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The Art of War by Zhuge Liang

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The Art of War by Zhuge Liang

The Art of War by Zhuge Liang

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The Art of War by Zhuge Liang The Art of War by Zhuge Liang Presentation Transcript

  • The Art of War by Zhuge Liang
  • N icknamed “ The Hidden Dragon ” Zhuge Liang ( ZGL ) was considered by historians to be the most accomplished strategist in China's turbulent era of Three Kingdoms . 234, aged 52-53 Wuzhang Plains, Shaanxi , China Died 181 Yinan, Shandong , China Born
  • Zhuge Liang holding his trademark feather fan .
  • The origin of his knowledge base in " science, statecraft, and art " is unknown to many . It has been said that much of his learning was through his own process of researching and self - teaching . Other stories have Zhuge Liang learning from Pang De Gong ( a famous educator - thinker of that era ).
  • For a while, he dwelled in a thatched cottage in Longzhong ( a district in the Wo Long Gung ridge near a town called Xiang Yang ) , quietly choosing to farm his land in obscurity and making friends extensively with celebrities, while preparing for the time for displaying his strategic knowledge . Legend states that Liu Bei, then a distant descendent of a royal Han house of minor military distinction, heard of Zhuge Liang's great wisdom and came three times to his home, requesting that he become his military advisor .
  • After a long discussion, Zhuge Liang was touched by Liu Bei's sincerity as well as Liu Bei's adoption of his plan for setting up a kingdom in the west and allying with the state of East Wu at the same time . He immediately pledged his service to Liu Bei and left his home to join Liu Bei's army . This became a major turning point for Liu Bei . At that time, Zhuge Liang was 26 and Liu Bei was 47 years old . Together they later established the Shu Han kingdom in the province of Sichuan .
  • Throughout his life, Zhuge Liang vowed to resist the Wei ( the kingdom founded by his antagonist Cao Cao ) and maintain the independence of the Shu, though the state of Wei had several times more land and people than that of the Shu . He later served as prime minister of Shu Han for Emperor Liu Bei ( 161-230 AD ) and his son Liu Chan ( 207-271AD ).
            • Zhuge Liang was also known as Marquis Wu or Zhuge Wu Hou
            • Before a battle was fought, Zhuge Liang would visit the proposed area of combat years before any battle had even transpired During the visit, he would investigate the physical features and the natural timing for that terrain and the disposition and the power of both sides at that terrain . If a battle was fought, understanding the way to advance and withdraw from that terrain, determining what are the resources of both sides at that time .
            • When leading a field army to the battle site, he would always ride in a four - wheeled carriage
            • Stories tell of Zhuge Liang viewing a battle and calling out the tactical movements of his army from the top plateau of a very high mountain
            • Zhuge Liang was said to always dress as a Taoist hermit, carrying a white feathered fan It has been said that there were old Chinese benevolent associations that would honor the memory of Zhuge Liang by nicknaming their advisor the " White Fan "
            • The area where Zhuge Liang trained his army can still be found in the Chongqing region of Fengjie County
    Zhuge Liang Trivia
  • The Temple of the Marquis of Wu in Chengdu, a temple worshipping Zhuge Liang .
  • The Marquis Wu Shrine at Yinan, China.
  • The statue of Marquis Wu at Yinan, China.
    • The essence that made Zhuge Liang the consummate strategist can be found
    • in his quote on the " five skills and four desires :“
    • " The five skills are skill in knowing the disposition and power of enemies,
    • skill in knowing the ways to advance and withdraw, skill in knowing how empty
    • or how full countries are, skill in knowing nature's timing and human affairs,
    • and skill in knowing the features of terrain .
    • The four desires are desire for the extraordinary and unexpected in strategy,
    • desire for thoroughness in security, desire for calm among the masses, and
    • desire for unity of hearts and minds ."
    • Zhuge Liang in The Way of the General
    • Those who want to be great strategists should heed to the meanings behind
    • the "five skills and four desires."
    5 Skills and 4 desires
  • It discusses the concepts of how a king should govern a country, how to establish a harmonious relationship between the king and subjects, how to discern good advice, how to deploy troops, and the mportance of using reward and punishment to win the trust of people. I t provides the understanding of both the importance of leadership and human resource management in running any strategic organization . Sixteen Strategies of Zhuge Liang
  • #1 Governing a Country Be as "unerring as the North Star"
  • #2 Ties between the ruler and subjects Let respect and loyalty b ecome the only set of links between the ruler and his subjects.
  • #3 Observing and listening Be a leader with a good strategic understanding of the situation at hand . Keep your mind on the game and your eye on the target .
  • #4 Acceptance of advice Be receptive and kind to other people's ideas.
  • #5 Being perceptive Be perceptive of all details (large and small) and make a clear distinction between the attribute of right and wrong.
  • #6 Managing people In order to win people over to your side, educate them.
  • #7 Selection of people Seek the worthy and employ the talented.
  • #8 Performance evaluation Promote the praiseworthy and dismiss the average performers and producers
  • #9 Military administration Play the game effectively and win by sound strategy development.
  • #10 Rewards and punishments While you reward those who deliver a clean, efficient administration, you should punish those who do not
  • #11 On emotion Do not make decisions via emotion.
  • #12 Controlling chaos Be careful when handling a chaotic situation
  • #13 Education and orders Rectify oneself first when issuing orders.
  • #14 Dealing with difficulties Act decisively to eliminate the cause of chaos.
  • #15 Looking ahead Be farsighted and cautious when planning.
  • #16 Observation Commit one's self to strive only for success.
  • Quotes from Zhuge Liang
    • “ Those who are skilled in combat do not become angered, those who are skilled at winning do not become afraid. Thus the wise win before they fight, while the ignorant fight to win. ”    
    • “ Nothing is harder to see into than people's nature . The sage looks at subtle phenomena and listens to small voices . This harmonizes the outside with the inside and the inside with the outside . ”    
    • “ To overcome the intelligent by folly is contrary to the natural order of things; to overcome the foolish by intelligence is in accord with the natural order. To overcome the intelligent by intelligence, however, is a matter of opportunity. ”    
    • “ An enlightened ruler does not worry about people not knowing him; he worries about not knowing people . ”
  • Quotes from Zhuge Liang
    • “ Nothing is harder to see into than people's nature . The sage looks at
    • subtle phenomena and listens to small voices . This harmonizes the outside
    • with the inside and the inside with the outside . ” (from the Records of the Loyal Lord of Warriors)
    • 6) “ Detach from emotions and desires; get rid of any fixations. ”
    • 7) “ The loss of any army is always caused by underestimating the enemy. Therefore gather information and watch the enemy carefully. ”
    • 8) “ Good generals select intelligent officers, thoughtful advisors, and brave subordinates. They oversee their troops like a fierce tiger with wings. ”
    • 9) “ You are harmed by decadence when judgment is based on private views, when forces are mobilized for personal reasons. These generals are treacherous and immoral. ”
  • Quotes from Zhuge Liang 10. " To overcome the intelligent by folly is contrary to the natural order of things; to overcome the foolish by intelligence is in accord with the natural order . To overcome the intelligent by intelligence, however, is a matter of opportunity . There are three avenues of opportunity : events, trends, and conditions . When opportunities occur through events but you are unable to respond, you are not smart . When opportunities become active through a trend and yet you cannot make plans, you are not wise . When opportunities emerge through conditions but you cannot act on them, you are not bold . Those skilled in generalship always achieve their victories by taking advantage of opportunities .“ 11. "... an enlightened ruler does not worry about people not knowing him; he worries about not knowing people . He worries not about outsiders not knowing insiders, but about insiders not knowing outsiders . He worries not about subordinates not knowing superiors, but about superiors not knowing subordinates . He worries not about the lower classes not knowing the upper classes, but about the upper classes not knowing the lower classes .“ ( Zhuge Liang, circa 200 AD, The Way of the General )
  • Quotes from Zhuge Liang 12. " Opportunistic relationship can hardly be kept constant . The acquaintance of honorable people, even at a distance, does not add flowers in times of warmth and does not change its leaves in times of cold : it continues unfading through the four seasons, becoming increasingly stable as it passes through ease and danger ."
  • Thank You