7 G Reat B attlefields In Ancient Chinese Histories (The Art Of War Collections)
The 7 Great Battles in ancient China were selected from those several battles occurred during Eastern Zhou Dynasty ( 770 to 256 BC ). At that time The Eastern Zhou corresponds roughly to two sub-periods . The first, from 722 to 476 BC, is called the Spring and Autumn Period , after a famous historical chronicle of the time; the second is known as the Warring States Period ( 475 to 220 BC ) , after another famous chronicle and initiated by the partitioning of Jin. The Warring States Period extended slightly past the 256 BC end date of Eastern Zhou; this discrepancy is due to the fact that the last Zhou king's reign ended in 256 BC, 35 years before the beginning of the Qin Dynasty that ended the Warring States period . The 7 Great Battles Period
The Warring States Period was an era when regional warlords annexed smaller states around them and consolidated their power . The process began in the Spring and Autumn Period and by the 3rd century BC, seven major states had emerged as the dominant powers in China . The states were : Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei and Qin. Qi Yan Chu Qin Zhao Wei Han
The Eastern Zhou period is also designated as the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought. The Greatest Military Strategists were Sima Rangju, Sun Tzu, Gui Gu Zi, Sun Bin, Wei Liao Zi, Wu Zi. Sima Rangju Sun Wu Sun Bin Wei Liao Zi Wu Qi Gui Gu Zi
1) In 632 BC The Battle of Chengpu was a conflict between the states of Jin against Chu and its allies in China during the Spring and Autumn Period. 2) In 506 BC The Battle of Boju was fought between Wu and Chu forces . The Wu forces were led by Sun Zi, and they were ultimately victorious . 3) In 354 BC The Battle of Guìlíng was fought between the states of Qi and Wei in the Warring States period of Chinese history. Tian Ji and Sun Bin, acting as co - commanders of Qi, led an army to save Zhao . 4) In 342 BC The Battle of Maling The combatants were the state of Qi leaded by Sun Bin, who fought on behalf of the State of Han, and the State of Wei. 5) In 293 BC the Battle of Yuque against Wei and Han resulted in victory for Qin. This effectively removed Wei and Han threat to further Qin aspirations. 6) In 284 The battle of Ji Mo was one of the most remarkable battles in the history of China . The battle of Ji Mo took place in the Warring States period . This battle was a decisive battle for the State of Qi . Losing this battle, the State of Qi would disappear from history . 7) In 260 BC, the Battle of Changping was fought between Qin and Zhao, resulting in a catastrophic defeat for the latter. Although both sides were utterly exhausted after the titanic clash, Zhao, unlike Qin, could not recover after the event. The 7 Great Battles Period
The Battle of Chengpu was a conflict between the states of Jin against Chu and its allies in China in 632BC during the Spring and Autumn Period. It could be viewed as the first great battle in the protracted conflict between the states of the Yellow River valley, and the states of the Yangtze River ( Chang Jiang ) valley . The Jin victory confirmed the hegemony of Duke Wen and checked Chu ambitions in the north for at least a generation . Jin Chu
Following the death of Duke Huan of Qi in 643 BC, the state of Chu steadily extended its influence northward, absorbing half a dozen smaller states as its satellites . In 636 BC, Ji Chong'er, a ducal prince of Jin, after spending fifteen years in exile traveling throughout numerous states, came to power as Duke Wen of Jin with the help of Duke Mu Of Qin. Duke Wen assumed a position of leadership among the states and instituted numerous domestic reforms . Duke Wen of Jin Duke Mu of Qin
King Cheng of Chu struck at the State of Song, the ally of Jin most accessible from the south, in the winter of 633 BC. In retaliation, an expeditionary force under Duke Wen marched south in the spring of the following year and occupied the States of Wei and Cao, both satellites of Chu . The two sides sought out alliances in the following months. King Cheng of Chu
Jin Chu Jin is said to have retired " three stages " ( 45 km ) before camping on the plain of Chengpu at the border of Wei and Cao, awaiting a decisive battle and thus fulfilling Duke Wen's promise to King Cheng during his refuge in Chu . The retirement also linked the Jin forces up with Qi and Qin reinforcements . Qin Qi Song
The battle commenced with the advance of both wings of the Jin army . The Chu right wing was reckoned to be the weakest and Xu Chen, commander of the Jin left wing, attacked . The attack was rapidly successful, scattering and demolishing the enemy wing completely . As the Chu left advanced, it was caught in the flank by Duke Wen's bodyguards and thus flanked by the Jin central army . The Chu left was completely destroyed . Seeing both his wings enveloped, Ziyu ordered a general retreat .
After returning to the north, Duke Wen was recognised by the King of Zhou as first among the feudal lords . A multi - state conference at in 631 BC headed by Duke Wen confirmed their support for the Zhou royal family and swore a covenant of alliance. The battle, however, was not effective in the long term in restricting the power of Chu. Duke Wen of Jin
The Battle of Boju was fought in 506 BC between Wu and Chu forces . The Wu forces were led by Sun Zi, and they were ultimately victorious . Ch'u and Wu states were at war for about 50 years . Tensions culminated with this battle, and the related times of insecurity known as the warring states period ended in 220 BC. Sun Tzu’s 30,000 soldiers defeated Chu’s army of 300,000 soldiers. Wu Chu
The battle was planned by He Lu of Wu and was acted out by Wu Zixu and Sun Zi . King Jing of Zhou alongside Yue, the butcher, were temporarily driven from the capital city of Chu, Ying, by the Wu attackers . This battle led to the invasion of the Ying town and its destruction . After retreat of the Wu state in 505 BC, both The King of Ch'u and the butcher came back to the town . Sun Wu Wu Zixu
Sun Tzu later proved on the battlefield that his theories were effective, that he had a successful military career, and that he wrote The Art of War based on his tested expertise . Sun Tzu Ping Fa
Wei Qi The Battle of Guìlíng was fought between the states of Qi and Wei in the Warring States period of Chinese history. In 354 BC, an army from Wèi was laying siege to Handan city, the capital of State of Zhao. The next year, Zhao turned to Qi for help . Tian Ji and Sun Bin, acting as co - commanders of Qi, led an army to save Zhao . Zhao Sun Bin Tian Ji
Sun Bin moves south to make an unsuccessful attack on Pingling, which that area impossible to move food supplies . His intention was make Pang Juan convince that Qi Army is so weak to achieve victory . Pang Juan besiege Handan which the Zhao Army fought desperately and suffered heavy losses to the Wei Army . Sun Bin Pang Juan
After feigning defeat at Pingling, Sun Bin led his army directly to the Wei capital Daliang that was preparing to charge . Wei scouts reported that the Qi Army committed small groups to attack the city . Upon hearing the report, Wei general Pang Juan took his crack cavalry and left his infantry and supplies at Handan and made a mad dash to rescue Daliang . Pang Juan's troops were exhausted as they crossed the Yellow River and was ambushed and destroyed at Guiling by Sun's army and Pang Juan escaped alone . This battle gives rise to a well - known proverb, " Besiege Wei to rescue Zhao " , which is also included as one of the Thirty-Six Strategies.
Wei Qi The Battle of Maling was conducted in Maling, currently Dazhangjia Town , Shen County, Henan Province, in 342 BC during the Warring States Period . The combatants were the state of Qi, who fought on behalf of the State of Han, and the State of Wei . This battle is well recorded in history texts and is famous for the tactics of Sun Bin, known as the “ Tactic of Missing Stoves " , in which one side is led to underestimate the other by creating an illusion of soldiers running away from the army . Han
Pang Juan , commander of Wei , was lured to a narrow pass at night, where his army was ambushed by 10,000 archers of Qi . According to some sources, Pang Juan committed suicide whilst others say he was killed by Qi archers. Wei was defeated and its power decreased significantly thereafter , making the state unable to compete for Kingship of the Zhou Dynasty . Sun Bin Pang Juan
Learning from the Battle of Guiling, Pang Juan ordered his troops to go around the Qi troops, to avoid getting ambushed in the main path . Pang Juan also ordered his troops to make haste to the capital, before Qi could set up any effective ambushes . Instead of rushing and trying to ambush the high morale Wei troops, Sun Bin decided to let a great majority of his troops rest . These Qi troops were ordered to move slowly back into Qi and prepare equipment for an ambush when needed . Sun Bin took a smaller force to face Pang Juan . Once the two forces drew close to each other, Sun Bin immediately ordered a retreat from Pang Juan’s army .
In order to mislead his enemy, Sun Bin ordered his soldiers to make less stoves day by day . On the first day, Qi had enough stoves for 100,000 people; on the second day, there were stoves for only 50,000 people . On the third day, there were only stoves for an army of 20,000 . As Pang Juan saw this, he judged that the soldiers of Qi were deserting their army and decided to pursue the Qi army with a small elite cavalry . This unit was overconfident following their recent victory in Han . As Qi retreated into their own territory, Sun Bin ordered his troops to abandon some of their heavy artillery . This further gave the impression of a state of confusion amongst the Qi army . stove stove stove stove stove stove stove stove stove stove stove stove stove stove stove stove stove Day 1 : 100,000 people Day 3 : 20,000 people Day 2 : 50,000 people
As Qi arrived at Maling, Sun Bin noticed a heavily wooded and narrow pass that could be used for ambush . Estimating the arrival of Pang Juan around nightfall, he ordered his men to cut down a tree, remove its bark, and carve the words “ Pang Juan shall die in Malingdao, under this tree " on its trunk . This was a proverb spoken by the teacher of both Sun Bin and Pang Juan ( both had been in the same class ).
Pang Juan had moved to Malingdao, and when he saw the warning message, he paid no attention, instead ordering the words to be scraped off . The army advanced when suddenly, a flush of Qi troops surrounded the Wei . In the darkness, Qi archers managed to shoot down many of the Wei soldiers, before the rest of soldiers charged in . The Wei troops did not expect Qi to still have so many troops under their command and were quickly overrun . Pang Juan, sensing his end was near, committed suicide . In some versions, Pang Juan was among the first of his troops to be shot to death .
Even though Pang Juan had tricked Sun Bin and maimed him by removing his knee caps, Sun Bin felt very sad to see his former classmate dead . He had hoped they would make their relationship better after the battle . After the death of Pang Juan, Prince Shen was captured by Qi . The power of the state of Wei decreased considerably after this battle .
Qin Wei Han Battle of Yique 293 BC , levied by King Zhaoxiang of Qin against the alliance of Wei and Han at Yique ( now as Longmen, city of Luoyang, Henan province ) , commanded by general Bai Qi . With half of the alliance force, Bai Qi's army took the alliance's strongholds one by one . The battle ended with the capture of the alliance general Gongsun Xi, 240,000 casualties on the alliance side and the capture of 5 Han and Wei cities including Yique . After the battle, Han and Wei were forced to trade their land to ensure further peace .
By 294 BC, the kingdom of Qin had become a major military power in China . Its first step of conquest began with the nearby kingdoms of Wei and Han . Wei and Han had been enemies for many years, and did not pay much attention to Qin . In 294 BC Qin, under General Bai Qi, attacked Han and took an important fortress . Wei and Han realized the might of Qin, and joined forces to stop Qin from further conquests . King Zhaoxiang of Qin General Bai Qi of Qin
In 294 BC, Wei and Han gathered 240,000 troops to face Qin . Bai Qi only had 120,000 men under his command . But the alliance feared Qin's better trained and equipped troops and decided on passive defense . The battle was a stalemate until 293 BC . Bai Qi noticed that Wei and Han were still hostile to each other, so he decided on the divide and conquer strategy . He scouted the area for weaknesses in the alliance defense . He drew away the attention of the main Han forces with small ambushes, then attacked the weakly defended Wei positions with the main Qin army . Qin Wei Han Qin Qin 120,000 soldiers 120,000 soldiers 120,000 soldiers
The officers of Wei believed that Han deliberately failed to support the Wei army positions . Hostility grew worse between the two allies . Han decided to preserve its forces and ceased trying to support Wei . Bai Qi was therefore able to avoid fighting against Han forces . Over the next few months, he defeated Wei positions one by one . Bai Qi then turned his attack against the Han forces . Eventually Han troops were trapped by Qin forces and they tried to escape . However the Qin cavalry ensured that no one made it back . Gongsun Xi was captured . Qin Wei Han Qin Qin 120,000 soldiers 0 Soldiers 120,000 soldiers
This battle brought Qin influence for the first time into central China . Wei and Han forces were destroyed after the Battle of Yique . Both states ceded land to Qin in return for temporary peace, but their eventual destruction was ensured . Qin conquered Han in 230 BC, and conquered Wei in 225 BC .
Yan Qi The battle of Ji Mo was one of the most remarkable battles in the history of China . The battle of Ji Mo took place in the Warring States period . This battle was a decisive battle for the State of Qi . Losing this battle, the State of Qi would disappear from history .
In 284 BCE, the State of Yan launched a military campaign to destroy the State of Qi . General Le Yi commanded the army of Yan . Within six months, General Le Yi conquered seventy cities . The State of Qi had only two cities left . Ji Mo was a bigger city with rich resources . The people of Ji Mo loved their city and fought hard . The citizens of Ji Mo nominated General Tian Dan to take over the commanding post . General Le Yi of Yan General Tian Dan of Qi
General Le Yi knew that whoever won the heart of the people won the battle . He wanted the people of Ji Mo to surrender without a fight . General Le Yi led his army to retreat a few miles . His army still besieged the city of Ji Mo . He ordered the Yan army to provide food and water to the people of Ji Mo . He ordered them to let the people of Ji Mo tilled the land outside the city wall . He even ordered them to help watering the plants .
The King of Yan died . His son succeeded the throne as the new King of Yan . He was jealous of General Le Yi, which appeared to gain the complete trust of his Father . General Tian Dan knew all these . He sent spies to the capital of Yan to spread rumors that General Le Yi intended to become the king of Qi . That was why he wanted to win the heart of people in the city of Ji Mo . General Le Yi sought refuge in the State of Zhao . He knew that the new King of Yan would kill him . New King of Yan General Le Yi of Yan
General Tian Dan was cunning . He wanted the people of Ji Mo to burn with hatred in their hearts . He sent his spies to spread rumors in the camp of Yan soldiers, saying that : " cutting off the noses of Qi soldiers will make them tremble with fear . Digging out the dead ancestors from the grave will make them surrender ." The stupid general of Yan army believed all these nonsense . He ordered his soldiers to do just so . The people of Ji Mo filled with hatred, and burned with the desire of revenge .
In the middle of the night, the army of Qi opened the city wall of Ji Mo city . They released the oxen in the direction of the Yan army camp . They set fire to the dried woods tied on the back of the oxen . The angry oxen charged into the Yan camp, aroused the sleeping soldiers, and set the camp on fire . In the darkness of the night, the burning oxen looked like dragons descending from heaven . Yan Army Camp oxen oxen oxen oxen oxen oxen oxen oxen
General Tian Dan led his five thousands soldiers to attack the Yan army . Numerous Yan soldiers perished in the battle . General Tian Dan won the battle of Ji Mo . He went on to lead the Qi army to restore all the seventy cities that the State of Yan had captured .
The battle of Ji Mo was remarkable . It was a long battle, with both hard and soft approach . It was impossible for a small army of five thousands soldiers to win the battle . General Tian Dan was able to make use of limited resources to win the battle . The 1,000 oxen killed more Yan soldiers than the combined effort of five thousands soldiers .
Both General Le Yi and General Tian Dan knew that the outcome of the battle depended on the heart of the people . Whoever won the heart of the people won the war . General Tian Dan knew that without the support of the King and the people, the battle was lost . That was why he could make use of the bad relationship between the new King of Yan and General Le Yi to his advantage . General Tian Dan of Qi
Qin Zhao During the Warring States Period, the Battle of Changping broke out in 260 BC, which results in a decisive victory of the state of Qin over Zhao . Han
In 257 BC, the Qin invaded the Han . Responding to the Han call for help, the Zhao king decided to send Lian Po to deal with the threat . The two armies met at Changping, situated in the Northern part of the Han lands . On one side was the Qin army, led by renowned General Bai Qi, on the other was the Zhao army led by Lian Po . Lian Po, after looking over the Qin formations, decided that the only way to stop their attack was to wait it out . Thus he built several fortresses and camped there, waiting for the opposing army to go away or a peace treaty to be concluded by the Han and the Qin . General Bai Qi of Qin General Lian Po of Zhao
The Qin had no intention of leaving . They sent spies to the state of Zhao and Han, ordering them to spread the word that Lian Po was cowardly and was too old to fight battles . The king, upon hearing this, immediately decided to remove Lian Po and replace him with Zhao Kuo, the son of another famous Zhao general, Zhao She . King of Zhao Zhao Kuo
Legend has it that on his deathbed, Zhao She told his wife never to let Zhao Kuo command an army . The king turned their requests down . When Zhao Kuo assumed command, he ordered the army to launch an invasion of the Qin camp . The Qin forces were already lying in wait for them and the Zhao forces were eventually driven up a hill which the Qin then besieged for 40 days . At last, driven mad by hunger and thirst, the Zhao forces made a desperate change down the hill , with Zhao Kuo leading . He was shot down by Qin archers .
The troops of Zhao were routed . Legends accounted for more than four hundred thousand Zhao prisoners of war massacred but such grossly overestimated number has been disputed . With this victory, Qin had established military superiority over other states . More campaigns and battles ensued, especially in the conquest of the state of Chu . Nevertheless no matter how bloody these military operations would be, Qin's final victory was guaranteed .
7 G Reat B attlefields In Ancient Chinese Histories (The Art Of War Collections) Thank You Very Much. Sompong Yusoontorn