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Presentation on learning, KM and Innovation

Presentation on learning, KM and Innovation

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  • 1. The Relationship of Learning, Knowledge and Sustaining Innovation Dr. Richard B. Wallace
  • 2. Agenda
    • Why is this research important
    • Research Gap
    • Research Originality and methodology
    • Propositions for managing ideas
    • Propositions for managing “part whole” process
    • Emergent theory
    • Q&A
  • 3. Importance of the Research
    • There are learning aspects of knowledge management and there are knowledge aspects of learning (Vera, 2004, Crossan,1999). Both disciplines have a relationship to innovation (Nonaka, 1995, Amidon, 2003). Understanding how learning and knowledge relate to each other and how those relationships relate to innovation provides a different, useable perspective on the problems related to embedding innovation in an organization.
  • 4. Research Gap
    • Organizational learning, knowledge
    • management and innovation research have all
    • focused on their own disciplines
    • Organizational learning and knowledge
    • management research has focused on the
    • efficiency and effectiveness versus the
    • relationship
  • 5. Research Gap Example INTEGRATION DISTRIBUTION CREATION
  • 6. Van de Venn’s 4 Problems
    • Strategic leadership
    • Managing ideas
    • Managing part whole relationships
    • Managing organizational attention
  • 7. Problems with Previous Approaches
    • Organizational learning approaches focused on the learning aspects of the process
    • Knowledge management approaches focused on the knowledge aspects of the KM process
    • Innovation studies focused on functional or technical aspects of innovation.
    “The research is all about the importance of innovation . . . What we need is an approach on how to actually do innovation.” Comment at the Spring 2007 meeting of the Association of Managers of Innovation, Greensboro NC
  • 8. Research Framework - Grounded Theory Approach
    • Reflexive Approach
      • Surfacing and making explicit the influences and inductive processes of the researcher
      • Generation of emergent theory from empirical data
      • Theory based on patterns found in empirical data – not inferences, prejudices or association of ideas
      • Constant comparison between emergent theory (codes and constructs) and new data
            • Glaser 1978,1992
            • Strauss and Corbin, 1998
  • 9. Grounded Theory Process Gasson, 2003
  • 10. Research framework Why is Grounded Theory Appropriate for this Study?
    • Learning, knowledge management and innovation are all
    • people centric processes
    • Learning, knowledge management and innovation are all
    • heavily influenced by organizational dynamics
    • Learning, knowledge management and innovation are all
    • influenced by individual perspective and culture
    • Learning, knowledge management and innovation are all
    • interrelated in such a way to make it difficult to assess outside
    • of the environment within which they are being practiced
  • 11. Initial Open Coding Amidon, 2003 Use Trust Strategic Intent Relationships Rationalization Problem Solving Packaging Internalization Integration Exploitation Experience Distribution Creation Context Collaboration Change Management Capture Application Acquisition Code KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Plessis, 2007 Thomas, 2001 Argote, 2003 Thomas, 2001 Strategic Intent Bou-Llusar, 2006 Stata, 1989 Sense making McElroy, 2003 Friedman, 2001 Risk Taking Thomas, 2001 Argote, 2003 Relationships Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995 Cook and Brown, 1999 Questioning Grant, 1996 Shani, 2003 Learning Cycle Swan, 2000 Thomas, 2001 Identification Davenport and Prusak, 1998 Friedman,2001 Experimentation Davenport and Prusak, 1998 Agryis, 1978 Double Loop Learning Von Krough, 2000 Brooks, 1994 Diffusion Plessis, 2007 Davenport and Prusak, 1998 Data Collection Plessis, 2007 Von Krough, 2004 Cross Functional Teams Carroll, 2004 Agyris, 1978 Cognitive Learning Lynn, 1999 Carroll, 2004 Change Management Albers, 2003 Carroll, 2004 Capture Davenport and Prusak, 1998 Martensen, 1999 Action Rationale Rationale Code ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING
  • 12. Open Coding Initial Distillation Axial Coding and Synthesis
    • To effectively manage ideas, the organizational fit of those ideas need to be understood. (Organizational fit includes strategic intent and sense-making);
    Propositions Developed in order to manage ideas across an organization the organization needs to have an idea of what it is searching for and why , a means to distribute that new idea or concept to leverage the collective wisdom of the organization and a way of reinforcing new behaviors in order to take advantage of what has been discovered. Theory Emerges
  • 13. Example of Interview Indicators
  • 14. Network Diagram
  • 15. Propositions for Managing Ideas
    • The propositions for managing ideas are:
    • To effectively manage ideas, the organizational fit of those ideas need to be understood. (Organizational fit includes strategic intent and sense-making);
    • To effectively manage ideas, there must be some form of idea propagation within the organization (Idea propagation includes diffusion, distribution and organizational structure); and
    • To effectively manage ides, behaviors must also be managed. (Managing desired behaviors includes change management).
  • 16. Organizational Fit Of Ideas
    • Enabling Core Strategy
    • Real possibilities
    • What are you trying to do
    • Enabling great ideas, persistence of promotion
    • Alignment of people, removing barriers, common point of departure
    • Transparency, solving the right problem, enabling a core strategy
    • Using organizational resources, tools needed to be successful, leveraging existing knowledge
    • Context of strategic plan, what is important to the organization and it’s people
    • Understanding who is the customer, understanding what the organization wants
    (Strategic Intent) (Sense Making) (Strategic Intent) ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING
  • 17. Organizational Fit of Ideas
    • Using organizational resources, tools needed to be successful, leveraging existing knowledge
    • Context of strategic plan, what is important to the organization and it’s people
    • Understanding who is the customer, understanding what the organization wants
    KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (Strategic Intent)
    • Enabling great ideas, persistence of promotion
    • Alignment of people, removing barriers, common point of departure
    • Transparency, solving the right problem, enabling a core strategy
    ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING (Sense Making)
    • Enabling a core strategy, part of a business plan, solving the right problem, what is important to the organization
    • What are you trying to do
    • Real possibilities
    ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING (Strategic Intent) ORGANIZATIONAL FIT Indicators Function Proposition
  • 18. Idea Propagation
    • Mechanism to support ideas and their discussion, sustaining architecture, process and teams, DNA to accept new ideas
    • Internal purpose, chart of capabilities
    • Separation of “church” (corporate) and “state” (people), common culture, approach and set of tools
    KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (Organizational Structure)
    • Alignment of people around ideas, connecting ideas and people
    • People interaction, idea collection, idea discussion
    • Campaign of ideas, new ideas from employees, uncover and unleash ideas
    • Going across organizational boundaries
    KNOWLEDEGE MANAGEMENT (Distribution)
    • Connecting people and ideas, sharing along the way, people involved solving problems with unique knowledge
    • People interaction, idea collection, idea discussion
    • Sharing information with employees, campaign of ideas, horizontal communication
    ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING (Diffusion) IDEA PROPAGATION Indicators Function Proposition
  • 19. Desired Behaviors
    • Specific organization to manage function
    • Impact of quality and what we know
    • Ownership of ideas, sharing of ideas
    • Defining the way we work
    KNOWLEDEGE MANAGEMENT (Change management)
    • Fearful of change
    • Scared of innovation
    • Changing the culture is hardest piece, changing the organizational DNA to accept new ideas
    ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING (Change management) DESIRED BEHAVIORS Indicators Function Proposition
  • 20. Propositions for Part Whole
    • The propositions for the part whole relationship are:
    • To effectively manage the part whole relationship, there must be a diversity of viewpoint and trust. (Diversity of viewpoint and trust includes relationships, cross-functional teams and problem solving);
    • To effectively manage the part whole relationship, there must be concept understanding and fit of ideas. (Concept understanding and fit includes questioning, context and double loop learning); and
    • To effectively manage the part whole relationship, new ideas must be generated. (New idea generation includes learning cycle, acquisition, and cognitive learning).
  • 21. DIVERSITY OF VIEWPOINT AND TRUST
    • Across boundaries
    • Informal interactions
    • Dialogue between functions
    • Job rotations
    (Relationships)
    • Multifunctional perspectives, different perspectives
    • Alignment within the team on process and perspective
    • Different perspective on solutions
    • Connections across boundaries
    (Cross functional teams)
    • Across organizational boundaries
    • Mechanisms for teams to work together
    • Collaborative work
    • Personal connections
    (Relationships)
    • Distribution of ideas for feedback, codifying ideas and assumptions
    • Alignment of people
    • Combination of process and behaviors
    • Knowing where to look and who to ask
    (Problem solving) ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
  • 22. Diversity of Viewpoint and Trust
    • Distribution of ideas for feedback, codifying ideas and assumptions
    • Alignment of people
    • Combination of process and behaviors
    • Knowing where to look and who to ask
    KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (Problem solving)
    • Across organizational boundaries
    • Mechanisms for teams to work together
    • Collaborative work
    • Personal connections
    KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (Relationships)
    • Multifunctional perspectives, different perspectives
    • Alignment within the team on process and perspective
    • Different perspective on solutions
    • Connections across boundaries
    ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING (Cross functional teams)
    • Across boundaries
    • Informal interactions
    • Dialogue between functions
    • Job rotations
    ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING (Relationships) DIVERSITY OF VIEWPOINT AND TRUST Indicators Function Proposition
  • 23. Concept Understanding and Fit
    • Increasing knowledge around research, implications of research
    • Learning the perspective of users
    • Understanding what the organization wants, understands and supports
    • Socializing ideas
    • Story around where we are, where we want to go and how we are going to get there
    KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (Context)
    • Looking at things differently, getting feedback and reprocess and repurpose
    • Codifying assumptions in order to question
    • Open minded thinkers
    • Taking the view of the customer or end user
    • Embracing contradictions
    • Suspending judgment
    ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING (Double loop learning)
    • Looking at things differently
    • Asking the obvious , yet unasked, questions
    • Embracing contradictions
    • Filter of the business plans
    ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING (Questioning) CONCEPT UNDERSTANDING AND FIT Indicators Function Proposition
  • 24. Generation of New Ideas
    • Codify knowledge and make it accessible
    • Enable the great ideas that already exist
    • Assume the perspective of the customer or user
    • Codify experience and understanding
    • Learning form failure
    KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (Acquisition)
    • Dialogue and questioning process
    • feedback from stakeholders
    • Advertise and demonstrate success
    • Change process to accommodate the participants
    • Combination of process and behaviors
    • Fail smart and fail quickly
    ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING (Cognitive learning)
    • Codify and distribute for feedback
    • Open minded thinkers
    • Asking the obvious unasked questions
    • Make ideas tangible and expose to the real world
    • Meet, discuss, hitchhike ides, take out and test
    • Share mistakes and successes, know why ideas fail
    ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING (Learning cycle) IDEA GENERATION Indicators Function Proposition
  • 25. The Integrated Grounded Theory
    • Van de Venn (1986) identified four problems with innovation approaches: organizational leadership, managing attention to new ideas, managing ideas so they get implemented and managing the part whole relationship so ideas become doable and useable. Two of these - managing ideas and managing the part whole relationship are the focus of this study.
      • The first part of the emergent theory is that in order to manage ideas across an organization the organization needs to have an idea of what it is searching for and why, a means to distribute that new idea or concept to leverage the collective wisdom of the organization and a way of reinforcing new behaviors in order to take advantage of what has been discovered.
      • The second part of the emergent theory is that in order to make the most of diversity there has to be context for the ideas or concepts and there has to be a continual flow to keep the process fresh.
  • 26. Adding to the Body of Knowledge
    • This study addresses the relationship between organizational learning, knowledge management and innovation in practice and thus provides a practical methodology for embedding innovation in an organization.
  • 27. Questions?
  • 28. CAPTURE reflect, distill and capture insights CONVERSATIONS speculating on the future by reflecting on the past A QUESTION what do we need to learn about? A NEW QUESTION what do we really need to learn about? 1 2 3 4 Questioning Loop
  • 29. Ensuring trustworthiness of qualitative research
  • 30. 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Absorptive capacity Cohen 4 common innovation problems Van de Ven INNOVATION ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT The Knowledge Creating Company Nonaka The Knowledge Creating Company Nonaka Theory of Action Agryis, Schoen Ambidextrous Org Tushman TODAY Accelerating adaptive processes Isenhardt Sustaining Innovation Christenson Team learning Lynn Understanding strategic learning Thomas Key to Mgt innovation Stata Learning strategy Martensen Environment for innovation Friedman Framework for org learning and knowledge management Vera Mgt and Org Learning Schein Org learning and knowledge Bierly Learning and Knowledge Connection Carroll Knowledge integration and innovation Hislop
    • ORGANIZATIOAL LEARNING
    • PROCESS ACTIVITIES
    • “ PART WHOLE”
    • MANAGING IDEAS
    • KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
    • PROCESS ACTIVITIES
    • “ PART WHOLE”
    • MANAGING IDEAS
    • INNOVATION
    • PROCESS ACTIVITIES
    • “ PART WHOLE”
    • MANAGING IDEAS
    INTERRELATIONSHIPS What’s Been Done So Far?
  • 31. Research Design and Methodology – Process for Building Theory Validate the understanding of the theory Discuss application of theory with practitioners 9. Test Theory with Practitioners Improve construct definitions Compare and contrast existing frameworks 8. Compare Theory with Literature End process where there is only marginal benefit Reach theoretical saturation 7. Reach Closure Integrate categories to build theory Combine categories into propositions 6. Synthesize Data Deeper analysis, develop connections, make comparisons Determine relationships, combine concepts in categories, refine categories as necessary 5. Perform Horizontal Coding Initial analysis, establish basis for further inquiry Define concept headings, organize data 4. Perform Open Coding Triangulate evidence Identify and record 3. Collect Data Define data cases Sample with intent 2. Select Cases Focus effort, define scope, initial identification of potential codes Define research questions, note existing constructs 1. Review literature Rationale Task(s) Step
  • 32. Use of Research ware