Metabolism of MDMA results in formation of MDA by N-demethylation and HHMA (major) by O-demethylation
Metabolites generate free radicals (oxidative stress and membrane damage)
MDMA inhibits tryptophan hydroxylase (rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway of 5-HT synthesis) – irreversible reaction
Source: Lyles, Johnalyn, et al. MDMA neurotoxicity: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Brain Research Reviews, 2003. 42, pg 155 – 168. Bogen, Inger L., et al. Short and long-term effects of MDMA (“ecstasy”) on synaptosomal and vesicular uptake of neurotransmitters in vitro and ex vivo. Neurochemistry International, 2003. 43, pg 393 – 400. Sprague, Jon E., et al. Hippocampal serotenergic damage induced by MDMA (ecstasy): effects on spatial learning. Physiology and Behavior, 2003. 79, pg 281 – 287.
Introduced by Rep. Pascrell, Rep. Terry, Rep. Pallone, Rep. Etheridge, and Rep. Capuano
Referred to Committee on Energy and Commerce, Committee on the Judiciary, and Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security
Amends section 416 of CSA (21 U.S.C. 856)
`(c) Whoever profits monetarily from a rave or similar electronic dance event, knowing or having reason to know that the unlawful use or distribution of a controlled substance occurs at the rave or similar event, shall be fined not more than $500,000 or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both. If the defendant is an organization, the fine imposable for the offense is not more than $2,000,000.'.
Source: Library of Congress. http://thomas.loc.gov
Reducing Americans' Vulnerability to Ecstasy Act of 2003 (RAVE Act)
HR 718 of 108 th Congress (1 st Session)
Introduced by Rep. Coble and Rep. Smith (TX)
Companion bill to S. 226, the Illicit Drug Anti-Proliferation Act, introduced by Sen. Biden
Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security
Purpose is to prohibit an individual from knowingly opening, maintaining, managing, controlling, renting, leasing, making available for use, or profiting from any place for the purpose of manufacturing, distributing, or using any controlled substance, and for other purposes.
Communities Combating College Drinking and Drug Use Act
S. 406 of 108 th Congress (1 st Session)
Introduced by Sen. Dewine and Sen. Lieberman
Referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
The purpose of this Act is to encourage States, institutions of higher education, local communities, nonprofit groups, including community anti-drug or anti-alcohol coalitions, and other substance abuse groups within the State to enhance existing or, where none exist, to establish new statewide coalitions to reduce the usage of drugs and alcohol by college students both on campus and in the surrounding community at large.