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Chemical Methods of Vector Control
 

Chemical Methods of Vector Control

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Chemical Methods of Vector Control

Chemical Methods of Vector Control

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    Chemical Methods of Vector Control Chemical Methods of Vector Control Presentation Transcript

    • Chemical Methods of Vector Control Brian Wells University of Florida December 3, 2003
    • Why Control Mosquitoes?
      • Mosquitoes are the world's most significant vectors
      • Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are responsible for the deaths of millions of people every year.
      • Mosquitoes are the primary vector for several pathogens such as West Nile Virus
      • Story about FL: http://www.cnn.com/2001/HEALTH/07/07/florida.west.nile/
      • Medical Alert: http://www.sawyerproducts.com/FLstate/O2402FLWestNileVirusAlert.html
    • Why Control Mosquitoes?
      • Mosquitoes also are the vector for St. Louis Encephalitis, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, and dengue fever.
      • WHO estimates that
        • 50 million cases of dengue (24,000 deaths)
        • 200,000 cases of yellow fever (30,000 deaths)
        • 300M to 500M cases of malaria (1M deaths)
    • Why Control Mosquitoes?
      • The Most Important Reason:
      • Mosquitoes can make life very uncomfortable!
    • Mosquito Control in the Gainesville area
      • Some quick facts on Gainesville:
        • 45.52 square miles
        • Population of 117,182
        • 87,509 households
        • Mild winters, warm summers
      Source: http://www.cityofgainesville.org
    • City of Gainesville Mosquito Spray Zones
    • Chemicals – Attacking Mosquitoes at Every Level
    • Chemical Controls
      • Commonly used pesticides
        • Malathion
        • Naled
        • Permethrin
        • Resmethrin
        • Sumithrin
    • Chemical Controls
      • Malathion
        • One of the most commonly used pesticides
        • Malathion is an adulticide
        • Patented in 1951 by American Cyanamid Company
        • Also a contact insecticide – that is, it can kill pests if it touches them or if they eat a sprayed part of a plant
        • Considered to be one of the safest organophosphate insecticides
    • Chemical Controls
      • Malathion
        • Cholinesterase Inhibitor
        • Blocks neural transmission
        • Effects on human can potentially be muscle weakness, tremors, and even death.
        • Although it is a generally safe pesticide, the real key to its safety is to use common sense and avoid unnecessary exposure.
      Source: http://www.napa.ufl.edu/oldnews/spray.htm
    • Chemical Controls
      • Benefits of Malathion
        • Helps control the mosquito population and thus improves QOL
        • Protects crops in Florida that yield $10 Billion worth of revenue
        • If these crops were lost, every man, woman, and child in Florida would have to contribute an additional $700 to maintain the standard of living
      Source: http://fmel.ifas.ufl.edu/fmbuzz/wtchallenge2.htm
    • Chemical Controls
      • Larvicides
        • Methoprene – growth inhibitor
        • Temephos
        • Mineral Oil can be used to form a thin film of the surface of water to cause the larvae and pupa to drown.
    • How are Pesticides deployed?
      • Airplane
      • Ground truck-mounted sprayers
      • Portable sprayers
    • Problems facing chemical-based vector control
      • Relatively small pesticide market
        • Small market creates little economic incentive for chemical companies to spend large amounts of money to develop and label new chemical products
        • When a new chemical does become available, it is usually because it has a side-effect of being lethal to mosquitoes
        • Food Quality Protection Act - will help to assure that valuable public health pesticides are not lost through a lack of registrant support or unwillingness to pay for the risk management studies because the mosquito control market is too small
    • Problems facing chemical-based vector control
      • Growing problem of mosquito resistance
        • Insects have the innate ability to stay one step ahead of us by developing resistance to the relatively few products available
        • The AMCA advocates the practicing of resistance management techniques that attempt to minimize the risk of mosquitoes becoming resistant to the existing chemicals
        • Ex: not using sublethal amounts of insecticides, the rotating/alternating of available chemicals
      Source: http://www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/PESP/strategies/backgrounders/amca-bk.htm
    • What constitutes a successful Mosquito Control program?
      • Source Reduction
        • Sanitation
        • Impoundment Management
        • Open Marsh Water Management
      • Larviciding
      • Adulticiding
      • Biological Controls (more on Friday)
      • Mosquito-transmitted Disease Surveillance
    • Cost of Mosquito Control
      • In FY 2002, Gainesville spent $285,389 ($2.44 per person)
      • In FY 2003, Gainesville will spend $480,915 ($4.11 per person)
      • Individual chemical costs
        • Malathion – 5lbs - $6.15
        • Pyrethrin – 1qt of concentrate - $97.95
        • Permethrin – 1 qt of concentrate - $37.95
        • BTI - $24.95 for 20 briquets
    • How is Gainesville Mosquito Control Doing?
      • Citizen Opinion Survey – 1999
        • 5% - Excellent
        • 43% - Good
        • 32% - Fair
        • 20% - Poor
        • 61% - Very Important
        • 32% - Somewhat Important
        • 8% - Not Important
      Source: http://www.cityofgainesville.org/gov/issues/citsurv99.cfm
    • How is Gainesville Mosquito Control Doing?
      • Citizen Opinion Survey – 2000
        • 9% - Excellent
        • 44% - Good
        • 32% - Fair
        • 16% - Poor
        • 64% - Very Important
        • 30% - Somewhat Important
        • 7% - Not Important
      Source: http://www.cityofgainesville.org/gov/issues/citsurv00.cfm
    • What can you do to help?
      • Clean out eaves, troughs, and gutters.
      • Remove old tires or drill holes in those used in playgrounds to drain.
      • Turn over or remove empty plastic pots.
      • Pick up all beverage containers and cups.
      • Check tarps on boats or other equipment that may collect water.
    • What can you do to help?
      • Pump out bilges on boats.
      • Replace water in birdbaths and pet or other animal feeding dishes at least once a week.
      • Change water in plant trays, including hanging plants, at least once a week.
      • Remove vegetation or obstructions in drainage ditches that prevent the flow of water.
    • How to Protect Yourself
      • 5 D’s and 1 S
        • Dusk and Dawn – avoid being outdoors during this time
        • Dress – wear protective clothing
        • DEET – mosquito repellant
        • Drainage – get rid of standing water
        • AND
        • Screens – make sure windows are closed and sealed
      Source: http://www.health.ufl.edu/shcc/pdf/wnv.pdf
    • Questions?
    • Question 1
      • Malathion is a ________ pesticide that kills mosquitoes in the _______ stage of life.
      • A. organophosphate, larvae
      • B. organophosphate, adult
      • C. organohalide, larvae
      • D. organohalide, adult
    • Question 2
      • Which of the following was not mentioned as a commonly used pesticide?
      • A. Malathion
      • B. Resmethrin
      • C. Permethrin
      • D. Atorvastatin
    • Question 3
      • DEET is:
      • A. a personal insect repellant
      • B. a sprayer used on trucks
      • C. the acronym for the law governing mosquito control
      • D. A brand of speakers at Best Buy
    • Additional Information
      • This presentation is available for download at:
      • http://www.destination-web.com/ees/vectors.pdf