms, achieved economic and social success, high level of participation in politics<br />Literacy rate of 69%<br />
  10. 10. Environment <br />290 million Indian people are employed in agriculture(490 million)<br />Occupies 48% of the land<br />The success or failure of the monsoon rains makes more difference to the national income than any other figure<br />Uncertainty year on year <br />around crop yield<br />
  11. 11. The caste system <br />Hindu system of social differentiation <br />Discrimination by caste has been outlawed since independence<br />In rural areas the caste system is still deeply ingrained in the culture<br />Dalits are the lowest regarded caste, outcasts<br />
  12. 12. Dalits (‘The Untouchables’)<br />Over 200 million<br />In rural areas they are still bound by contracts to higher castes<br />Often live in poor conditions and are persecuted by the rest of the community <br />The caste system hinders development <br />It reinforces dependency <br />Maintains a large uneducated sector of the population<br />Group struggle to take part in the democratic process<br />
  13. 13. Disease<br />HIV/AIDS<br />In 2007 there was an estimated 2.4 million Indians living with HIV (4th highest in the world)<br />Affected all sections <br />of society<br />
  14. 14. Conclusion<br />There may be a large upper class and a growing middle-class emerging but there still remains a base of 600 million whose basic needs are not being met<br />Educated, middle and upper classes need to be encouraged to invest in the rural population of India<br />Unification between Indian states<br />
  15. 15. Continued<br />‘Now you have a generation of young, urban Indians who are as uncomprehending of that other India as any Westerner. They have lost the language to be able to communicate with each other. They&apos;ve become a different species.’<br />Arundhati Roy, Author<br />
  16. 16. Questions…<br />
  17. 17. Bibliography<br />Journeyman Pictures- India’s Maoist Revolution<br />P. Shurmer-Smith. India, lobalisation and change<br /><br />,,menuPK:295609~pagePK:141132~piPK:141109~theSitePK:295584,00.html<br />Europa World year book 2009<br /><br />