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  • 1. Chapter 7Chapter 7 Chapter 7Chapter 7 -Bridget O’Brien-Bridget O’Brien
  • 2. ““Family is an influential source about Gender”Family is an influential source about Gender” We differ in terms of race, age, ability, and family structure.We differ in terms of race, age, ability, and family structure. Some of us grew up in big families and some grew up inSome of us grew up in big families and some grew up in small. Some were raised by one, two or three parents. Everysmall. Some were raised by one, two or three parents. Every Family is different and gender plays a huge role in each.Family is different and gender plays a huge role in each.
  • 3. Gender RolesGender Roles ““refers to feminine and masculine social expectations in a family basedrefers to feminine and masculine social expectations in a family based on a person’s sex.”on a person’s sex.” Many children find gender roles through their family. Gender roles areMany children find gender roles through their family. Gender roles are defined by the socio-cultural norms of any society.defined by the socio-cultural norms of any society. ““Gender role socialization: largely takes place in the family, particularlyGender role socialization: largely takes place in the family, particularly via parental modeling and parent-child interaction (Turner & West,via parental modeling and parent-child interaction (Turner & West, 2006).”2006).”
  • 4. Children begin to gain gender identity between the ages of 2Children begin to gain gender identity between the ages of 2 and 3. After time children begin to pick specific qualities onceand 3. After time children begin to pick specific qualities once they have been socialized to want them.they have been socialized to want them.
  • 5. Family as a Social InstitutionFamily as a Social Institution Three important points:Three important points: To provide for the rearing of childrenTo provide for the rearing of children To provide a sense of identity or belonging among its membersTo provide a sense of identity or belonging among its members To transmit culture between generationTo transmit culture between generation
  • 6. Nuclear FamilyNuclear Family Western Societies; tend to see a family as consisting of a mother, fatherWestern Societies; tend to see a family as consisting of a mother, father and children who live under one roof.- Nuclear familyand children who live under one roof.- Nuclear family Before societies began to modernize, families consisted of severalBefore societies began to modernize, families consisted of several generations of extended family living in the same area/village.generations of extended family living in the same area/village.
  • 7. Most families are not NuclearMost families are not Nuclear U.S SURVEYS SHOW- 38% of marriages end in divorce about 75% of divorced persons remarry with a 60% chance of divorce 50% of marriages occurring this year are expected to end in divorce close to 30% of homes are headed by a single adult In most two-parent homes, both parents work outside the home As modernization occurs, young people tend to move away from the villages in which they were raised in search of jobs, leaving the older generations behind. They move to cities and meet people they probably never would have met had they stayed home. People in modernized, urbanized societies meet spouses on their own, rather than being introduced by family members, and marry and settle down in locations that are often far from their original communities.
  • 8. Family in MediaFamily in Media During the early 60’s certain media outlets helped portray the norm of aDuring the early 60’s certain media outlets helped portray the norm of a nuclear media.nuclear media. Now during the Modern day media outlets we have shows that promoteNow during the Modern day media outlets we have shows that promote the complete opposite of the nuclear family.the complete opposite of the nuclear family. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O5uuMr1YEyEhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O5uuMr1YEyE
  • 9. Interlocking InstitutionsInterlocking Institutions ““The way a family tends to work or function isThe way a family tends to work or function is related to the social systems of the outsiderelated to the social systems of the outside world.”world.” MythMyth: Nuclear Family is self sufficient.: Nuclear Family is self sufficient. RealityReality: work, religion, social services, media,: work, religion, social services, media, law, schools and extended family influence it.law, schools and extended family influence it.
  • 10. InterlockingInterlocking InstitutionsInstitutions Politics Work Compulsory Heterosexuality Politics and law usually refer to the nuclear family as the norm in society. They use the slogan of family values. “Family values: are political and social beliefs that hold the nuclear family to be the essential unit of society.” The most distinguished showing of gender role is the division of household labor between the gendered sex. A survey shows that wives in heterosexual relationships spend between 5 and 13.5 hrs. more a week doing housework than their husbands. The idea that there is only one way to love and one way to form a a family. The common norm that is among us in our society. Politics Work
  • 11. Family Constructs (and Constrains) Gender
  • 12. Continued ..Continued .. Communication in the family constructs gender.Communication in the family constructs gender. The book states that relationships in the familyThe book states that relationships in the family are influenced by past family experiences andare influenced by past family experiences and larger social forces.larger social forces.
  • 13. Parent Child CommunicationParent Child Communication ““One Primary function of the family is to teach and maintain cultural norms, including genderOne Primary function of the family is to teach and maintain cultural norms, including gender norms and roles.”norms and roles.”
  • 14. Social Learning ModelSocial Learning Model “People, especially children, learn from the environment and seek acceptance from society by learning through influential models.” When you become a parent from day one you have a physical and emotional bond with your child that no one else understands. While growing up the child unconsciously learns through gender roles by observing how their parents act on a daily basis.
  • 15. Gender/ Sex Interactions: Parents InfluenceGender/ Sex Interactions: Parents Influence Parents interact and raise their children differently depending on theParents interact and raise their children differently depending on the gender/ sex of the child. For example, daughters are rewarded for beinggender/ sex of the child. For example, daughters are rewarded for being respectful whereas sons are rewarded for physical accomplishments.respectful whereas sons are rewarded for physical accomplishments. Gender Identities are formed by children by observing and interactingGender Identities are formed by children by observing and interacting with their parents. Children do play an active role in selecting theirwith their parents. Children do play an active role in selecting their gender, which stated in a previous slide starts around the ages of 2 andgender, which stated in a previous slide starts around the ages of 2 and 3.3.
  • 16. Adult Friends & LoversAdult Friends & Lovers From a young age children are taught about the importance of heterosexualFrom a young age children are taught about the importance of heterosexual marriage. These ideologies mainly come from the idea of the nuclear family.marriage. These ideologies mainly come from the idea of the nuclear family. Children grow up playing marriage and people around the world are socializedChildren grow up playing marriage and people around the world are socialized to want marriage.to want marriage. Friendships: Same sex friendships is more socially accepted than cross sexFriendships: Same sex friendships is more socially accepted than cross sex friendship because of the threat of dating and marriage.friendship because of the threat of dating and marriage.
  • 17. Dating RelationshipsDating Relationships -Heterosexual dating relationships are-Heterosexual dating relationships are frequently and most studied non maritalfrequently and most studied non marital relationship.relationship. -There are expectations which is the main-There are expectations which is the main reason that the intimacy of relationships fail.reason that the intimacy of relationships fail. -Media plays a huge role on a romantic-Media plays a huge role on a romantic couple: playing the roles ofcouple: playing the roles of a strong man and beautiful women.a strong man and beautiful women. -Women are expected to take a good-Women are expected to take a good amount on time to get ready and makeamount on time to get ready and make themselves be attracted to men.themselves be attracted to men. -Studies show women look more at a-Studies show women look more at a mans personality for a relationshipmans personality for a relationship whereas men focus on the physicalwhereas men focus on the physical attraction of their spouse.attraction of their spouse.
  • 18. Marital CommunicationMarital Communication Marital communicationMarital communication is the most studiedis the most studied interpersonal relationshipinterpersonal relationship Demand/ withdrawalDemand/ withdrawal Pattern: partner who mostPattern: partner who most wants change demands and the one who resistswants change demands and the one who resists change withdraws which then does not resolve thechange withdraws which then does not resolve the conflict.conflict. Domestic ViolenceDomestic Violence: Unfortunately domestic violence: Unfortunately domestic violence in the family happens more than we know/believe.in the family happens more than we know/believe. Men being known as the physical opponent in ourMen being known as the physical opponent in our social norms is mostly know to be the perpetrator,social norms is mostly know to be the perpetrator, while women and children are the victims.while women and children are the victims.
  • 19.  Domestic Violence Facts:  Every day in the US, 4 children die as a result of child abuse and neglect.  Every day, 4 women are murdered by their husbands or boyfriends.  Women are 10 times more likely than men to be a victim of domestic violence.  Yearly, over 4 million children are abused or neglected by family members.  1 in 4 women report they have been raped or physically assaulted by an intimate partner.
  • 20. Emancipatory Families This is where family members feel loved, accepted and are able to growThis is where family members feel loved, accepted and are able to grow to their fullest potential while feeling safe and having a positiveto their fullest potential while feeling safe and having a positive atmosphere.atmosphere.
  • 21. While reading this chapter the common theme is the expectations through aWhile reading this chapter the common theme is the expectations through a nuclear family. We learn that how we act and parent our children come fromnuclear family. We learn that how we act and parent our children come from a lot of interlocking institutions discussed in this chapter. A lot of thesea lot of interlocking institutions discussed in this chapter. A lot of these institutions come from social systems such as media and what our societyinstitutions come from social systems such as media and what our society sees as the social norms. Everyday we all learn through social learning andsees as the social norms. Everyday we all learn through social learning and modeling whether it be directly from our parents or watching a televisionmodeling whether it be directly from our parents or watching a television show. Generation after generation our parents teach us at a young ageshow. Generation after generation our parents teach us at a young age what is expected in the family life we grow up in. I believe after reading thiswhat is expected in the family life we grow up in. I believe after reading this chapter it is important to question on how we expect our child to grow upchapter it is important to question on how we expect our child to grow up because our society needs to adapt to a more diverse environment. Overall,because our society needs to adapt to a more diverse environment. Overall, family is extremely important because many children find their gender rolefamily is extremely important because many children find their gender role through it.through it.